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Versions: (draft-moran-suit-architecture) 00 01 02 03

SUIT                                                            B. Moran
Internet-Draft                                               Arm Limited
Intended status: Informational                                 M. Meriac
Expires: December 5, 2018                                     Consultant
                                                           H. Tschofenig
                                                             Arm Limited
                                                           June 03, 2018


     A Firmware Update Architecture for Internet of Things Devices
                    draft-ietf-suit-architecture-00

Abstract

   Vulnerabilities with Internet of Things (IoT) devices have raised the
   need for a solid and secure firmware update mechanism that is also
   suitable for constrained devices.  Incorporating such update
   mechanism to fix vulnerabilities, to update configuration settings as
   well as adding new functionality is recommended by security experts.

   This document lists requirements and describes an architecture for a
   firmware update mechanism suitable for IoT devices.  The architecture
   is agnostic to the transport of the firmware images and associated
   meta-data.

   This version of the document assumes asymmetric cryptography and a
   public key infrastructure.  Future versions may also describe a
   symmetric key approach for very constrained devices.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on December 5, 2018.






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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

   This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF
   Contributions published or made publicly available before November
   10, 2008.  The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this
   material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to allow
   modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process.
   Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling
   the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified
   outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may
   not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format
   it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
   than English.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.1.  Agnostic to how firmware images are distributed . . . . .   5
     3.2.  Friendly to broadcast delivery  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.3.  Use state-of-the-art security mechanisms  . . . . . . . .   5
     3.4.  Rollback attacks must be prevented  . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.5.  High reliability  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.6.  Operate with a small bootloader . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.7.  Small Parsers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.8.  Minimal impact on existing firmware formats . . . . . . .   7
     3.9.  Robust permissions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.10. Operating modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   4.  Claims  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   5.  Architecture  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   6.  Manifest  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   7.  Example Flow  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   8.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   9.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15



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   10. Mailing List Information  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   11. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   12. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     12.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     12.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     12.3.  URIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18

1.  Introduction

   When developing IoT devices, one of the most difficult problems to
   solve is how to update the firmware on the device.  Once the device
   is deployed, firmware updates play a critical part in its lifetime,
   particularly when devices have a long lifetime, are deployed in
   remote or inaccessible areas or where manual intervention is cost
   prohibitive or otherwise difficult.  The need for a firmware update
   may be to fix bugs in software, to add new functionality, or to re-
   configure the device.

   The firmware update process has to ensure that

   -  The firmware image is authenticated and attempts to flash a
      malicious firmware image are prevented.

   -  The firmware image can be confidentiality protected so that
      attempts by an adversary to recover the plaintext binary can be
      prevented.  Obtaining the plaintext binary is often one of the
      first steps for an attack to mount an attack.

2.  Conventions and Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC
   2119 [RFC2119].

   This document uses the following terms:

   -  Manifest: The manifest contains meta-data about the firmware
      image.  The manifest is protected against modification and
      provides information about the author.

   -  Firmware Image: The firmware image is a binary that may contain
      the complete software of a device or a subset of it.  The firmware
      image may consist of multiple images, if the device contains more
      than one microcontroller.  The image may consist of a differential
      update for performance reasons.  Firmware is the more universal




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      term.  Both terms are used in this document and are
      interchangeable.

   -  Bootloader: A bootloader is a piece of software that is executed
      once a microcontroller has been reset.  It is responsible for
      deciding whether to boot a firmware image that is present or
      whether to obtain and verify a new firmware image.  Since the
      bootloader is a security critical component its functionality may
      be split into separate stages.  Such a multi-stage bootloader may
      offer very basic functionality in the first stage and resides in
      ROM whereas the second stage may implement more complex
      functionality and resides in flash memory so that it can be
      updated in the future (in case bugs have been found).  The exact
      split of components into the different stages, the number of
      firmware images stored by an IoT device, and the detailed
      functionality varies throughout different implementations.

   The following entities are used:

   -  Author: The author is the entity that creates the firmware image,
      signs and/or encrypts it.  The author is most likely a developer
      using a set of tools.

   -  Device: The device is the recipient of the firmware image and the
      manifest.  The goal is to update the firmware of the device.

   -  Untrusted Storage: Firmware images and manifests may be stored on
      untrusted fileservers or cloud storage infrastructure.  Some
      deployments may require storage of the firmware images/manifests
      to be stored on various entities before they reach the device.

3.  Requirements

   The firmware update mechanism described in this specification was
   designed with the following requirements in mind:

   -  Agnostic to how firmware images are distributed

   -  Friendly to broadcast delivery

   -  Use state-of-the-art security mechanisms

   -  Rollback attacks must be prevented

   -  High reliability

   -  Operate with a small bootloader




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   -  Small Parsers

   -  Minimal impact on existing firmware formats

   -  Robust permissions

   -  Diverse modes of operation

3.1.  Agnostic to how firmware images are distributed

   Firmware images can be conveyed to devices in a variety of ways,
   including USB, UART, WiFi, BLE, low-power WAN technologies, etc. and
   use different protocols (e.g., CoAP, HTTP).  The specified mechanism
   needs to be agnostic to the distribution of the firmware images and
   manifests.

3.2.  Friendly to broadcast delivery

   This architecture does not specify any specific broadcast protocol
   however, given that broadcast may be desirable for some networks,
   updates must cause the least disruption possible both in metadata and
   payload transmission.

   For an update to be broadcast friendly, it cannot rely on link layer,
   network layer, or transport layer security.  In addition, the same
   message must be deliverable to many devices, both those to which it
   applies and those to which it does not, without a chance that the
   wrong device will accept the update.  Considerations that apply to
   network broadcasts apply equally to the use of third-party content
   distribution networks for payload distribution.

3.3.  Use state-of-the-art security mechanisms

   End-to-end security between the author and the device, as shown in
   Section 5, is used to ensure that the device can verify firmware
   images and manifests produced by authorized authors.

   The use of post-quantum secure signature mechanisms, such as hash-
   based signatures, should be explored.  A migration to post-quantum
   secure signatures would require significant effort, therefore,
   mandatory-to-implement support for post-quantum secure signatures is
   a goal.

   A mandatory-to-implement set of algorithms has to be defined offering
   a key length of 112-bit symmetric key or security or more, as
   outlined in Section 20 of RFC 7925 [RFC7925].  This corresponds to a
   233 bit ECC key or a 2048 bit RSA key.




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   If the firmware image is to be encrypted, it must be done in such a
   way that every intended recipient can decrypt it.  The information
   that is encrypted individually for each device must be an absolute
   minimum, for example AES Key Wrap [RFC5649], in order to maintain
   friendliness to Content Distribution Networks, bulk storage, and
   broadcast protocols.

3.4.  Rollback attacks must be prevented

   A device presented with an old, but valid manifest and firmware must
   not be tricked into installing such firmware since a vulnerability in
   the old firmware image may allow an attacker to gain control of the
   device.

3.5.  High reliability

   A power failure at any time must not cause a failure of the device.
   A failure to validate any part of an update must not cause a failure
   of the device.  One way to achieve this functionality is to provide a
   minimum of two storage locations for firmware and one bootable
   location for firmware.  An alternative approach is to use a 2nd stage
   bootloader with build-in full featured firmware update functionality
   such that it is possible to return to the update process after power
   down.

   Note: This is an implementation requirement rather than a requirement
   on the manifest format.

3.6.  Operate with a small bootloader

   The bootloader must be minimal, containing only flash support,
   cryptographic primitives and optionally a recovery mechanism.  The
   recovery mechanism is used in case the update process failed and may
   include support for firmware updates over serial, USB or even a
   limited version of wireless connectivity standard like a limited
   Bluetooth Smart.  Such a recovery mechanism must provide security at
   least at the same level as the full featured firmware update
   functionalities.

   The bootloader needs to verify the received manifest and to install
   the bootable firmware image.  The bootloader should not require
   updating since a failed update poses a risk in reliability.  If more
   functionality is required in the bootloader, it must use a two-stage
   bootloader, with the first stage comprising the functionality defined
   above.






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   All information necessary for a device to make a decision about the
   installation of a firmware update must fit into the available RAM of
   a constrained IoT device.  This prevents flash write exhaustion.

   Note: This is an implementation requirement.

3.7.  Small Parsers

   Since parsers are known sources of bugs they must be minimal.
   Additionally, it must be easy to parse only those fields that are
   required to validate at least one signature or MAC with minimal
   exposure.

3.8.  Minimal impact on existing firmware formats

   The design of the firmware update mechanism must not require changes
   to existing firmware formats.

3.9.  Robust permissions

   A device may have many modules that require updating individually.
   It may also need to trust several actors in order to authorize an
   update.  These actors might include the following (this is not a
   comprehensive list).

   * A firmware author
   * A device OEM
   * A device operator
   * A network operator
   * A device owner

   These actors exert their authority on the device by making claims (as
   in Section 4).

   For example, a firmware author may not have the authority to install
   firmware on a device in critical infrastructure without the
   authorization of a device operator.  In this case, the device may be
   programmed to reject firmware updates unless they are signed both by
   the firmware author and by the device operator.  To facilitate
   complex use-cases such as this, updates require several claims.

   Alternatively, a device may trust precisely one authority, which does
   all permission management and coordination.  Effectively, the
   authority allows the device to offload complex permissions
   calculations for the device.






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3.10.  Operating modes

   There are three broad classifications of update operating modes.

   * Self initiated
   * Third-party initiated
   * Hybrid

   Self initiated updates take the form of a proactive IoT device that
   checks for updates.  Third-party initiated updates are triggered by
   an actor other than the IoT device, be it a server, a peer, or a
   user.  Hybrid updates are those that require agreement from both the
   target IoT device and another actor.

   Third-party initiated updates are important to consider because
   timing of updates may need to be tightly controlled in some high-
   reliability environments.

   An IoT device goes through several steps in the course of an update,
   each of which can be self-initiated or third-party initiated, or
   hybrid.  An IoT device may go through the following steps, though
   this is not a comprehensive list.

   * Notification
   * Pre-authorisation
   * Dependency resolution
   * Download
   * Installation

   The notification step consists informing an IoT device that an update
   is available.  This can be accomplished via polling (self-initiated),
   push notifications (third-party initiated), or more complex
   mechanisms.

   The pre-authorisation step involves verifying the update authority
   and making a determination that the device is prepared to initiate
   the fetching and processing of updates.  If the device has all
   information that is necessary to make this determination, then the
   pre-authorisation may be self-initiated.  However, the device can
   wait for instruction to begin (third-party initiated).  Hybrid
   approaches are possible as well.

   A dependency resolution phase is needed when more than one component
   can be updated or when a differential update is used.  The necessary
   dependencies must be available prior to installation.

   The download step is the process of acquiring a local copy of the
   payload.  When the download is self-initiated, this means that the



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   IoT device chooses when a download occurs and initiates the download
   process.  When a download is third-party initiated, this means that
   either the remote service tells the IoT device when to download or
   that it initiates the transfer directly to the IoT device.  For
   example, a download from an HTTP server is initiated locally.  A
   transfer to a LwM2M Firmware Update resource [LwM2M] is initiated
   remotely.

   Installation is the act of processing the payload into a format that
   the IoT device can recognise.

   Each of these steps may require different permissions expressed in
   claims and may be implemented in a variety of ways.

4.  Claims

   When a simple set of permissions fails to encapsulate the rules
   required for a device to make decisions about firmware, claims can be
   used instead.  Claims represent a form of policy.  Several claims can
   be used together, when multiple actors should have the rights to set
   policies.

   Some example claims are:

   -  Trust the actor identified by the referenced public key.

   -  Trust the actor with access to the referenced shared secret (MAC).

   -  Three actors are trusted identified by their public keys.
      Signatures from at least two of these actors are required to trust
      a manifest.

   -  The actor identified by the referenced public key is authorized to
      create secondary policies

   The baseline claims for all manifests are described in [SUIT-IM].  In
   summary, they are:

   -  Do not install firmware with earlier metadata than the current
      metadata.

   -  Only install firmware with a matching vendor, model, hardware
      revision, software version, etc.

   -  Only install firmware that is before its best-before timestamp.

   -  Only install firmware with metadata signed/authenticated by a
      trusted actor.



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   -  Only allow an actor to exercise rights on the device via a
      manifest if that actor has signed the manifest.

   -  Only allow a firmware installation if all required rights have
      been met through signatures/MACs (one or more) or manifest
      dependencies (one or more).

   -  Use the instructions provided by the manifest to install the
      firmware.

   -  Install any and all firmware images that are linked together with
      manifest dependencies.

   -  Choose the mechanism to install the firmware, based on the type of
      firmware it is.

5.  Architecture

   We start the architectural description with the security model.  It
   is based on end-to-end security.  In Figure 1 a firmware image is
   created by an author, sent to the device and subsequently installed.
   When the author is ready to distribute the firmware image it is
   conveyed using some communication channel to the device, which will
   typically involve the use of untrusted storage.  Examples of
   untrusted storage are FTP servers, Web servers or USB sticks.  End-
   to-end security mechanisms are used to protect the firmware image.
   Figure 1 does not show the manifest itself, which provides the meta-
   data about the firmware image and offers the security protection.  It
   may bundled with the firmware image or travel as a standalone item.

                              +-----------+
  +--------+                  |           |                   +--------+
  |        |  Firmware Image  | Untrusted |   Firmware Image  |        |
  | Device |<-----------------| Storage   |<------------------| Author |
  |        |                  |           |                   |        |
  +--------+                  +-----------+                   +--------+
       ^                                                          *
       *                                                          *
       ************************************************************
                          End-to-End Security

                      Figure 1: End-to-End Security.

   Whether the firmware image and the manifest is pushed to the device
   or fetched by the device is outside the scope of this work and
   existing device management protocols can be used for efficiently
   distributing this information.




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   The following assumptions are made to allow the device to verify the
   received firmware image and manifest before updating software:

   -  To accept an update, a device needs to decide whether the author
      signing the firmware image and the manifest is authorized to make
      the updates.  We use public key cryptography to accomplish this.
      The device verifies the signature covering the manifest using a
      digital signature algorithm OR the device verifies the MAC
      covering the manifest using a MAC algorithm.  The device is
      provisioned with a trust anchor that is used to validate the
      digital signature or MAC produced by the author.  This trust
      anchor is potentially different from the trust anchor used to
      validate the digital signature produced for other protocols (such
      as device management protocols).  This trust anchor may be
      provisioned to the device during manufacturing or during
      commissioning.

   -  For confidentiality protection of firmware images the author needs
      to be in possession of the certificate/public key or a pre-shared
      key of a device.

   There are different types of delivery modes, which are illustrated
   based on examples below.

   There is an option for embedding a firmware image into a manifest.
   This is a useful approach for deployments where devices are not
   connected to the Internet and cannot contact a dedicated server for
   download of the firmware.  It is also applicable when the firmware
   update happens via a USB stick or via Bluetooth Smart.  Figure 2
   shows this delivery mode graphically.

                /------------\                 /------------\
               /Manifest with \               /Manifest with \
               |attached      |               |attached      |
               \firmware image/               \firmware image/
                \------------/  +-----------+  \------------/
    +--------+                  |           |                 +--------+
    |        |<.................| Untrusted |<................|        |
    | Device |                  | Storage   |                 | Author |
    |        |                  |           |                 |        |
    +--------+                  +-----------+                 +--------+

                Figure 2: Manifest with attached firmware.

   Figure 3 shows an option for remotely updating a device where the
   device fetches the firmware image from some file server.  The
   manifest itself is delivered independently and provides information
   about the firmware image(s) to download.



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                                /------------\
                               /              \
                               |   Manifest   |
                               \              /
    +--------+                  \------------/                +--------+
    |        |<..............................................>|        |
    | Device |                                             -- | Author |
    |        |<-                                         ---  |        |
    +--------+  --                                     ---    +--------+
                  --                                 ---
                    ---                            ---
                       --       +-----------+    --
                         --     |           |  --
          /------------\   --   | Untrusted |<-    /------------\
         /              \    -- | Storage   |     /              \
         |   Firmware   |       |           |     |   Firmware   |
         \              /       +-----------+     \              /
          \------------/                           \------------/

          Figure 3: Independent retrieval of the firmware image.

   This architecture does not mandate a specific delivery mode but a
   solution must support both types.

6.  Manifest

   In order for a device to apply an update, it has to make several
   decisions about the update:

   -  Does it trust the author of the update?

   -  Has the firmware been corrupted?

   -  Does the firmware update apply to this device?

   -  Is the update older than the active firmware?

   -  When should the device apply the update?

   -  How should the device apply the update?

   -  What kind of firmware binary is it?

   -  Where should the update be obtained?

   -  Where should the firmware be stored?





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   The manifest encodes the information that devices need in order to
   make these decisions.  It is a data structure that contains the
   following information:

   -  information about the device(s) the firmware image is intended to
      be applied to,

   -  information about when the firmware update has to be applied,

   -  information about when the manifest was created,

   -  dependencies on other manifests,

   -  pointers to the firmware image and information about the format,

   -  information about where to store the firmware image,

   -  cryptographic information, such as digital signatures or message
      authentication codes (MACs).

   The manifest information model is described in [SUIT-IM].

7.  Example Flow

   The following example message flow illustrates the interaction for
   distributing a firmware image to a device starting with an author
   uploading the new firmware to untrusted storage and creating a
   manifest.  The firmware and manifest are stored on the same untrusted
   storage.

   +--------+    +-----------------+      +------+
   | Author |    |Untrusted Storage|      |Device|
   +--------+    +-----------------+      +------+
     |                   |                     |
     | Create Firmware   |                     |
     |---------------    |                     |
     |              |    |                     |
     |<--------------    |                     |
     |                   |                     |
     | Upload Firmware   |                     |
     |------------------>|                     |
     |                   |                     |
     | Create Manifest   |                     |
     |----------------   |                     |
     |               |   |                     |
     |<---------------   |                     |
     |                   |                     |
     | Sign Manifest     |                     |



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     |--------------     |                     |
     |             |     |                     |
     |<-------------     |                     |
     |                   |                     |
     | Upload Manifest   |                     |
     |------------------>|                     |
     |                   |                     |
     |                   |   Query Manifest    |
     |                   |<--------------------|
     |                   |                     |
     |                   |   Send Manifest     |
     |                   |-------------------->|
     |                   |                     |
     |                   |                     | Validate Manifest
     |                   |                     |------------------
     |                   |                     |                 |
     |                   |                     |<-----------------
     |                   |                     |
     |                   |  Request Firmware   |
     |                   |<--------------------|
     |                   |                     |
     |                   | Send Firmware       |
     |                   |-------------------->|
     |                   |                     |
     |                   |                     | Verify Firmware
     |                   |                     |---------------
     |                   |                     |              |
     |                   |                     |<--------------
     |                   |                     |
     |                   |                     | Store Firmware
     |                   |                     |--------------
     |                   |                     |             |
     |                   |                     |<-------------
     |                   |                     |
     |                   |                     | Reboot
     |                   |                     |-------
     |                   |                     |      |
     |                   |                     |<------
     |                   |                     |
     |                   |                     | Bootloader validates
     |                   |                     | Firmware
     |                   |                     |----------------------
     |                   |                     |                     |
     |                   |                     |<---------------------
     |                   |                     |
     |                   |                     | Bootloader activates
     |                   |                     | Firmware
     |                   |                     |----------------------



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     |                   |                     |                     |
     |                   |                     |<---------------------
     |                   |                     |
     |                   |                     | Bootloader transfers
     |                   |                     | control to new Firmware
     |                   |                     |----------------------
     |                   |                     |                     |
     |                   |                     |<---------------------
     |                   |                     |

               Figure 4: Example Flow for a Firmware Upate.

8.  IANA Considerations

   This document does not require any actions by IANA.

9.  Security Considerations

   Firmware updates fix security vulnerabilities and are considered to
   be an important building block in securing IoT devices.  Due to the
   importance of firmware updates for IoT devices the Internet
   Architecture Board (IAB) organized a 'Workshop on Internet of Things
   (IoT) Software Update (IOTSU)', which took place at Trinity College
   Dublin, Ireland on the 13th and 14th of June, 2016 to take a look at
   the big picture.  A report about this workshop can be found at
   [RFC8240].  A standardized firmware manifest format providing end-to-
   end security from the author to the device will be specified in a
   separate document.

   There are, however, many other considerations raised during the
   workshop.  Many of them are outside the scope of standardization
   organizations since they fall into the realm of product engineering,
   regulatory frameworks, and business models.  The following
   considerations are outside the scope of this document, namely

   -  installing firmware updates in a robust fashion so that the update
      does not break the device functionality of the environment this
      device operates in.

   -  installing firmware updates in a timely fashion considering the
      complexity of the decision making process of updating devices,
      potential re-certification requirements, and the need for user
      consent to install updates.

   -  the distribution of the actual firmware update, potentially in an
      efficient manner to a large number of devices without human
      involvement.




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   -  energy efficiency and battery lifetime considerations.

   -  key management required for verifying the digital signature
      protecting the manifest.

   -  incentives for manufacturers to offer a firmware update mechanism
      as part of their IoT products.

10.  Mailing List Information

   The discussion list for this document is located at the e-mail
   address suit@ietf.org [1].  Information on the group and information
   on how to subscribe to the list is at
   https://www1.ietf.org/mailman/listinfo/suit

   Archives of the list can be found at: https://www.ietf.org/mail-
   archive/web/suit/current/index.html

11.  Acknowledgements

   We would like to thank the following persons for their feedback:

   -  Geraint Luff

   -  Amyas Phillips

   -  Dan Ros

   -  Thomas Eichinger

   -  Michael Richardson

   -  Emmanuel Baccelli

   -  Ned Smith

   -  David Brown

   -  Jim Schaad

   -  Carsten Bormann

   -  Cullen Jennings

   -  Olaf Bergmann

   -  Suhas Nandakumar




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   -  Phillip Hallam-Baker

   -  Marti Bolivar

   -  Andrzej Puzdrowski

   -  Markus Gueller

   -  Henk Birkholz

   -  Jintao Zhu

   We would also like to thank the WG chairs, Russ Housley, David
   Waltermire, Dave Thaler for their support and their reviews.
   Kathleen Moriarty was the responsible security area director when
   this work was started.

12.  References

12.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, <https://www.rfc-
              editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC7925]  Tschofenig, H., Ed. and T. Fossati, "Transport Layer
              Security (TLS) / Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS)
              Profiles for the Internet of Things", RFC 7925,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7925, July 2016, <https://www.rfc-
              editor.org/info/rfc7925>.

12.2.  Informative References

   [LwM2M]    OMA, ., "Lightweight Machine to Machine Technical
              Specification, Version 1.0.2", February 2018,
              <http://www.openmobilealliance.org/release/LightweightM2M/
              V1_0_2-20180209-A/
              OMA-TS-LightweightM2M-V1_0_2-20180209-A.pdf>.

   [RFC5649]  Housley, R. and M. Dworkin, "Advanced Encryption Standard
              (AES) Key Wrap with Padding Algorithm", RFC 5649,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5649, September 2009, <https://www.rfc-
              editor.org/info/rfc5649>.







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   [RFC8240]  Tschofenig, H. and S. Farrell, "Report from the Internet
              of Things Software Update (IoTSU) Workshop 2016",
              RFC 8240, DOI 10.17487/RFC8240, September 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8240>.

   [SUIT-IM]  Moran, B., Tschofenig, H., Birkholz, H., and J. Jimenez,
              "Firmware Updates for Internet of Things Devices - An
              Information Model for Manifests", June 2018.

12.3.  URIs

   [1] mailto:suit@ietf.org

Authors' Addresses

   Brendan Moran
   Arm Limited

   EMail: Brendan.Moran@arm.com


   Milosch Meriac
   Consultant

   EMail: milosch@meriac.com


   Hannes Tschofenig
   Arm Limited

   EMail: hannes.tschofenig@gmx.net




















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