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Versions: (draft-shore-tls-dnssec-chain-extension) 00 01 02 03 04

TLS                                                             M. Shore
Internet-Draft                                                    Fastly
Intended status: Standards Track                               R. Barnes
Expires: December 3, 2017                                        Mozilla
                                                                S. Huque
                                                              Salesforce
                                                               W. Toorop
                                                              NLNet Labs
                                                            June 1, 2017


    A DANE Record and DNSSEC Authentication Chain Extension for TLS
                draft-ietf-tls-dnssec-chain-extension-04

Abstract

   This draft describes a new TLS extension for transport of a DNS
   record set serialized with the DNSSEC signatures needed to
   authenticate that record set.  The intent of this proposal is to
   allow TLS clients to perform DANE authentication of a TLS server
   without needing to perform additional DNS record lookups.  It will
   typically not be used for general DNSSEC validation of TLS endpoint
   names.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on December 3, 2017.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents



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   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Requirements Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  DNSSEC Authentication Chain Extension . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.1.  Protocol, TLS 1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.2.  Protocol, TLS 1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.3.  Raw Public Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.4.  DNSSEC Authentication Chain Data  . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   4.  Construction of Serialized Authentication Chains  . . . . . .   7
   5.  Caching and Regeneration of the Authentication Chain  . . . .   8
   6.  Verification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   7.  Trust Anchor Maintenance  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   8.  Mandating use of this extension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   9.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   11. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   12. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     12.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     12.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   Appendix A.  Updates from -01 and -02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   Appendix B.  Updates from -01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   Appendix C.  Updates from -00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   Appendix D.  Test vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     D.1.  _443._tcp.www.example.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     D.2.  _25._tcp.example.com wildcard . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     D.3.  _443._tcp.www.example.org CNAME . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     D.4.  _443._tcp.www.example.net DNAME . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22

1.  Requirements Notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].








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2.  Introduction

   This draft describes a new TLS [RFC5246] extension for transport of a
   DNS record set serialized with the DNSSEC signatures [RFC4034] needed
   to authenticate that record set.  The intent of this proposal is to
   allow TLS clients to perform DANE Authentication [RFC6698] [RFC7671]
   of a TLS server without performing additional DNS record lookups and
   incurring the associated latency penalty.  It also provides the
   ability to avoid potential problems with TLS clients being unable to
   look up DANE records because of an interfering or broken middlebox on
   the path between the client and a DNS server.  And lastly, it allows
   a TLS client to validate DANE records itself without necessarily
   needing access to a validating DNS resolver to which it has a secure
   connection.  It will typically not be used for general DNSSEC
   validation of endpoint names, but is more appropriate for validation
   of DANE TLSA records.

   This mechanism is useful for TLS applications that need to address
   the problems described above, typically web browsers or VoIP and XMPP
   applications.  It may not be relevant for many other applications.
   For example, SMTP MTAs are usually located in data centers, may
   tolerate extra DNS lookup latency, are on servers where it is easier
   to provision a validating resolver, or are less likely to experience
   traffic interference from misconfigured middleboxes.  Furthermore,
   SMTP MTAs usually employ Opportunistic Security [RFC7672], in which
   the presence of the DNS TLSA records is used to determine whether to
   enforce an authenticated TLS connection.  Hence DANE authentication
   of SMTP MTAs will typically not use this mechanism.

   The extension described here allows a TLS client to request in the
   ClientHello message that the DNS authentication chain be returned in
   the (extended) ServerHello message.  If the server is configured for
   DANE authentication, then it performs the appropriate DNS queries,
   builds the authentication chain, and returns it to the client.  The
   server will usually use a previously cached authentication chain, but
   it will need to rebuild it periodically as described in Section 5.
   The client then authenticates the chain using a pre-configured trust
   anchor.

   This specification is based on Adam Langley's original proposal for
   serializing DNSSEC authentication chains and delivering them in an
   X.509 certificate extension [I-D.agl-dane-serializechain].  It
   modifies the approach by using wire format DNS records in the
   serialized data (assuming that the data will be prepared and consumed
   by a DNS-specific library), and by using a TLS extension to deliver
   the data.





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   As described in the DANE specification [RFC6698] [RFC7671], this
   procedure applies to the DANE authentication of X.509 certificates or
   raw public keys [RFC7250].

3.  DNSSEC Authentication Chain Extension

3.1.  Protocol, TLS 1.2

   A client MAY include an extension of type "dnssec_chain" in the
   (extended) ClientHello.  The "extension_data" field of this extension
   MUST be empty.

   Servers receiving a "dnssec_chain" extension in the ClientHello, and
   which are capable of being authenticated via DANE, MAY return a
   serialized authentication chain in the extended ServerHello message,
   using the format described below.  If a server is unable to return an
   authentication chain, or does not wish to return an authentication
   chain, it does not include a dnssec_chain extension.  As with all TLS
   extensions, if the server does not support this extension it will not
   return any authentication chain.

   A client must not be able to force a server to perform lookups on
   arbitrary domain names using this mechanism.  Therefore, a server
   MUST NOT construct chains for domain names other than its own.

3.2.  Protocol, TLS 1.3

   A client MAY include an extension of type "dnssec_chain" in the
   ClientHello.  The "extension_data" field of this extension MUST be
   empty.

   Servers receiving a "dnssec_chain" extension in the ClientHello, and
   which are capable of being authenticated via DANE, SHOULD return a
   serialized authentication chain in the Certificate message associated
   with the end entity certificate being validated, using the format
   described below.  The authentication chain will be an extension to
   the certificate_list to which the certificate being authenticated
   belongs.

   The extension protocol behavior otherwise follows that specified for
   TLS version 1.2.

3.3.  Raw Public Keys

   [RFC7250] specifies the use of raw public keys for both server and
   client authentication in TLS 1.2.  It points out that in cases where
   raw public keys are being used, code for certificate path validation
   is not required.  However, DANE, when used in conjunction with the



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   dnssec_chain extension, provides a mechanism for securely binding a
   raw public key to a named entity in the DNS, and when using DANE for
   authentication a raw key may be validated using a path chaining back
   to a DNSSEC trust root.  This has the added benefit of mitigating an
   unknown key share attack, as described in [I-D.barnes-dane-uks],
   since it effectively augments the raw public key with the server's
   name and provides a means to commit both the server and the client to
   using that binding.

   The UKS attack is possible in situations in which the association
   between a domain name and a public key is not tightly bound, as in
   the case in DANE in which a client either ignores the name in
   certificate (as specified in [RFC7671] or there is no attestation of
   trust outside of the DNS.  The vulnerability arises in the following
   situations:

   o  If the client does not verify the identity in the server's
      certificate (as recommended in Section 5.1 of [RFC7671]), then an
      attacker can induce the client to accept an unintended identity
      for the server,

   o  If the client allows the use of raw public keys in TLS, then it
      will not receive any indication of the server's identity in the
      TLS channel, and is thus unable to check that the server's
      identity is as intended.

   The mechanism for conveying DNSSEC validation chains described in
   this document results in a commitment by both parties, via the TLS
   handshake, to a domain name which has been validated as belonging to
   the owner name.

   The mechanism for encoding DNSSEC authentication chains in a TLS
   extension, as described in this document, is not limited to public
   keys encapsulated in X.509 containers but MAY be applied to raw
   public keys and other representations, as well.

3.4.  DNSSEC Authentication Chain Data

   The "extension_data" field of the "dnssec_chain" extension MUST
   contain a DNSSEC Authentication Chain encoded in the following form:


             opaque AuthenticationChain<0..2^16-1>

   The AuthenticationChain structure is composed of a sequence of
   uncompressed wire format DNS resource record sets (RRset) and
   corresponding signatures (RRSIG) records.




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   This sequence of native DNS wire format records enables easier
   generation of the data structure on the server and easier
   verification of the data on client by means of existing DNS library
   functions.  However this document describes the data structure in
   sufficient detail that implementers if they desire can write their
   own code to do this.

   Each RRset in the chain is composed of a sequence of wire format DNS
   resource records.  The format of the resource record is described in
   RFC 1035 [RFC1035], Section 3.2.1.  The resource records SHOULD be
   presented in the canonical form and ordering as described in RFC 4034
   [RFC4034].


             RR(i) = owner | type | class | TTL | RDATA length | RDATA

   RRs within the RRset MAY be ordered canonically, by treating the
   RDATA portion of each RR as a left-justified unsigned octet sequence
   in which the absence of an octet sorts before a zero octet.

   Each RRset in the sequence is followed by its associated RRsig
   record.  The RRsig record is in DNS wire format as described in RFC
   4034 [RFC4034], Section 3.1.  The signature portion of the RDATA, as
   described in the same section, is the following:


             signature = sign(RRSIG_RDATA | RR(1) | RR(2)... )

   where RRSIG_RDATA is the wire format of the RRSIG RDATA fields with
   the Signer's Name field in canonical form and the signature field
   excluded.

   The first RRset in the chain MUST contain the TLSA record set being
   presented.  However, if the owner name of the TLSA record set is an
   alias (CNAME or DNAME), then it MUST be preceded by the chain of
   alias records needed to resolve it.  DNAME chains should omit
   unsigned CNAME records that may have been synthesized in the response
   from a DNS resolver.

   The subsequent RRsets MUST contain the full set of DNS records needed
   to authenticate the TLSA record set from the server's trust anchor.
   Typically this means a set of DNSKEY and DS RRsets that cover all
   zones from the target zone containing the TLSA record set to the
   trust anchor zone.  The TLS client should be prepared to receive this
   set of RRsets in any order.

   Names that are aliased via CNAME and/or DNAME records may involve
   multiple branches of the DNS tree.  In this case, the authentication



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   chain structure needs to include DS and DNSKEY record sets that cover
   all the necessary branches.

   If the TLSA record set was synthesized by a DNS wildcard, the chain
   must include the signed NSEC or NSEC3 records that prove that there
   was no explicit match of the TLSA record name and no closer wildcard
   match.

   The final DNSKEY RRset in the authentication chain corresponds to the
   trust anchor (typically the DNS root).  This trust anchor is also
   preconfigured in the TLS client, but including it in the response
   from the server permits TLS clients to use the automated trust anchor
   rollover mechanism defined in RFC 5011 [RFC5011] to update their
   configured trust anchor.

   The following is an example of the records in the AuthenticationChain
   structure for the HTTPS server at www.example.com, where there are
   zone cuts at "com." and "example.com." (record data are omitted here
   for brevity):


             _443._tcp.www.example.com. TLSA
             RRSIG(_443._tcp.www.example.com. TLSA)
             example.com. DNSKEY
             RRSIG(example.com. DNSKEY)
             example.com. DS
             RRSIG(example.com. DS)
             com. DNSKEY
             RRSIG(com. DNSKEY)
             com. DS
             RRSIG(com. DS)
             . DNSKEY
             RRSIG(. DNSKEY)

4.  Construction of Serialized Authentication Chains

   This section describes a possible procedure for the server to use to
   build the serialized DNSSEC chain.

   When the goal is to perform DANE authentication [RFC6698] [RFC7671]
   of the server, the DNS record set to be serialized is a TLSA record
   set corresponding to the server's domain name, protocol, and port
   number.

   The domain name of the server MUST be that included in the TLS
   server_name extension [RFC6066] when present.  If the server_name
   extension is not present, or if the server does not recognize the
   provided name and wishes to proceed with the handshake rather than to



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   abort the connection, the server uses the domain name associated with
   the server IP address to which the connection has been established.

   The TLSA record to be queried is constructed by prepending the _port
   and _transport labels to the domain name as described in [RFC6698],
   where "port" is the port number associated with the TLS server.  The
   transport is "tcp" for TLS servers, and "udp" for DTLS servers.  The
   port number label is the left-most label, followed by the transport,
   followed by the base domain name.

   The components of the authentication chain are typically built by
   starting at the target record set and its corresponding RRSIG.  Then
   traversing the DNS tree upwards towards the trust anchor zone
   (normally the DNS root), for each zone cut, the DNSKEY and DS RRsets
   and their signatures are added.  However, see Section 3.4 for
   specific processing needed for aliases and wildcards.  If DNS
   responses messages contain any domain names utilizing name
   compression [RFC1035], then they must be uncompressed.

   Newer DNS protocol enhancements, such as the EDNS Chain Query
   extension [RFC7901] if supported, may offer easier ways to obtain all
   of the chain data in one transaction with an upstream DNSSEC aware
   recursive server.

5.  Caching and Regeneration of the Authentication Chain

   DNS records have Time To Live (TTL) parameters, and DNSSEC signatures
   have validity periods (specifically signature expiration times).
   After the TLS server constructs the serialized authentication chain,
   it SHOULD cache and reuse it in multiple TLS connection handshakes.
   However, it MUST refresh and rebuild the chain as TTLs and signature
   validity periods dictate.  A server implementation could carefully
   track these parameters and requery component records in the chain
   correspondingly.  Alternatively, it could be configured to rebuild
   the entire chain at some predefined periodic interval that does not
   exceed the DNS TTLs or signature validity periods of the component
   records in the chain.

6.  Verification

   A TLS client making use of this specification, and which receives a
   DNSSEC authentication chain extension from a server, SHOULD use this
   information to perform DANE authentication of the server.  In order
   to do this, it uses the mechanism specified by the DNSSEC protocol
   [RFC4035].  This mechanism is sometimes implemented in a DNSSEC
   validation engine or library.





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   If the authentication chain is correctly verified, the client then
   performs DANE authentication of the server according to the DANE TLS
   protocol [RFC6698] [RFC7671].

7.  Trust Anchor Maintenance

   The trust anchor may change periodically, e.g. when the operator of
   the trust anchor zone performs a DNSSEC key rollover.  TLS clients
   using this specification MUST implement a mechanism to keep their
   trust anchors up to date.  They could use the method defined in
   [RFC5011] to perform trust anchor updates inband in TLS, by tracking
   the introduction of new keys seen in the trust anchor DNSKEY RRset.
   However, alternative mechanisms external to TLS may also be utilized.
   Some operating systems may have a system-wide service to maintain and
   keep the root trust anchor up to date.  In such cases, the TLS client
   application could simply reference that as its trust anchor,
   periodically checking whether it has changed.  Some applications may
   prefer to implement trust anchor updates as part of their automated
   software updates.

8.  Mandating use of this extension

   A TLS server certificate MAY mandate the use of this extension by
   means of the X.509 TLS Feature Extension described in [RFC7633].
   This X.509 certificate extension, when populated with the
   dnssec_chain TLS extension identifier, indicates to the client that
   the server must deliver the authentication chain when asked to do so.
   (The X.509 TLS Feature Extension is the same mechanism used to
   deliver other mandatory signals, such as OCSP "must staple"
   assertions.)  Mandating this extension for Raw Public Key
   authentication (where there are no X.509 certificates) could employ
   configuration mechanisms external to the TLS protocol.

9.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations of the normatively referenced RFCs (1035,
   4034, 4035, 5246, 6066, 6698, 7633, 7671) all pertain to this
   extension.  Since the server is delivering a chain of DNS records and
   signatures to the client, it MUST rebuild the chain in accordance
   with TTL and signature expiration of the chain components as
   described in Section 5.  TLS clients need roughly accurate time in
   order to properly authenticate these signatures.  This could be
   achieved by running a time synchronization protocol like NTP
   [RFC5905] or SNTP [RFC5905], which are already widely used today.
   TLS clients MUST support a mechanism to track and rollover the trust
   anchor key, or be able to avail themselves of a service that does
   this, as described in Section 7.




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10.  IANA Considerations

   This extension requires the registration of a new value in the TLS
   ExtensionsType registry.  The value requested from IANA is 53.  If
   the draft is adopted by the WG, the authors expect to make an early
   allocation request as specified in [RFC7120].

11.  Acknowledgments

   Many thanks to Adam Langley for laying the groundwork for this
   extension.  The original idea is his but our acknowledgment in no way
   implies his endorsement.  This document also benefited from
   discussions with and review from the following people: Viktor
   Dukhovni, Daniel Kahn Gillmor, Jeff Hodges, Allison Mankin, Patrick
   McManus, Rick van Rein, Gowri Visweswaran, Duane Wessels, Nico
   Williams, and Paul Wouters.

12.  References

12.1.  Normative References

   [RFC1035]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
              specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, DOI 10.17487/RFC1035,
              November 1987, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1035>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC4034]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
              Rose, "Resource Records for the DNS Security Extensions",
              RFC 4034, DOI 10.17487/RFC4034, March 2005,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4034>.

   [RFC4035]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
              Rose, "Protocol Modifications for the DNS Security
              Extensions", RFC 4035, DOI 10.17487/RFC4035, March 2005,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4035>.

   [RFC5246]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5246, August 2008,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5246>.







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   [RFC6066]  Eastlake 3rd, D., "Transport Layer Security (TLS)
              Extensions: Extension Definitions", RFC 6066,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6066, January 2011,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6066>.

   [RFC6698]  Hoffman, P. and J. Schlyter, "The DNS-Based Authentication
              of Named Entities (DANE) Transport Layer Security (TLS)
              Protocol: TLSA", RFC 6698, DOI 10.17487/RFC6698, August
              2012, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6698>.

   [RFC7633]  Hallam-Baker, P., "X.509v3 Transport Layer Security (TLS)
              Feature Extension", RFC 7633, DOI 10.17487/RFC7633,
              October 2015, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7633>.

   [RFC7671]  Dukhovni, V. and W. Hardaker, "The DNS-Based
              Authentication of Named Entities (DANE) Protocol: Updates
              and Operational Guidance", RFC 7671, DOI 10.17487/RFC7671,
              October 2015, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7671>.

12.2.  Informative References

   [RFC5011]  StJohns, M., "Automated Updates of DNS Security (DNSSEC)
              Trust Anchors", STD 74, RFC 5011, DOI 10.17487/RFC5011,
              September 2007, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5011>.

   [RFC5905]  Mills, D., Martin, J., Ed., Burbank, J., and W. Kasch,
              "Network Time Protocol Version 4: Protocol and Algorithms
              Specification", RFC 5905, DOI 10.17487/RFC5905, June 2010,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5905>.

   [RFC7120]  Cotton, M., "Early IANA Allocation of Standards Track Code
              Points", BCP 100, RFC 7120, DOI 10.17487/RFC7120, January
              2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7120>.

   [RFC7250]  Wouters, P., Ed., Tschofenig, H., Ed., Gilmore, J.,
              Weiler, S., and T. Kivinen, "Using Raw Public Keys in
              Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Datagram Transport
              Layer Security (DTLS)", RFC 7250, DOI 10.17487/RFC7250,
              June 2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7250>.

   [RFC7672]  Dukhovni, V. and W. Hardaker, "SMTP Security via
              Opportunistic DNS-Based Authentication of Named Entities
              (DANE) Transport Layer Security (TLS)", RFC 7672,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7672, October 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7672>.






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   [RFC7901]  Wouters, P., "CHAIN Query Requests in DNS", RFC 7901,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7901, June 2016,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7901>.

   [I-D.agl-dane-serializechain]
              Langley, A., "Serializing DNS Records with DNSSEC
              Authentication", draft-agl-dane-serializechain-01 (work in
              progress), July 2011.

   [I-D.barnes-dane-uks]
              Barnes, R., Thomson, M., and E. Rescorla, "Unknown Key-
              Share Attacks on DNS-based Authentications of Named
              Entities (DANE)", draft-barnes-dane-uks-00 (work in
              progress), October 2016.





































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Appendix A.  Updates from -01 and -02

   o  Editorial updates for style and consistency

   o  Updated discussion of UKS attack

Appendix B.  Updates from -01

   o  Added TLS 1.3 support

   o  Added section describing applicability to raw public keys

   o  Softened language about record order

Appendix C.  Updates from -00

   o  Edits based on comments from Rick van Rein

   o  Warning about not overloading X.509 wildcards on DNSSEC wildcards
      (from V.  Dukhovny)

   o  Added MUST include negative proof on wildcards (from V.  Dukhovny)

   o  Removed "TODO" on allowing the server to deliver only one
      signature per RRset

   o  Added additional minor edits suggested by Viktor Dukhovny

Appendix D.  Test vectors

   The provided test vectors will authenticate the certificate used with
   https://example.com/, https://example.net/ and https://example.org/
   at the time of writing:


















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   -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
   MIIF8jCCBNqgAwIBAgIQDmTF+8I2reFLFyrrQceMsDANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQsFADBw
   MQswCQYDVQQGEwJVUzEVMBMGA1UEChMMRGlnaUNlcnQgSW5jMRkwFwYDVQQLExB3
   d3cuZGlnaWNlcnQuY29tMS8wLQYDVQQDEyZEaWdpQ2VydCBTSEEyIEhpZ2ggQXNz
   dXJhbmNlIFNlcnZlciBDQTAeFw0xNTExMDMwMDAwMDBaFw0xODExMjgxMjAwMDBa
   MIGlMQswCQYDVQQGEwJVUzETMBEGA1UECBMKQ2FsaWZvcm5pYTEUMBIGA1UEBxML
   TG9zIEFuZ2VsZXMxPDA6BgNVBAoTM0ludGVybmV0IENvcnBvcmF0aW9uIGZvciBB
   c3NpZ25lZCBOYW1lcyBhbmQgTnVtYmVyczETMBEGA1UECxMKVGVjaG5vbG9neTEY
   MBYGA1UEAxMPd3d3LmV4YW1wbGUub3JnMIIBIjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOCAQ8A
   MIIBCgKCAQEAs0CWL2FjPiXBl61lRfvvE0KzLJmG9LWAC3bcBjgsH6NiVVo2dt6u
   Xfzi5bTm7F3K7srfUBYkLO78mraM9qizrHoIeyofrV/n+pZZJauQsPjCPxMEJnRo
   D8Z4KpWKX0LyDu1SputoI4nlQ/htEhtiQnuoBfNZxF7WxcxGwEsZuS1KcXIkHl5V
   RJOreKFHTaXcB1qcZ/QRaBIv0yhxvK1yBTwWddT4cli6GfHcCe3xGMaSL328Fgs3
   jYrvG29PueB6VJi/tbbPu6qTfwp/H1brqdjh29U52Bhb0fJkM9DWxCP/Cattcc7a
   z8EXnCO+LK8vkhw/kAiJWPKx4RBvgy73nwIDAQABo4ICUDCCAkwwHwYDVR0jBBgw
   FoAUUWj/kK8CB3U8zNllZGKiErhZcjswHQYDVR0OBBYEFKZPYB4fLdHn8SOgKpUW
   5Oia6m5IMIGBBgNVHREEejB4gg93d3cuZXhhbXBsZS5vcmeCC2V4YW1wbGUuY29t
   ggtleGFtcGxlLmVkdYILZXhhbXBsZS5uZXSCC2V4YW1wbGUub3Jngg93d3cuZXhh
   bXBsZS5jb22CD3d3dy5leGFtcGxlLmVkdYIPd3d3LmV4YW1wbGUubmV0MA4GA1Ud
   DwEB/wQEAwIFoDAdBgNVHSUEFjAUBggrBgEFBQcDAQYIKwYBBQUHAwIwdQYDVR0f
   BG4wbDA0oDKgMIYuaHR0cDovL2NybDMuZGlnaWNlcnQuY29tL3NoYTItaGEtc2Vy
   dmVyLWc0LmNybDA0oDKgMIYuaHR0cDovL2NybDQuZGlnaWNlcnQuY29tL3NoYTIt
   aGEtc2VydmVyLWc0LmNybDBMBgNVHSAERTBDMDcGCWCGSAGG/WwBATAqMCgGCCsG
   AQUFBwIBFhxodHRwczovL3d3dy5kaWdpY2VydC5jb20vQ1BTMAgGBmeBDAECAjCB
   gwYIKwYBBQUHAQEEdzB1MCQGCCsGAQUFBzABhhhodHRwOi8vb2NzcC5kaWdpY2Vy
   dC5jb20wTQYIKwYBBQUHMAKGQWh0dHA6Ly9jYWNlcnRzLmRpZ2ljZXJ0LmNvbS9E
   aWdpQ2VydFNIQTJIaWdoQXNzdXJhbmNlU2VydmVyQ0EuY3J0MAwGA1UdEwEB/wQC
   MAAwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQELBQADggEBAISomhGn2L0LJn5SJHuyVZ3qMIlRCIdvqe0Q
   6ls+C8ctRwRO3UU3x8q8OH+2ahxlQmpzdC5al4XQzJLiLjiJ2Q1p+hub8MFiMmVP
   PZjb2tZm2ipWVuMRM+zgpRVM6nVJ9F3vFfUSHOb4/JsEIUvPY+d8/Krc+kPQwLvy
   ieqRbcuFjmqfyPmUv1U9QoI4TQikpw7TZU0zYZANP4C/gj4Ry48/znmUaRvy2kvI
   l7gRQ21qJTK5suoiYoYNo3J9T+pXPGU7Lydz/HwW+w0DpArtAaukI8aNX4ohFUKS
   wDSiIIWIWJiJGbEeIO0TIFwEVWTOnbNl/faPXpk5IRXicapqiII=
   -----END CERTIFICATE-----

   For brevity and reproducability all DNS zones involved with the test
   vectors are signed using a single key with algorithm 13: ECDSA Curve
   P-256 with SHA-256.

   The test vectors are DNSSEC valid at June 1 2017, with the following
   root trust anchor:

   .  IN  DS  ( 47005 13 2 2eb6e9f2480126691594d649a5a613de3052e37861634
           641bb568746f2ffc4d4 )







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D.1.  _443._tcp.www.example.com

   _443._tcp.www.example.com.  3600  IN  TLSA  ( 3 1 1
           c66bef6a5c1a3e78b82016e13f314f3cc5fa25b1e52aab9adb9ec5989b165
           ada )
   _443._tcp.www.example.com.  3600  IN  RRSIG  ( TLSA 13 5 3600
           20170616000000 20170526000000 1870 example.com.
           GRsT6bcn3fokM5JMvHF0liq63N/kUX+CrZQZIr4GlFnMr/uoS4P1zOBwc0sft
           Kd8NsZJAikRr4CpaXITYQMx1w== )
   example.com.  3600  IN  DNSKEY  ( 257 3 13
           JnA1XgyJTZz+psWvbrfUWLV6ULqIJyUS2CQdhUH9VK35bslWeJpRzrlxCUs7s
           /TsSfZMaGWVvlsuieh5nHcXzA== ) ; Key ID = 1870
   example.com.  3600  IN  RRSIG  ( DNSKEY 13 2 3600
           20170616000000 20170526000000 1870 example.com.
           sB6o0XXz7AXDWibruD75rllaHI1kOu4ftoXsKOPPArjflNlTPxrJsspN8ww9r
           8q6DBlCdlRQvzD90UKZDIAqbA== )
   example.com.  900  IN  DS  ( 1870 13 2
           e9b533a049798e900b5c29c90cd25a986e8a44f319ac3cd302bafc08f5b81
           e16 )
   example.com.  900  IN  RRSIG  ( DS 13 2 900 20170605000000
           20170529000000 18931 com.
           rBV/16HTJBwmexByZq7WzYbB3EYaJ6MctpUSxuSNEpwDgzKkwIXzKECh5F5x3
           5XxvbOdLIJAcxhRS1c2VITfMA== )
   com.  900  IN  DNSKEY  ( 257 3 13
           RbkcO+96XZmnp8jYIuM4lryAp3egQjSmBaSoiA7H76Tm0RLHPNPUxlVk+nQ0f
           Ic3I8xfZDNw8Wa0Pe3/g2QA/w== ) ; Key ID = 18931
   com.  900  IN  RRSIG  ( DNSKEY 13 1 900 20170605000000
           20170529000000 18931 com.
           wjCqnHNa5QcMrbuAnKIWBESMFtVjDldmd98udKPtg35V9ESD9SuNKtRJRdHYk
           c6Nx3HLmhidf6dmt/Hi0ePBsQ== )
   com.  86400  IN  DS  ( 18931 13 2
           20f7a9db42d0e2042fbbb9f9ea015941202f9eabb94487e658c188e7bcb52
           115 )
   com.  86400  IN  RRSIG  ( DS 13 1 86400 20170612000000
           20170530000000 47005 .
           jPah4caFBSqhdt78YYhwFZn3ouKiWUKTH1t/nMB7tXzjorQJ50j1RMR23JVL+
           jGGQccnLkQnUf7zednetSWalg== )
   .  86400  IN  DNSKEY  ( 257 3 13
           yvX+VNTUjxZiGvtr060hVbrPV9H6rVusQtF9lIxCFzbZOJxMQBFmbqlc8Xclv
           Q+gDOXnFOTsgs/frMmxyGOtRg== ) ; Key ID = 47005
   .  86400  IN  RRSIG  ( DNSKEY 13 0 86400 20170612000000
           20170530000000 47005 .
           tFldEx7SQI43PIzn1ib/oZTko+Q+gRuOLcALoSA0WQRh1yXSV1752p1n3imhK
           8y3m+LZSLDSBHEocXIiRHWdFg== )

   A hex dump of the wire format data of this content is:

   0000:  04 5f 34 34 33 04 5f 74  63 70 03 77 77 77 07 65



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   0010:  78 61 6d 70 6c 65 03 63  6f 6d 00 00 34 00 01 00
   0020:  00 0e 10 00 23 03 01 01  c6 6b ef 6a 5c 1a 3e 78
   0030:  b8 20 16 e1 3f 31 4f 3c  c5 fa 25 b1 e5 2a ab 9a
   0040:  db 9e c5 98 9b 16 5a da  04 5f 34 34 33 04 5f 74
   0050:  63 70 03 77 77 77 07 65  78 61 6d 70 6c 65 03 63
   0060:  6f 6d 00 00 2e 00 01 00  00 0e 10 00 5f 00 34 0d
   0070:  05 00 00 0e 10 59 43 1f  80 59 27 70 00 07 4e 07
   0080:  65 78 61 6d 70 6c 65 03  63 6f 6d 00 7b be 85 af
   0090:  63 08 fd be 6e eb 68 df  85 c2 58 e6 41 37 2f 68
   00a0:  34 4f 4f ce 91 9c 4c b0  54 bb e5 31 cd 57 0c 57
   00b0:  cf 10 ce 33 13 29 7a b4  81 d9 10 d0 cf f3 32 c8
   00c0:  24 e8 06 12 59 8c 58 c5  15 6e ae e1 07 65 78 61
   00d0:  6d 70 6c 65 03 63 6f 6d  00 00 30 00 01 00 00 0e
   00e0:  10 00 44 01 01 03 0d 26  70 35 5e 0c 89 4d 9c fe
   00f0:  a6 c5 af 6e b7 d4 58 b5  7a 50 ba 88 27 25 12 d8
   0100:  24 1d 85 41 fd 54 ad f9  6e c9 56 78 9a 51 ce b9
   0110:  71 09 4b 3b b3 f4 ec 49  f6 4c 68 65 95 be 5b 2e
   0120:  89 e8 79 9c 77 17 cc 07  65 78 61 6d 70 6c 65 03
   0130:  63 6f 6d 00 00 2e 00 01  00 00 0e 10 00 5f 00 30
   0140:  0d 02 00 00 0e 10 59 43  1f 80 59 27 70 00 07 4e
   0150:  07 65 78 61 6d 70 6c 65  03 63 6f 6d 00 db ce bb
   0160:  5f 1c 4b f0 4e de 1e 36  f0 00 75 ae 79 f1 4e 7b
   0170:  42 3b ff dc c0 04 b8 3c  5f 3a e7 ac a7 0c 47 0a
   0180:  a5 3d 70 95 28 d5 c9 65  5c 6f 7c ad 25 1e d2 77
   0190:  00 2c 0a 9f f7 e9 19 a6  04 e9 cb 09 60 07 65 78
   01a0:  61 6d 70 6c 65 03 63 6f  6d 00 00 2b 00 01 00 00
   01b0:  03 84 00 24 07 4e 0d 02  e9 b5 33 a0 49 79 8e 90
   01c0:  0b 5c 29 c9 0c d2 5a 98  6e 8a 44 f3 19 ac 3c d3
   01d0:  02 ba fc 08 f5 b8 1e 16  07 65 78 61 6d 70 6c 65
   01e0:  03 63 6f 6d 00 00 2e 00  01 00 00 03 84 00 57 00
   01f0:  2b 0d 02 00 00 03 84 59  34 9f 00 59 2b 64 80 49
   0200:  f3 03 63 6f 6d 00 18 f3  6d 66 92 89 48 73 26 3a
   0210:  cd 1e 35 38 a3 97 07 1b  ed de d6 14 db 16 f0 f5
   0220:  62 27 20 c5 eb fa 66 ac  a4 a7 8e 93 33 ca 62 42
   0230:  91 7a 51 b5 15 3a 83 14  3a 80 a5 f2 b6 80 00 e5
   0240:  6b 92 ba 37 ec 2d 03 63  6f 6d 00 00 30 00 01 00
   0250:  00 03 84 00 44 01 01 03  0d 45 b9 1c 3b ef 7a 5d
   0260:  99 a7 a7 c8 d8 22 e3 38  96 bc 80 a7 77 a0 42 34
   0270:  a6 05 a4 a8 88 0e c7 ef  a4 e6 d1 12 c7 3c d3 d4
   0280:  c6 55 64 fa 74 34 7c 87  37 23 cc 5f 64 33 70 f1
   0290:  66 b4 3d ed ff 83 64 00  ff 03 63 6f 6d 00 00 2e
   02a0:  00 01 00 00 03 84 00 57  00 30 0d 01 00 00 03 84
   02b0:  59 34 9f 00 59 2b 64 80  49 f3 03 63 6f 6d 00 8d
   02c0:  21 46 95 a5 17 ab 10 0a  49 dd 25 d3 6b 7d 88 ab
   02d0:  2b 18 c9 53 da f2 76 fd  a5 82 b8 ea 14 cb 7c 25
   02e0:  4a 36 4a f0 48 9b e6 a3  0d aa 5b 98 15 8e 64 12
   02f0:  bb 1b 6e 45 3f 03 00 88  3d 48 b7 0f 78 53 2b 03
   0300:  63 6f 6d 00 00 2b 00 01  00 01 51 80 00 24 49 f3



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   0310:  0d 02 20 f7 a9 db 42 d0  e2 04 2f bb b9 f9 ea 01
   0320:  59 41 20 2f 9e ab b9 44  87 e6 58 c1 88 e7 bc b5
   0330:  21 15 03 63 6f 6d 00 00  2e 00 01 00 01 51 80 00
   0340:  53 00 2b 0d 01 00 01 51  80 59 3d d9 80 59 2c b6
   0350:  00 b7 9d 00 33 56 6b d8  e2 80 50 7a e6 cf 68 27
   0360:  bb 22 5c a7 aa 41 f1 36  94 1c ae 94 9c 3f da 98
   0370:  c5 0f 56 b8 26 c7 57 44  05 a3 a5 11 ef d9 77 b3
   0380:  49 a9 50 8d 99 76 98 78  8e 4b 30 a8 70 51 63 09
   0390:  a2 b6 14 05 00 00 30 00  01 00 01 51 80 00 44 01
   03a0:  01 03 0d ca f5 fe 54 d4  d4 8f 16 62 1a fb 6b d3
   03b0:  ad 21 55 ba cf 57 d1 fa  ad 5b ac 42 d1 7d 94 8c
   03c0:  42 17 36 d9 38 9c 4c 40  11 66 6e a9 5c f1 77 25
   03d0:  bd 0f a0 0c e5 e7 14 e4  ec 82 cf df ac c9 b1 c8
   03e0:  63 ad 46 00 00 2e 00 01  00 01 51 80 00 53 00 30
   03f0:  0d 00 00 01 51 80 59 3d  d9 80 59 2c b6 00 b7 9d
   0400:  00 2b 43 e5 99 de 8d bd  e6 e1 f0 05 2d 16 a1 7a
   0410:  79 15 42 da 47 da 2f 63  0e 46 ab 7d e3 7e 9b 8a
   0420:  7d 25 e2 3f 18 bf 85 4c  17 b7 d5 3c 06 c8 18 bb
   0430:  bd 98 44 11 72 e3 18 bc  9d 99 88 e5 00 91 58 c8
   0440:  47

D.2.  _25._tcp.example.com wildcard





























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   _25._tcp.example.com.  3600  IN  TLSA  ( 3 1 1
           c66bef6a5c1a3e78b82016e13f314f3cc5fa25b1e52aab9adb9ec5989b165
           ada )
   _25._tcp.example.com.  3600  IN  RRSIG  ( TLSA 13 3 3600
           20170616000000 20170526000000 1870 example.com.
           dVxm88Spko03MB4pLo+zijMup2nr1Ii65yPqB/cAR/1Zg41iXer7I2sGh9KfT
           ExLJC6dUMDVFUfm+1rwb+ax8Q== )
   *._tcp.example.com.  3600  IN  NSEC  (
           _443._tcp.www.example.com. RRSIG NSEC TLSA )
   *._tcp.example.com.  3600  IN  RRSIG  ( NSEC 13 3 3600
           20170616000000 20170526000000 1870 example.com.
           1lNaYYQ+FAG8YBVEx/026OGhVw5DjAyqBGrrLN9D12IZuLHtTQ4C9QPORP4na
           GWNPgASvLyNR8MoN0oXV7tbnQ== )
   example.com.  3600  IN  DNSKEY  ( 257 3 13
           JnA1XgyJTZz+psWvbrfUWLV6ULqIJyUS2CQdhUH9VK35bslWeJpRzrlxCUs7s
           /TsSfZMaGWVvlsuieh5nHcXzA== ) ; Key ID = 1870
   example.com.  3600  IN  RRSIG  ( DNSKEY 13 2 3600
           20170616000000 20170526000000 1870 example.com.
           sB6o0XXz7AXDWibruD75rllaHI1kOu4ftoXsKOPPArjflNlTPxrJsspN8ww9r
           8q6DBlCdlRQvzD90UKZDIAqbA== )
   example.com.  900  IN  DS  ( 1870 13 2
           e9b533a049798e900b5c29c90cd25a986e8a44f319ac3cd302bafc08f5b81
           e16 )
   example.com.  900  IN  RRSIG  ( DS 13 2 900 20170605000000
           20170529000000 18931 com.
           rBV/16HTJBwmexByZq7WzYbB3EYaJ6MctpUSxuSNEpwDgzKkwIXzKECh5F5x3
           5XxvbOdLIJAcxhRS1c2VITfMA== )
   com.  900  IN  DNSKEY  ( 257 3 13
           RbkcO+96XZmnp8jYIuM4lryAp3egQjSmBaSoiA7H76Tm0RLHPNPUxlVk+nQ0f
           Ic3I8xfZDNw8Wa0Pe3/g2QA/w== ) ; Key ID = 18931
   com.  900  IN  RRSIG  ( DNSKEY 13 1 900 20170605000000
           20170529000000 18931 com.
           wjCqnHNa5QcMrbuAnKIWBESMFtVjDldmd98udKPtg35V9ESD9SuNKtRJRdHYk
           c6Nx3HLmhidf6dmt/Hi0ePBsQ== )
   com.  86400  IN  DS  ( 18931 13 2
           20f7a9db42d0e2042fbbb9f9ea015941202f9eabb94487e658c188e7bcb52
           115 )
   com.  86400  IN  RRSIG  ( DS 13 1 86400 20170612000000
           20170530000000 47005 .
           jPah4caFBSqhdt78YYhwFZn3ouKiWUKTH1t/nMB7tXzjorQJ50j1RMR23JVL+
           jGGQccnLkQnUf7zednetSWalg== )
   .  86400  IN  DNSKEY  ( 257 3 13
           yvX+VNTUjxZiGvtr060hVbrPV9H6rVusQtF9lIxCFzbZOJxMQBFmbqlc8Xclv
           Q+gDOXnFOTsgs/frMmxyGOtRg== ) ; Key ID = 47005
   .  86400  IN  RRSIG  ( DNSKEY 13 0 86400 20170612000000
           20170530000000 47005 .
           tFldEx7SQI43PIzn1ib/oZTko+Q+gRuOLcALoSA0WQRh1yXSV1752p1n3imhK
           8y3m+LZSLDSBHEocXIiRHWdFg== )



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D.3.  _443._tcp.www.example.org CNAME


















































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   _443._tcp.www.example.org.  3600  IN  CNAME  (
           dane311.example.org. )
   _443._tcp.www.example.org.  3600  IN  RRSIG  ( CNAME 13 5 3600
           20170616000000 20170526000000 44384 example.org.
           DN+UMxh5TWL1u6Mc6ScWMU5R9C+qqIOSH4hqQmiPWhvSg0lFd71g43UqtdmBT
           VRUbhk/f9WC8Fy5D0gE5lUcyA== )
   dane311.example.org.  3600  IN  TLSA  ( 3 1 1
           c66bef6a5c1a3e78b82016e13f314f3cc5fa25b1e52aab9adb9ec5989b165
           ada )
   dane311.example.org.  3600  IN  RRSIG  ( TLSA 13 3 3600
           20170616000000 20170526000000 44384 example.org.
           HJx59dAMQgvJSYBYtixzfodup5KRUzJ1SlRUrFJkGZz6PkpfuFdtpZwPN1vw9
           SyvXq7WqRD46aaCMwR4ApUJ+w== )
   example.org.  3600  IN  DNSKEY  ( 257 3 13
           uspaqp17jsMTX6AWVgmbog/3Sttz+9ANFUWLn6qKUHr0BOqRuChQWj8jyYUUr
           Wy9txxesNQ9MkO4LUrFght1LQ== ) ; Key ID = 44384
   example.org.  3600  IN  RRSIG  ( DNSKEY 13 2 3600
           20170616000000 20170526000000 44384 example.org.
           MPTpfbVvPBXmh2Z4fgjy2GMgcJ8RYpXeOBOBidJDglLh4XQAiFOT6YpGRR5ig
           tQGINd6gKVYdRSsEtXe1K8zxg== )
   example.org.  900  IN  DS  ( 44384 13 2
           ec307e2efc8f0117ed96ab48a513c8003e1d9121f1ff11a08b4cdd348d090
           aa6 )
   example.org.  900  IN  RRSIG  ( DS 13 2 900 20170615000000
           20170525000000 12651 org.
           MA3pxiap702Hvc81diwZDcRzLrkKssVzzTqCiJJoZFeNq40GuCOVGgEc+w6aq
           SVgkgFJrhJISei/kvIZTx8ftw== )
   org.  900  IN  DNSKEY  ( 257 3 13
           0SZfoe8Yx+eoaGgyAGEeJax/ZBV1AuG+/smcOgRm+F6doNlgc3lddcM1MbTvJ
           HTjK6Fvy8W6yZ+cAptn8sQheg== ) ; Key ID = 12651
   org.  900  IN  RRSIG  ( DNSKEY 13 1 900 20170615000000
           20170525000000 12651 org.
           o4L9nBQo8KXF0a7D5268U+Bq8SuW/aePtyuSfvQvP79nN/mzh9P11CsT/opmW
           kg0u6pqaG9KE1T37jloes8J8w== )
   org.  86400  IN  DS  ( 12651 13 2
           3979a51f98bbf219fcaf4a4176e766dfa8f9db5c24a75743eb1e704b97a9f
           abc )
   org.  86400  IN  RRSIG  ( DS 13 1 86400 20170612000000
           20170530000000 47005 .
           Mi1c7QrpHnl1MSLJTrq/WM0V0DQKwFPGaMFmHHwm8Yb/b934CUHMXU0dR+cLT
           hakZNz37edtwPxKKOzZQ6pYUw== )
   .  86400  IN  DNSKEY  ( 257 3 13
           yvX+VNTUjxZiGvtr060hVbrPV9H6rVusQtF9lIxCFzbZOJxMQBFmbqlc8Xclv
           Q+gDOXnFOTsgs/frMmxyGOtRg== ) ; Key ID = 47005
   .  86400  IN  RRSIG  ( DNSKEY 13 0 86400 20170612000000
           20170530000000 47005 .
           tFldEx7SQI43PIzn1ib/oZTko+Q+gRuOLcALoSA0WQRh1yXSV1752p1n3imhK
           8y3m+LZSLDSBHEocXIiRHWdFg== )



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D.4.  _443._tcp.www.example.net DNAME

   example.net.  3600  IN  DNAME  example.com.
   example.net.  3600  IN  RRSIG  ( DNAME 13 2 3600 20170616000000
           20170526000000 48085 example.net.
           sTl9oxvpd7KxOZ9e5suevha7Fr+zPc3a0pWEUfjFE5v9Umu5js/vcp1i6hdqy
           tQ2WXEQDsHeEjw9stupvMJkkg== )
   _443._tcp.www.example.net.  3600  IN  CNAME  (
           _443._tcp.www.example.com. )
   _443._tcp.www.example.com.  3600  IN  TLSA  ( 3 1 1
           c66bef6a5c1a3e78b82016e13f314f3cc5fa25b1e52aab9adb9ec5989b165
           ada )
   _443._tcp.www.example.com.  3600  IN  RRSIG  ( TLSA 13 5 3600
           20170616000000 20170526000000 1870 example.com.
           GRsT6bcn3fokM5JMvHF0liq63N/kUX+CrZQZIr4GlFnMr/uoS4P1zOBwc0sft
           Kd8NsZJAikRr4CpaXITYQMx1w== )
   example.net.  3600  IN  DNSKEY  ( 257 3 13
           X9GHpJcS7bqKVEsLiVAbddHUHTZqqBbVa3mzIQmdp+5cTJk7qDazwH68Kts8d
           9MvN55HddWgsmeRhgzePz6hMg== ) ; Key ID = 48085
   example.net.  3600  IN  RRSIG  ( DNSKEY 13 2 3600
           20170616000000 20170526000000 48085 example.net.
           8jSs5O3AypurKs8JFoAYj30qlmQ9QS29IBoqbyv2ggxtdDZoKWZE0kOuQcRxx
           q1pP707qRjp98THQSTVh+C0iQ== )
   example.net.  900  IN  DS  ( 48085 13 2
           7c1998ce683df60e2fa41460c453f88f463dac8cd5d074277b4a7c0450292
           1be )
   example.net.  900  IN  RRSIG  ( DS 13 2 900 20170615000000
           20170525000000 485 net.
           xqN9gHO5HXB+GH2x3DvjpMl6f+CdsVvON2K7G0FDVIL5iFMNLPqCAITlFofWF
           Ty6VXFKPoy9TZresE/JCL/PFA== )
   net.  900  IN  DNSKEY  ( 257 3 13
           LkNCPE+v3S4MVnsOqZFhn8n2NSwtLYOZLZjjgVsAKgu4XZncaDgq1R/7ZXRO5
           oVx2zthxuu2i+mGbRrycAaCvA== ) ; Key ID = 485
   net.  900  IN  RRSIG  ( DNSKEY 13 1 900 20170615000000
           20170525000000 485 net.
           jEI8WucG9EzJ1Euv0Pq3aNFhoYbvQeLUs19r9YImkWi8QlmH76ZJuLTCGHTDh
           /Il5cZWukKc3ScptxVA57uRyQ== )
   net.  86400  IN  DS  ( 485 13 2
           ab25a2941aa7f1eb8688bb783b25587515a0cd8c247769b23adb13ca234d1
           c05 )
   net.  86400  IN  RRSIG  ( DS 13 1 86400 20170612000000
           20170530000000 47005 .
           ZR/UTP2OrYwJQhsCAWsKoIs9OSiUDdBFXzFqYSrV41G1oQsKVSi/NU1tT1UZW
           CENddWt90XLXZAlSYnv6s8Ceg== )
   .  86400  IN  DNSKEY  ( 257 3 13
           yvX+VNTUjxZiGvtr060hVbrPV9H6rVusQtF9lIxCFzbZOJxMQBFmbqlc8Xclv
           Q+gDOXnFOTsgs/frMmxyGOtRg== ) ; Key ID = 47005
   .  86400  IN  RRSIG  ( DNSKEY 13 0 86400 20170612000000



Shore, et al.           Expires December 3, 2017               [Page 21]


Internet-Draft         TLS DNSSEC Chain Extension              June 2017


           20170530000000 47005 .
           tFldEx7SQI43PIzn1ib/oZTko+Q+gRuOLcALoSA0WQRh1yXSV1752p1n3imhK
           8y3m+LZSLDSBHEocXIiRHWdFg== )
   example.com.  3600  IN  DNSKEY  ( 257 3 13
           JnA1XgyJTZz+psWvbrfUWLV6ULqIJyUS2CQdhUH9VK35bslWeJpRzrlxCUs7s
           /TsSfZMaGWVvlsuieh5nHcXzA== ) ; Key ID = 1870
   example.com.  3600  IN  RRSIG  ( DNSKEY 13 2 3600
           20170616000000 20170526000000 1870 example.com.
           sB6o0XXz7AXDWibruD75rllaHI1kOu4ftoXsKOPPArjflNlTPxrJsspN8ww9r
           8q6DBlCdlRQvzD90UKZDIAqbA== )
   example.com.  900  IN  DS  ( 1870 13 2
           e9b533a049798e900b5c29c90cd25a986e8a44f319ac3cd302bafc08f5b81
           e16 )
   example.com.  900  IN  RRSIG  ( DS 13 2 900 20170605000000
           20170529000000 18931 com.
           rBV/16HTJBwmexByZq7WzYbB3EYaJ6MctpUSxuSNEpwDgzKkwIXzKECh5F5x3
           5XxvbOdLIJAcxhRS1c2VITfMA== )
   com.  900  IN  DNSKEY  ( 257 3 13
           RbkcO+96XZmnp8jYIuM4lryAp3egQjSmBaSoiA7H76Tm0RLHPNPUxlVk+nQ0f
           Ic3I8xfZDNw8Wa0Pe3/g2QA/w== ) ; Key ID = 18931
   com.  900  IN  RRSIG  ( DNSKEY 13 1 900 20170605000000
           20170529000000 18931 com.
           wjCqnHNa5QcMrbuAnKIWBESMFtVjDldmd98udKPtg35V9ESD9SuNKtRJRdHYk
           c6Nx3HLmhidf6dmt/Hi0ePBsQ== )
   com.  86400  IN  DS  ( 18931 13 2
           20f7a9db42d0e2042fbbb9f9ea015941202f9eabb94487e658c188e7bcb52
           115 )
   com.  86400  IN  RRSIG  ( DS 13 1 86400 20170612000000
           20170530000000 47005 .
           jPah4caFBSqhdt78YYhwFZn3ouKiWUKTH1t/nMB7tXzjorQJ50j1RMR23JVL+
           jGGQccnLkQnUf7zednetSWalg== )

Authors' Addresses

   Melinda Shore
   Fastly

   EMail: mshore@fastly.com


   Richard Barnes
   Mozilla

   EMail: rlb@ipv.sx







Shore, et al.           Expires December 3, 2017               [Page 22]


Internet-Draft         TLS DNSSEC Chain Extension              June 2017


   Shumon Huque
   Salesforce

   EMail: shuque@gmail.com


   Willem Toorop
   NLNet Labs

   EMail: willem@nlnetlabs.nl









































Shore, et al.           Expires December 3, 2017               [Page 23]


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