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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 RFC 3546

TLS Working Group                           Simon Blake-Wilson, Certicom
INTERNET-DRAFT                              Magnus Nystrom, RSA Security
June 20, 2001                      David Hopwood, Independent Consultant
Expires December 20, 2001                 Jan Mikkelsen, Transactionware
Intended Category: Standards track                  Tim Wright, Vodafone


                             TLS Extensions

                   <draft-ietf-tls-extensions-00.txt>

                          Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026. Internet-Drafts are working
   documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas,
   and its working groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or made obsolete by other documents at
   any time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as work in progress.

   The list of current Internet-Drafts may be found at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories may be found at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

                                 Abstract

   This document describes extensions that may be used to add
   functionality to TLS. It provides both generic extension mechanisms
   for the TLS handshake client and server hellos, and specific
   extensions using these generic mechanisms.

   The extensions may be used by TLS clients and servers. The extensions
   are backwards compatible - communication is possible between TLS 1.0
   clients that support the extensions and TLS 1.0 servers that do not
   support the extensions, and vice versa.

   This document is based on discussions within the TLS working group
   and within the WAP security group.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [KEYWORDS].



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   Please send comments on this document to the TLS mailing list.

                             Table of Contents

    1. Introduction .............................................. 2
    2. General Extension Mechanisms .............................. 4
    2.1. Extended Client Hello ................................... 4
    2.2. Extended Server Hello ................................... 5
    2.3. Hello Extensions ........................................ 5
    2.4. Extensions to the handshake protocol .................... 6
    3. Specific Extensions ....................................... 7
    3.1. DNS Name Indication ..................................... 7
    3.2. Maximum Record Size Negotiation ......................... 8
    3.3. Client Certificate URLs ................................. 9
    3.4. Trusted CA Indication .................................. 11
    3.5. Truncated HMAC ......................................... 12
    3.6. OCSP Status Request..................................... 13
    4. Error alerts ............................................. 14
    5. Procedure for Defining New Extensions..................... 16
    6. Security Considerations .................................. 17
    6.1. Security of dns_name ................................... 17
    6.2. Security of max_record_size ............................ 17
    6.3. Security of client_certificate_url ..................... 18
    6.4. Security of trusted_ca_keys ............................ 18
    6.5. Security of truncated_hmac ............................. 19
    6.6. Security of status_request ............................. 19
    7. Internationalisation Considerations .......................19
    8. Intellectual Property Rights ............................. 20
    9. Acknowledgments .......................................... 20
   10. References ............................................... 20
   11. Authors' Addresses ....................................... 21

1. Introduction

   This document describes extensions that may be used to add
   functionality to TLS. It provides both generic extension mechanisms
   for the TLS handshake client and server hellos, and specific
   extensions using these generic mechanisms.

   TLS is now used in an increasing variety of operational environments
   - many of which were not envisioned when the original design criteria
   for TLS were determined. The extensions introduced in this document
   are designed to enable TLS to operate as effectively as possible in
   new environments like wireless networks.

   Wireless environments often suffer from a number of constraints not
   commonly present in wired environments - these constraints may
   include bandwidth limitations, computational power limitations,



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   memory limitations, and battery life limitations.

   The extensions described here focus on extending the functionality
   provided by the TLS protocol message formats. Other issues, such as
   the addition of new cipher suites, are deferred.

   Specifically, the extensions described in this document are designed
   to:

   - Allow TLS clients to provide to the TLS server the DNS name of the
     server they are contacting. This functionality is desirable to
     facilitate secure connections to servers which host multiple
     'virtual' servers at a single underlying network address.

   - Allow TLS clients and servers to negotiate the maximum record size
     to be sent. This functionality is desirable as a result of memory
     constraints among some clients, and bandwidth constraints among
     some access networks.

   - Allow TLS clients and servers to negotiate the use of client
     certificate URLs. This functionality is desirable in order to
     conserve memory on constrained clients.

   - Allow TLS clients to indicate to TLS servers which CA root keys
     they possess. This functionality is desirable in order to prevent
     multiple handshake failures involving TLS clients which are only
     able to store a small number of CA root keys due to memory
     limitations.

   - Allow TLS clients and servers to negotiate the use of truncated
     MACs. This functionality is desirable in order to conserve
     bandwidth in constrained access networks.

   - Allow TLS clients and servers to negotiate that the server sends
     the client an OCSP [OCSP] response during a TLS handshake. This
     functionality is desirable in order to avoid sending a CRL over a
     constrained access network and therefore save bandwidth.

   In order to support the extensions above, general extension
   mechanisms for the client hello message and the server hello message
   are introduced.

   The extensions described in this document may be used by TLS 1.0
   clients and TLS 1.0 servers. The extensions are designed to be
   backwards compatible - meaning that TLS 1.0 clients that support the
   extensions can talk to TLS 1.0 servers that do not support the
   extensions, and vice versa.




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   Backwards compatibility is primarily achieved via two considerations:

   - Clients typically request the use of extensions via the extended
     client hello message described in Section 2.1. TLS 1.0 [TLS]
     requires servers to "accept" extended client hello messages, even
     if the server does not "understand" the extension.

   - For the specific extensions described here, no mandatory server
     response is required when clients request extended functionality.

   Note however, that although backwards compatibility is supported,
   some constrained clients may be forced to reject communications with
   servers that do not support the extensions as a result of the limited
   capabilities of such clients.

   The remainder of this document is organized as follows. Section 2
   describes general extension mechanisms for the client hello and
   server hello handshake messages. Section 3 describes specific
   extensions to TLS 1.0. Section 4 describes new error alerts for use
   with the TLS extensions. The final sections of the document address
   IPR, security considerations, acknowledgements, and references.

2. General Extension Mechanisms

   This section presents general extension mechanisms for the TLS
   handshake client hello and server hello messages.

   These general extension mechanisms are necessary in order to enable
   clients and servers to negotiate whether to use specific extensions,
   and how to use specific extensions. The extension formats described
   are based on [MAILING LIST].

   Section 2.1 specifies the extended client hello message format,
   Section 2.2 specifies the extended server hello message format, and
   Section 2.3 describes the actual extension format used with the
   extended client and server hellos.

 2.1. Extended Client Hello

   The extended client hello message format MAY be sent in place of the
   client hello message format when clients wish to request extended
   functionality from servers. The extended client hello message format
   is:

       struct {
           ProtocolVersion client_version;
           Random random;
           SessionID session_id;



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           CipherSuite cipher_suites<2..2^16-1>;
           CompressionMethod compression_methods<1..2^8-1>;
           Extension client_hello_extension_list<0..2^16-1>;
       } ClientHello;

   Here the new "client_hello_extension_list" field contains a list of
   extensions. The actual "Extension" format is defined in Section 2.3.

   In the event that clients request additional functionality using the
   extended client hello, and this functionality is not supplied by the
   server, clients MAY abort the handshake.

   Note that TLS, Section 7.4.1.2, allows additional information to be
   added to the client hello message. Thus the use of the extended
   client hello defined above should not "break" existing TLS 1.0
   servers.

 2.2. Extended Server Hello

   The extended server hello message format MAY be sent in place of the
   server hello message when the client has requested extended
   functionality via the extended client hello message specified in
   Section 2.1. The extended server hello message format is:

       struct {
           ProtocolVersion server_version;
           Random random;
           SessionID session_id;
           CipherSuite cipher_suite;
           CompressionMethod compression_method;
           Extension server_hello_extension_list<0..2^16-1>;
       } ServerHello;

   Here the new "server_hello_extension_list" field contains a list of
   extensions. The actual "Extension" format is defined in Section 2.3.

   Note that the extended server hello message is only sent in response
   to an extended client hello message. This prevents the possibility
   that the extended server hello message could "break" existing TLS 1.0
   clients.

 2.3. Hello Extensions

   The extension format for extended client hellos and extended server
   hellos is:

       struct {
           ExtensionType extensionType;



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           opaque extension_data<0..2^16-1>;
       } Extension;

   Here:

   - "extensionType" identifies the particular extension type.

   - "extension_data" contains information specific to the particular
      extension type.

   The extension types defined in this document are:

       enum {
           dns_name(0), max_record_size(1), client_certificate_url(2),
           trusted_ca_keys(3), truncated_hmac(4), status_request(5),
           (65535)
       } ExtensionType;

   Note that for all extension types (including those defined in
   future), the extension type should appear in the extended server
   hello only if the same extension type appeared in the corresponding
   client hello. Thus clients MUST abort the handshake if they receive
   an extension type in the extended server hello that they did not
   request in the associated (extended) client hello.

   Also note that when multiple extensions are present in the extended
   client hello or the extended server hello, the extensions must appear
   in the order identified in "ExtensionType". Thus clients and servers
   MUST abort the handshake if they receive an extended hello message in
   which the extensions are not in the correct order.

   Finally note that all the extensions defined in this document are
   relevant only when a session is initiated. Extensions appearing in
   client and server hellos sent during session resumption MUST be
   ignored, and the extension functionality negotiated during session
   initiation applied to the resumed session.

 2.4. Extensions to the handshake protocol

   This document suggests the use of two new handshake messages,
   "CertificateURL" and "CertificateAndOCSPResponse". These messages are
   described in Section 3.3 and Section 3.6, respectively. The new
   handshake message structure therefore becomes:

       enum {
           hello_request(0), client_hello(1), server_hello(2),
           certificate(11), server_key_exchange (12),
           certificate_request(13), server_hello_done(14),



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           certificate_verify(15), client_key_exchange(16),
           finished(20), certificate_url(21), ocsp_response(22), (255)
       } HandshakeType;

       struct {
           HandshakeType msg_type;    /* handshake type */
           uint24 length;             /* bytes in message */
           select (HandshakeType) {
               case hello_request:       HelloRequest;
               case client_hello:        ClientHello;
               case server_hello:        ServerHello;
               case certificate:         Certificate;
               case server_key_exchange: ServerKeyExchange;
               case certificate_request: CertificateRequest;
               case server_hello_done:   ServerHelloDone;
               case certificate_verify:  CertificateVerify;
               case client_key_exchange: ClientKeyExchange;
               case finished:            Finished;
               case certificate_url:     CertificateURL;
               case ocsp_response:       CertificateAndOCSPResponse;
           } body;
       } Handshake;

3. Specific Extensions

   This section describes the specific TLS extensions specified in this
   document.

   Note that any messages associated with these extensions that are sent
   during the TLS handshake MUST be included in the hash calculations
   involved in "Finished" messages.

   Section 3.1 describes the extension of TLS to allow clients to
   indicate which server they are contacting. Section 3.2 describes the
   extension to provide maximum record size negotiation. Section 3.3
   describes the extension to allow client certificate URLs. Section 3.4
   describes the extension to allow clients to indicate which CA root
   keys they possess.  Section 3.5 describes the extension to allow the
   use of truncated HMAC.  Section 3.6 describes the extension to
   support integration of OCSP into TLS handshakes.

 3.1. DNS Name Indication

   TLS does not provide a mechanism for clients to tell servers the DNS
   name of the server they are contacting. It may be desirable for
   clients to provide this information to facilitate secure connections
   to servers which host multiple 'virtual' servers at a single
   underlying network address.



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   In order to provide the server DNS name, clients MAY include an
   extension of type "dns_name" in the (extended) client hello. The
   "extension_data" field of this extension shall contain:

       opaque DNSName<1..2^16-1>;

   "DNSName" contains the fully qualified domain name of the server, as
   understood by the client. The domain name is represented as a byte
   string using UTF-8 encoding [UTF8], without a trailing dot.  (Note
   that the use of UTF-8 here for encoding internationalized domain
   names is independent of the choice of encoding for these names in the
   DNS protocol. The latter has yet to be decided by the IETF
   International Domain Name Working Group.)

   Literal IPv4 and IPv6 addresses are not permitted.

   It is RECOMMENDED that clients include an extension of type "DNSName"
   in the client hello whenever they locate a server by its domain name.

   Servers that receive a client hello containing the "dns_name"
   extension, MAY use the information contained in the extension to
   guide their selection of an appropriate certificate to return to the
   client.  In this event, the server shall include an extension of type
   "dns_name" in the (extended) server hello. The "extension_data" field
   of this extension shall be empty.

   If the server understood the client hello extension but does not
   recognize the DNS name as belonging to a domain it is responsible
   for, it should send an unrecognised_domain alert (which may or may
   not be fatal).

 3.2. Maximum Record Size Negotiation

   TLS specifies a fixed maximum record size of 2^14 bytes. It may be
   desirable for constrained clients to negotiate a smaller maximum
   record size due to memory limitations or bandwidth limitations.

   In order to negotiate smaller maximum record sizes, clients MAY
   include an extension of type "max_record_size" in the (extended)
   client hello.  The "extension_data" field of this extension shall
   contain:

       enum{
           2^9(1), 2^10(2), 2^11(3), 2^12(4), (255)
       } MaxRecordSize;

   whose value is the desired maximum record size. The allowed values
   for this field are: 2^9, 2^10, 2^11, and 2^12.



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   Servers that receive an extended client hello containing a
   "max_record_size" extension, MAY accept the requested maximum record
   size by including an extension of type "max_record_size" in the
   (extended) server hello. The "extension_data" field of this extension
   shall contain "MaxRecordSize" whose value is the same as the
   requested maximum record size.

   Servers receiving maximum record size negotiation requests for values
   other than the allowed values MUST abort the handshake with an
   "illegal_parameter" alert. Similarly, clients receiving maximum
   record size negotiation responses that differ from the size they
   requested MUST also abort the handshake with an "illegal_parameter"
   alert.

   Once a maximum record size other than 2^14 has been successfully
   negotiated, the client and server MUST immediately begin fragmenting
   messages (including handshake messages), to ensure that no message
   larger than the negotiated size is sent. Note that TLS already
   requires clients and servers to support fragmentation of handshake
   messages.

   The negotiated size applies for the duration of the session including
   session resumptions.

   The negotiated size limits the input that the record layer may
   process without fragmentation. Note that the output of the record
   layer may be larger. For example, if the negotiated size is 2^9=512,
   then for currently defined cipher suites (those defined in [TLS],
   [KERB], and planned AES ciphersuites), the record layer output can be
   at most 793 bytes: 5 bytes of headers, 512 bytes of application data,
   256 bytes of padding, and 20 bytes of MAC. This means that in this
   event a TLS record layer peer receiving a TLS record layer message
   larger than 793 bytes may discard the message and output an error
   without decrypting the message. The exact error message sent will
   depend on the size of the received message - either "record_overflow"
   if the message is longer than 2^14+2048 bytes, or "decryption_failed"
   otherwise.

 3.3. Client Certificate URLs

   TLS specifies that when client authentication is performed, client
   certificates are sent by clients to servers during the TLS handshake.
   It may be desirable for constrained clients to send certificate URLs
   in place of certificates so that they do not need to store their
   certificates and can therefore save memory.

   In order to negotiate to send certificate URLs to a server, clients
   MAY include an extension of type "client_certificate_url" in the



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   (extended) client hello. The "extension_data" field of this extension
   shall be empty.

   (Note that it is necessary to negotiate use of client certificate
   URLs in order to avoid "breaking" existing TLS 1.0 servers.)

   Servers that receive an extended client hello containing a
   "client_certificate_url" extension, MAY indicate that they are
   willing to accept certificate URLs by including an extension of type
   "client_certificate_url" in the (extended) server hello. The
   "extension_data" field of this extension shall be empty.

   After negotiation of the use of client certificate URLs has been
   successfully completed (by exchanging hellos including
   "client_certificate_url" extensions), clients MAY send a
   "CertificateURL" message in place of a "Certificate" message:

       struct {
           URLAndHash url_and_hash_list<1..2^16-1>;
       } CertificateURL;

       struct {
           opaque URL<1..2^16-1>;
           CertHash certificate_hash;
       } URLAndHash;

       opaque CertHash[20];

   Here "url_and_hash_list" contains a sequence of URLs and SHA-1
   hashes, each URL referring to a single, DER-encoded X.509v3
   certificate, and the SHA-1 hash of that certificate. The URLs should
   occur in the list in the same order that the corresponding
   certificates appear in the certificate chain.

   Servers receiving "CertificateURL" shall attempt to retrieve the
   client's certificate chain from the URLs, and then process the
   certificate chain as usual. HTTP SHOULD be used to retrieve the
   certificate chain from the URLs, and MUST be supported by servers
   supporting this extension.

   Servers MUST check that the SHA-1 hash of any certificates retrieved
   from a CertificateURL matches the given hash, and then process the
   certificate chain as usual.

   If any retrieved certificate does not have the correct SHA-1 hash,
   the server MUST abort the handshake with a bad_certificate alert.

   Note that clients may choose to send either "Certificate" or



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   "CertificateURL" after successfully negotiating the option to send
   certificate URLs. The option to send a certificate is included to
   provide flexibility to clients possessing multiple certificates.

   If a server encounters an unreasonable delay in obtaining
   certificates in a given CertificateURL, it SHOULD time out and signal
   a "certificate_unobtainable" error alert.

 3.4. Trusted CA Indication

   Constrained clients which, due to memory limitations, possess only a
   small number of CA root keys, may wish to indicate to servers which
   root keys they possess, in order to avoid repeated handshake
   failures.

   In order to indicate which CA root keys they possess, clients MAY
   include an extension of type "trusted_ca_keys" in the (extended)
   client hello. The "extension_data" field of this extension shall
   contain "TrustedAuthorities" where:

       struct {
           TrustedAuthority trusted_authorities_list<0..2^16-1>;
       } TrustedAuthorities;

       struct {
           IdentifierType identifier_type;
           select (identifier_type) {
               case null: struct {};
               case key_hash_sha: KeyHash;
               case x509_name: DistinguishedName;
               case cert_hash: CertHash;
           } Identifier;
       } TrustedAuthority;

       enum { null(0), key_hash_sha(1), x509_name(2), cert_hash(3),
           (255)}
           IdentifierType;

       opaque DistinguishedName<1..2^16-1>;

       opaque KeyHash[20];

   Here "TrustedAuthorities" provides a list of CA root key identifiers
   that the client possesses. Each CA root key is identified via either:

   - "null" - no CA root key identity supplied.

   - "key_hash_sha" - contains the SHA-1 hash of the CA root key. For



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      DSA and ECDSA keys, this is the hash of the "subjectPublicKey"
      value. For RSA keys, this is the hash of the byte string
      representation of the modulus (without any initial 0-valued
      bytes). (This copies the key hash formats deployed in other
      environments.)

   - "cert_hash" - contains the SHA-1 hash of a certificate containing
      the CA root key.

   - "x509_name" - contains the X.509 distinguished name of the CA.

   Note that clients may include none, some, or all of the CA root keys
   they possess in this extension.

   Note also that it is possible that a key hash or a distinguished name
   alone may not uniquely identify a certificate issuer - for example if
   a particular CA has multiple key pairs - however here we assume this
   is the case following the use of distinguish names to identify
   certificate issuers in TLS.

   The option to include no CA root keys is included to allow the client
   to indicate possession of some pre-defined set of CA root keys.

   Servers that receive a client hello containing the "trusted_ca_keys"
   extension, MAY use the information contained in the extension to
   guide their selection of an appropriate certificate chain to return
   to the client.

 3.5. Truncated HMAC

   Currently defined TLS ciphersuites use the MAC construction HMAC with
   either MD5 or SHA-1 [HMAC] to authenticate record layer
   communications. In TLS the entire output of the hash function is used
   as the MAC tag. However it may be desirable in constrained
   environments to save bandwidth by truncating the output of the hash
   function to 80 bits when forming MAC tags.

   In order to negotiate the use of 80-bit truncated HMAC, clients MAY
   include an extension of type "truncated_hmac" in the extended client
   hello. The "extension_data" field of this extension shall be empty.

   Servers that receive an extended hello containing a "truncated_hmac"
   extension, MAY agree to use a truncated HMAC by including an
   extension of type "truncated_hmac" in the extended server hello.

   Note that if new ciphersuites are added that do not use HMAC, and the
   session negotiates one of these ciphersuites, this extension will
   have no effect. It is strongly recommended that any new cipher suites



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   using other MACs consider the MAC size as an integral part of the
   cipher suite definition, taking into account both security and
   bandwidth considerations.

   If HMAC truncation has been successfully negotiated during a TLS
   handshake, and the negotiated ciphersuite uses HMAC, both the client
   and the server pass this fact to the TLS record layer along with the
   other negotiated security parameters. Subsequently during the
   session, clients and servers MUST use truncated HMACs, calculated as
   specified in [HMAC]. Note that this extension does not affect the
   calculation of the PRF as part of handshaking or key derivation.

   The negotiated HMAC truncation size applies for the duration of the
   session including session resumptions.

 3.6. OCSP Status Request

   Constrained clients may wish to use OCSP [OCSP] to check the validity
   of server certificates, in order to avoid transmission of CRLs and
   therefore save bandwidth on constrained networks.

   In order to indicate their desire to use OCSP, clients MAY include an
   extension of type "status_request" in the (extended) client hello.
   The "extension_data" field of this extension shall contain
   "StatusRequest" where:

       struct {
           ResponderID responder_id_list<0..2^16-1>;
           Extensions  request_extensions;
       } StatusRequest;

       opaque ResponderID<1..2^16-1>;
       opaque Extensions<0..2^16-1>;

   Here "ResponderIDs" provides a list of OCSP responders that the
   client trusts. A zero-length "responder_id_list" sequence has the
   special meaning that the responders are implicitly known to the
   server - e.g. by prior arrangement. "Extensions" is a DER encoding of
   the OCSP request extensions.

   Both "ResponderID" and "Extensions" are DER-encoded ASN.1 types as
   defined in [OCSP].

   Servers that receive a client hello containing the "status_request"
   extension, MAY return an OCSP response to the client along with their
   certificate. If so, they SHOULD use the information contained in the
   extension when selecting an OCSP responder, and SHOULD include
   request_extensions in the OCSP request.



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   Servers return an OCSP response along with their certificate by
   sending "CertificateAndOCSPResponse" in place of the "Certificate"
   message. If a server returns an OCSP response, then the server MUST
   have included an extension of type "status_request" with empty
   "extension_data" in the extended server hello.

       struct {
           ASN.1Cert certificate_list<0..2^24-1>;
           OCSPResponse ocsp_response;
       } CertificateAndOCSPResponse;

       opaque ASN.1Cert<1..2^24-1>;

       opaque OCSPResponse<1..2^24-1>;

   Here "ocsp_response" contains a complete, DER-encoded OCSP response
   (using the ASN.1 type OCSPResponse defined in [OCSP]). Note that only
   one OCSP response may be sent.

   The "CertificateAndOCSPResponse" message is conveyed using the
   handshake message type "ocsp_response".

   Note that a server MAY also choose not to send the
   "CertificateAndOCSPResponse" message, and instead send the
   "Certificate" message, even if it receives a "status_request"
   extension in the client hello message.

   Note in addition that servers MUST NOT send the
   "CertificateAndOCSPResponse" message unless it received a
   "status_request" extension in the client hello message.

   Clients requesting an OCSP response, and receiving an OCSP response
   in a "CertificateAndOCSPResponse" field:

   - MUST process the certificate as if it was received in a
     "Certificate" message, and;

   - SHOULD check the OCSP response and abort the handshake if the
     response is not satisfactory.

4. Error Alerts

   This section defines new error alerts for use with the TLS extensions
   defined in this document.

   The following new error alerts are defined. To avoid "breaking"
   existing clients and servers, these alerts MUST NOT be sent unless
   the sending party has received an extended hello message from the



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   party they are communicating with.

   - "unsupported_extension" - this alert is sent by clients that
     receive an extended server hello containing an extension that
     they did not put in the corresponding client hello (see Section
     2.3). This message is always fatal.

   - "bad_extension_order" - this alert is sent by clients or servers
     that receive an extended hello with the extensions in the wrong
     order (see Section 2.3). This message is always fatal.

   - "unrecognised_domain" - this alert is sent by servers that
     receive a dns_name extension request, but do not recognize the
     DNS name as belonging to a domain they are responsible for.
     This message MAY be fatal.

   - "certificate_unobtainable" - this alert is sent by servers who are
     unable to retrieve a certificate chain from the URL supplied by
     the client (see Section 3.3). This message is always fatal.

   - "bad_ocsp_response" - this alert is sent by clients that receive
     an invalid OCSP response (see Section 3.6). This message is always
     fatal.

   These error alerts are conveyed using the following syntax:

       enum {
           close_notify(0),
           unexpected_message(10),
           bad_record_mac(20),
           decryption_failed(21),
           record_overflow(22),
           decompression_failure(30),
           handshake_failure(40),
           certificate_unobtainable(41), /* new */
           bad_certificate(42),
           unsupported_certificate(43),
           certificate_revoked(44),
           certificate_expired(45),
           certificate_unknown(46),
           illegal_parameter(47),
           unknown_ca(48),
           access_denied(49),
           decode_error(50),
           decrypt_error(51),
           export_restriction(60),
           protocol_version(70),
           insufficient_security(71),



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           internal_error(80),
           user_canceled(90),
           no_renegotiation(100),
           unsupported_extension(110),   /* new */
           bad_extension_order(111),     /* new */
           unrecognised_domain(112),     /* new */
           bad_ocsp_response(113),       /* new */
           (255)
       } AlertDescription;

5. Procedure for Defining New Extensions

   Traditionally for Internet protocols, the Internet Assigned Numbers
   Authority (IANA) handles the allocation of new values for future
   expansion, and RFCs usually define the procedure to be used by the
   IANA. However, there are subtle (and not so subtle) interactions that
   may occur in this protocol between new features and existing features
   which may result in a significant reduction in overall security.

   Therefore, requests to define new extensions (including assigning
   extension and error alert numbers) should be forwarded to the IETF
   TLS Working Group for discussion.

   The following considerations should be taken into account when
   designing new extensions:

    - All of the extensions defined in this document follow the
      convention that for each extension that a client requests
      and that the server understands, the server replies with an
      extension of the same type.


    - Some cases where a server does not agree to an extension are
      error conditions, and some simply a refusal to support a
      particular feature. In general error alerts should be used for
      the former, and a field in the server extension response for
      the latter.

    - Extensions should as far as possible be designed to prevent
      any attack that forces use (or non-use) of a particular feature
      by manipulation of handshake messages. This principle should
      be followed regardless of whether the feature is believed
      to cause a security problem.

      Often the fact that the extension fields are included in the
      inputs to the Finished message hashes will be sufficient,
      but extreme care is needed when the extension changes the
      meaning of messages sent in the handshake phase.



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      Designers and implementors should be aware of the fact that
      until the handshake has been authenticated, active attackers
      can modify messages and insert, remove, or replace extensions.

    - It would be technically possible to use extensions to change
      major aspects of the design of TLS; for example the design of
      ciphersuite negotiation. This is not recommended; it
      would be more appropriate to define a new version of TLS -
      particularly since the TLS handshake algorithms have specific
      protection against version rollback attacks based on the
      version number, and the possibility of version rollback
      should be a significant consideration in any major design
      change.

6. Security Considerations

   Security considerations for the extension mechanism in general, and
   the design of new extensions, are described in the previous section.
   A security analysis of each of the extensions defined in this
   document is given below.

   In general, implementers should continue to monitor the state of the
   art, and address any weaknesses identified.

   Additional security considerations are described in the TLS 1.0 RFC
   [TLS].

 6.1. Security of dns_name

   If a single server hosts several domains, then clearly it is
   necessary for the owners of each domain to ensure that this satisfies
   their security needs. Apart from this, dns_name does not appear to
   introduce significant security issues.

   The length of the domain name should be checked for buffer overflow
   (note that RFC 1035 restricts domain names to 255 bytes).

 6.2. Security of max_record_size

   The maximum record size takes effect immediately, including for
   handshake messages. However, that does not introduce any security
   complications that are not already present in TLS, since [TLS]
   requires implementations to be able to handle fragmented handshake
   messages.

   Note that as described in section 3.2, once a non-null ciphersuite
   has been activated, the effective maximum record size depends on the
   ciphersuite, as well as on the negotiated max_record_size.  This must



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   be taken into account when sizing buffers, and checking for buffer
   overflow.

 6.3. Security of client_certificate_url

   When client authentication is used *without* the
   client_certificate_url extension, the client certificate chain is
   covered by the Finished message hashes. The purpose of checking a
   SHA-1 hash of the certificate chain contents, is to ensure that the
   same property holds when this extension is used - i.e. that all of
   the information in the certificate chain retrieved by the server is
   as the client intended.

   (The attack that this protects against is admittedly fairly
   unrealistic: the attacker would have to get a valid certificate on
   the client's key which is different from the client's certificate.
   Nevertheless, including this hash guarantees that there can be no
   unexpected problems due to the certificate chain not being directly
   covered by the Finished hashes.)

   A similar approach should also be taken if possible for any future
   extensions that involve fetching information from external sources.

   Note that although TLS uses both MD5 and SHA-1 hashes in several
   other places, this was not believed to be necessary here. The
   property required of SHA-1 is second pre-image resistance.

   Support for client_certificate_url involves the server acting as a
   client in another protocol (usually HTTP, but other URL schemes are
   not prohibited). It is therefore subject to many of the same security
   considerations that apply to a publically accessible HTTP proxy
   server. This includes the possibility that an attacker might use the
   server to indirectly attack another host that is vulnerable to some
   security flaw. It also includes potentially increased exposure to
   denial of service attacks: an attacker can make many connections,
   each of which results in the server making an HTTP request.

   It is recommended that the client_certificate_url extension should
   have to be specifically enabled by a server administrator, rather
   than being enabled by default.

   As discussed in [URI], URLs that specify ports other than the default
   may cause problems, as may very long URLs (which are more likely to
   be useful in exploiting buffer overflow bugs).

 6.4. Security of trusted_ca_keys

   It is possible that which CA root keys a client possesses could be



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   regarded as confidential information. As a result, the CA root key
   indication extension should be used with care.

   The use of the SHA-1 certificate hash alternative ensures that each
   certificate is specified unambiguously. As for the previous
   extension, it was not believed necessary to use both MD5 and SHA-1
   hashes.

 6.5. Security of truncated_hmac

   It is possible that truncated MACs are weaker than "un-truncated"
   MACs. However, no significant weaknesses are currently known or
   expected to exist for HMAC with MD5 or SHA-1, truncated to 80 bits.
   Note that the output length of a MAC need not be as long as the
   length of a symmetric cipher key, since forging of MAC values cannot
   be done off-line: in TLS, a single failed MAC guess will cause the
   immediate termination of the TLS session.

   Since the MAC algorithm only takes effect after the handshake
   messages have been authenticated by the hashes in the Finished
   messages, it is not possible for an active attacker to force
   negotiation of the truncated HMAC extension where it would not
   otherwise be used (to the extent that the handshake authentication is
   secure). Therefore, in the event that any security problem were found
   with truncated HMAC in future, if either the client or the server for
   a given session have been updated to take into account the problem,
   they would be able to veto use of this extension.

 6.6. Security of status_request

   If a client requests an OCSP response, it must take into account that
   an attacker's server using a compromised key could (and probably
   would) pretend not to support the extension. A client that requires
   OCSP validation of certificates SHOULD be prepared to contact the
   OCSP server directly in this case.

   Use of the OCSP nonce request extension (id-pkix-ocsp-nonce) may
   improve security against attacks that attempt to replay OCSP
   responses; see section 4.4.1 of [OCSP] for further details.

7. Internationalisation Considerations

   None of the extensions defined here directly use strings subject to
   localisation. Domain names are encoded using UTF-8. If future
   extensions use text strings, then internationalisation should be
   considered in their design.





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8. Intellectual Property Rights

   The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
   copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
   rights which may cover technology that may be required to practice
   this document. Please address the information to the IETF Executive
   Director.

9. Acknowledgments

   The authors wish to thank the TLS Working Group and the WAP Security
   Group. This document is based on discussion within these groups.

10. References

   [HMAC] Krawczyk, H., Bellare, M., and Canetti, R. - HMAC: Keyed-
   hashing for message authentication. IETF RFC 2104, February 1997.

   [HTTP] J. Gettys, J. Mogul, H. Frystyk, L. Masinter, P. Leach, T.
   Berners-Lee, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1," IETF RFC
   2616, June 1999.

   [KERB] A. Medvinsky, M. Hur, "Addition of Kerberos Cipher Suites to
   Transport Layer Security (TLS)," IETF RFC 2712, October 1999.

   [KEYWORDS] S. Bradner, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
   Requirement Levels," IETF RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [MAILING LIST] Mikkelsen, J. Eberhard, R., and J. Kistler, "General
   ClientHello extension mechanism and virtual hosting," Ietf-tls
   mailing list posting, August 14, 2000.

   [OCSP] Myers, M., Ankney, R., Malpani, A., Galperin, S., and C.
   Adams, "Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure: Online Certificate
   Status Protocol - OCSP," IETF RFC 2560, June 1999.

   [TLS] Dierks, T., and C. Allen, "The TLS Protocol - Version 1.0,"
   IETF RFC 2246, January 1999.

   [URI] T. Berners-Lee, R. Fielding, L. Masinter, "Uniform Resource
   Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax," IETF RFC 2396, August 1998.

   [UTF8] F. Yergeau, "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646,"
   IETF RFC 2279, January 1998.







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11. Authors' Addresses

   Simon Blake-Wilson
   Certicom Corp.
   sblake-wilson@certicom.com

   Magnus Nystrom
   RSA Security
   magnus@rsasecurity.com

   David Hopwood
   Independent Consultant
   david.hopwood@zetnet.co.uk

   Jan Mikkelsen
   Transactionware
   jam@transactionware.com

   Tim Wright
   Vodafone
   timothy.wright@vf.vodafone.co.uk






























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