[Docs] [txt|pdf] [Tracker] [WG] [Email] [Diff1] [Diff2] [Nits] [IPR]

Versions: (draft-dunbar-trill-scheme-for-directory-assist) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 RFC 8171

INTERNET-DRAFT                                           Donald Eastlake
Intended status: Proposed Standard                          Linda Dunbar
                                                                  Huawei
                                                           Radia Perlman
                                                                     EMC
                                                               Yizhou Li
                                                                  Huawei
Expires: September 1, 2017                                 March 2, 2017


                TRILL: Edge Directory Assist Mechanisms
         <draft-ietf-trill-directory-assist-mechanisms-12.txt>



Abstract
   This document describes mechanisms for providing directory service to
   TRILL (Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links) edge switches.
   The directory information provided can be used in reducing multi-
   destination traffic, particularly ARP/ND and unknown unicast
   flooding. It can also be used to detect traffic with forged source
   addresses.



Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Distribution of this document is unlimited. Comments should be sent
   to the TRILL working group mailing list.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
   Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/1id-abstracts.html. The list of Internet-Draft
   Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.








D. Eastlake, et al                                              [Page 1]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


Table of Contents


      1. Introduction............................................4
      1.1 Uses of Directory Information..........................5
      1.2 Terminology............................................5

      2. Push Model Directory Assistance Mechanisms..............7
      2.1 Requesting Push Service................................7
      2.2 Push Directory Servers.................................7
      2.3 Push Directory Server State Machine....................8
      2.3.1 Push Directory States................................9
      2.3.2 Push Directory Events and Conditions................11
      2.3.3 State Transition Diagram and Table..................12
      2.4 End Stations and Push Directories.....................13
      2.5 Additional Push Details...............................14
      2.6 Primary to Secondary Server Push Service..............15
      2.7 Push Directory Configuration..........................16

      3. Pull Model Directory Assistance Mechanisms.............17
      3.1 Pull Directory Message Common Format..................18
      3.1.1 Version Negotiation.................................19
      3.2 Pull Directory Query and Response Messages............20
      3.2.1 Pull Directory Query Message Format.................20
      3.2.2 Pull Directory Responses............................23
      3.2.2.1 Pull Directory Response Message Format............23
      3.2.2.2 Pull Directory Forwarding.........................26
      3.3 Cache Consistency.....................................27
      3.3.1 Update Message Format...............................30
      3.3.2 Acknowledge Message Format..........................31
      3.4 Summary of Records Formats in Messages................32
      3.5 End Stations and Pull Directories.....................32
      3.5.1 Pull Directory Hosted on an End Station.............33
      3.5.2 Use of Pull Directory by End Stations...............34
      3.5.3 Native Pull Directory Messages......................35
      3.6 Pull Directory Message Errors.........................35
      3.6.1 Error Codes.........................................36
      3.6.2 Sub-Errors Under Error Codes 1 and 3................37
      3.6.3 Sub-Errors Under Error Codes 128 and 131............37
      3.7 Additional Pull Details...............................38
      3.8 The No Data Flag......................................38
      3.9 Pull Directory Service Configuration..................39

      4. Directory Use Strategies and Push-Pull Hybrids.........41

      5. TRILL ES-IS............................................43
      5.1 PDUs and System IDs...................................43
      5.2 Adjacency, DRB Election, Hellos, TLVs, Etc............44
      5.3 Link State............................................44



D. Eastlake, et al                                              [Page 2]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


Table of Contents Continued


      6. Security Considerations................................45
      6.1 Directory Information Security........................45
      6.2 Directory Confidentiality and Privacy.................45
      6.3 Directory Message Security Considerations.............45

      7. IANA Considerations....................................47
      7.1 ESADI-Parameter Data Extensions.......................47
      7.2 RBridge Channel Protocol Numbers......................48
      7.3 The Pull Directory (PUL) and No Data (NOD) Bits.......48
      7.4 TRILL Pull Directory QTYPEs...........................49
      7.5 Pull Directory Error Code Registries..................49
      7.6 TRILL-ES-IS MAC Address...............................49

      Normative References......................................50
      Informational References..................................51

      Acknowledgments...........................................53
      Authors' Addresses........................................54

      Copyright, Disclaimer, and Additional IPR Provisions......55





























D. Eastlake, et al                                              [Page 3]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


1. Introduction

   [RFC7067] gives a problem statement and high level design for using
   directory servers to assist TRILL [RFC6325] [RFC7780] edge nodes in
   reducing multi-destination ARP/ND [ARPND], reducing unknown unicast
   flooding traffic, and improving security against address spoofing
   within a TRILL campus.  Because multi-destination traffic becomes an
   increasing burden as a network scales up in number of nodes, reducing
   ARP/ND and unknown unicast flooding improves TRILL network
   scalability. This document describes specific mechanisms for TRILL
   directory servers.

   The information held by the Directory(s) is address mapping and
   reachability information.  Most commonly, what MAC (Media Access
   Control) address [RFC7042] corresponds to an IP address within a Data
   Label (VLAN or FGL (Fine Grained Label [RFC7172])) and the egress
   TRILL switch (RBridge), and optionally what specific port on that
   TRILL switch, from which that MAC address is reachable. But it could
   be what IP address corresponds to a MAC address or possibly other
   address mapping or reachability information.

   The mechanism used to initially populate directory data in primary
   servers is beyond the scope of this document. A primary server can
   use the Push Directory service to provide directory data to secondary
   servers as described in Section 2.6.  In the data center environment,
   it is common for orchestration software to know and control where all
   the IP addresses, MAC addresses, and VLANs/tenants are in a data
   center. Thus such orchestration software can be appropriate for
   providing the directory function or for supplying the Directory(s)
   with directory information.

   Efficient routing of unicast traffic in a TRILL campus assumes that
   the mapping of destination MAC addresses to edge RBridges is stable
   enough that the default data plane learning of TRILL and/or the use
   of directories reduces to an acceptable level the need to flood
   packets where the location of the destination is unknown. Although
   not prohibited, "Ephemeral" MAC addresses are unlikely to be used in
   such an environment. Directories need not be complete and in the case
   that any ephemeral MAC addresses were in use, they would probably not
   be included in directory information.

   Directory services can be offered in a Push Mode, Pull Mode, or both
   [RFC7067] at the option of the server. Push Mode, in which a
   directory server pushes information to TRILL switches indicating
   interest, is specified in Section 2. Pull Mode, in which a TRILL
   switch queries a server for the information it wants, is specified in
   Section 3. More detail on modes of operation, including hybrid
   Push/Pull, are provided in Section 4.




D. Eastlake, et al                                              [Page 4]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


1.1 Uses of Directory Information

   A TRILL switch can consult Directory information whenever it wants,
   by (1) searching through information that has been retained after
   being pushed to it or pulled by it or (2) by requesting information
   from a Pull Directory. However, the following are expected to be the
   most common circumstances leading to directory information use. All
   of these are cases of ingressing (or originating) a native frame.

   1. ARP requests and replies [RFC826] are normally broadcast. But a
      directory assisted edge TRILL switch could intercept ARP messages
      and reply if the TRILL switch has the relevant information
      [ARPND].

   2. IPv6 ND (Neighbor Discovery [RFC4861]) requests and replies are
      normally multicast.  Except in the case of Secure ND [RFC3971],
      where possession of the right keying material might be required, a
      directory assisted edge TRILL switch could intercept ND messages
      and reply if the TRILL switch has the relevant information.
      [ARPND]

   3. Unknown destination MAC addresses normally cause a native frame to
      be flooded. An edge TRILL switch ingressing a native frame
      necessarily has to determine if it knows the egress RBridge from
      which the destination MAC address of the frame (in the frame's
      VLAN or FGL) is reachable. It might have learned that information
      from the directory or could query the directory if it does not
      know it. Furthermore, if the edge TRILL switch has complete
      directory information, it can detect a forged source MAC or IP
      address in any native frame and discard the frame if it finds such
      a forged address.

   4. RARP [RFC903] (Reverse ARP) is similar to ARP as above.



1.2 Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

   The terminology and acronyms of [RFC6325] are used herein along with
   the following:

   AFN: Address Family Number, (http://www.iana.org/assignments/address-
         family-numbers/)

   CSNP Time: Complete Sequence Number PDU Time. See ESDADI [RFC7357]
         and Section 7.1 below.


D. Eastlake, et al                                              [Page 5]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


   Data Label: VLAN or FGL.

   ESADI: End Station Address Distribution Information [RFC7357].

   FGL:  Fine Grained Label [RFC7172].

   FR:   Flood Record flag bit. See Section 3.2.1.

   Host: A physical server or a virtual machine. A host must have a MAC
         address and usually has at least one IP address.

   Interested Labels sub-TLV: Short for "Interested Labels and Spanning
         Tree Roots sub-TLV" [RFC7176].

   Interested VLANs sub-TLV: Short for "Interested VLANs and Spanning
         Tree Roots sub-TLV" [RFC7176].

   IP:   Internet Protocol. In this document, IP includes both IPv4 and
         IPv6.

   MAC: Media Access Control address [RFC7042]

   MacDA: Destination MAC address.

   MacSA: Source MAC address.

   OV:    Overflow flag bit. See Section 3.2.2.1.

   PDSS: Push Directory Server Status. See Sections 2 and 7.1.

   PUL:  Pull Directory flag bit. See Sections 3 and 7.3.

   primary server: A Directory server that obtains the information it is
         serving up by a reliable mechanism outside the scope of this
         document designed to assure the freshness of that information.
         (See secondary server.)

   RBridge: An alternative name for a TRILL switch.

   secondary server: A Directory server that obtains the information it
         is serving up from one or more primary servers.

   TLV: Type, Length, Value

   TRILL: Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links or Tunneled
         Routing in the Link Layer.

   TRILL switch: A device that implements the TRILL protocol.




D. Eastlake, et al                                              [Page 6]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


2. Push Model Directory Assistance Mechanisms

   In the Push Model [RFC7067], one or more Push Directory servers
   reside at TRILL switches and push down the address mapping
   information for the various addresses associated with end station
   interfaces and the TRILL switches from which those interfaces are
   reachable [RFC7961].  This service is scoped by Data Label (VLAN or
   FGL [RFC7172]).  A Push Directory advertises when, for a Data Label,
   it both is configured to be a directory having complete information
   and has actually pushed all the information it has. It might be
   pushing only a subset of the mapping and/or reachability information
   for a Data Label. The Push Model uses the ESADI [RFC7357] (End
   Station Address Distribution Information) protocol as its
   distribution mechanism.

   With the Push Model, if complete address mapping information for a
   Data Label is being pushed, a TRILL switch (RBridge) that has that
   complete information and is ingressing a native frame can simply drop
   the frame if the destination unicast MAC address can't be found in
   the mapping information available, instead of flooding the frame
   (ingressing it as an unknown MAC destination TRILL Data frame). But
   this will result in lost traffic if ingress TRILL switch's directory
   information is incomplete.



2.1 Requesting Push Service

   In the Push Model, it is necessary to have a way for a TRILL switch
   to subscribe to information from the directory server(s).  TRILL
   switches simply use the ESADI [RFC7357] protocol mechanism to
   announce, in their core IS-IS LSPs, the Data Labels for which they
   are participating in ESADI by using the Interested VLANs and/or
   Interested Labels sub-TLVs [RFC7176]. This will cause the Directory
   information to be pushed to them for all such Data Labels that are
   being served by the one or more Push Directory servers.



2.2 Push Directory Servers

   Push Directory servers advertise, through ESADI, their availability
   to push the mapping information for a particular Data Label by
   setting the PDSS (Push Directory Server Status) in their ESADI
   Parameter APPsub-TLV for that ESADI instance (see [RFC7357] and
   Section 7.1) to a non-zero value. This PDSS field setting is visible
   to other ESADI participants, including other Push Directory servers,
   for that Data Label. Each Push Directory server MUST participate in
   ESADI for the Data Labels for which it will push mappings and set the
   PDSS field in its ESADI-Parameters APPsub-TLV for that Data Label.


D. Eastlake, et al                                              [Page 7]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


   For increased robustness, increased bandwidth capability, and
   improved locality, it is useful to have multiple Push Directory
   Servers for each Data Label. Each Push Directory server is configured
   with a number N in the range 1 to 8, which defaults to 2, for each
   Data Label for which it can push directory information (see
   PushDirServers, Section 2.7).  If the Push Directory servers for a
   Data Label are configured consistently with the same N and at least N
   servers are available, then N copies of that directory will be
   pushed.

   Each Push Directory server also has a configurable 8-bit priority
   (PushDirPriority) to be Active, which defaults to 0x3F (see Section
   2.7). This priority is treated as an unsigned integer where larger
   magnitude means higher priority. This priority appears in its ESADI
   Parameter APPsub-TLV (see Section 7.1). In case of a tie in this
   configurable priority, the System ID of the TRILL switch acting as
   the server is used as an unsigned 6-byte integer where larger
   magnitude indicates higher priority.

   For each Data Label it can serve, each Push Directory server checks
   to see if there appear to be enough higher priority servers to push
   the desired number of copies. It does this by ordering, by priority,
   the Push Directory servers whose advertisements are present in the
   ESADI link state database for that Data Label and that are data
   reachable [RFC7780] as indicated by its IS-IS link state database.
   The Push Directory server then determines its own position in that
   order. If a Push Directory server's configuration indicates that N
   copies of the mappings for a Data Label should be pushed and the
   server finds that it is number K in the priority ordering (where
   number 1 in the ordered list is highest priority and the last is
   lowest priority), then if K is less than or equal to N the Push
   Directory server is Active. If K is greater than N it is Stand-By.
   Active and Stand-By behavior are specified below in Section 2.3.

   For a Push Directory to reside on an end station, one or more TRILL
   switches locally connected to that end station must proxy for the
   Push Directory server and advertise themselves in ESADI as Push
   Directory servers. It appears to the rest of the TRILL campus that
   these TRILL switches (that are proxying for the end station) are the
   Push Directory server(s). The protocol between such a Push Directory
   end station and the one or more proxying TRILL switches acting as
   Push Directory servers is beyond the scope of this document.



2.3 Push Directory Server State Machine

   The subsections below describe the states, events, and corresponding
   actions for Push Directory servers.



D. Eastlake, et al                                              [Page 8]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


   The meaning of the value of the PDSS field in a Push Directory's
   ESADI Parameter APPsub-TLV is summarized in the table below.

      PDSS    Meaning
      ----   ----------
        0     Not a Push Directory Server
        1     Push Directory Server in Stand-By Mode
        2     Push Directory Server in Active Mode but not complete
        3     Push Directory Server in Active Mode that has pushed
                 complete data




2.3.1 Push Directory States

   A Push Directory Server is in one of seven states, as listed below,
   for each Data Label it can serve. The name of each state is followed
   by a symbol that starts and ends with an angle bracket and represents
   the state. The value that the Push Directory Server advertises in
   PDSS is determined by the state.  In addition, it has an internal
   State-Transition-Time variable for each Data Label it serves that is
   set at each state transition and which enables it to determine how
   long it has been in its current state for that Data Label.

   Down <S1>:  A completely shut down virtual state defined for
      convenience in specifying state diagrams. A Push Directory Server
      in this state does not advertise any Push Directory data. It may
      be participating in ESDADI [RFC7357] with the PDSS field zero in
      its ESADI-Parameters or might be not participating in ESADI at
      all. All states other than the Down state are considered to be Up
      states and imply a non-zero PDSS field.

   Stand-By <S2>:  No Push Directory data is advertised. Any outstanding
      EASDI-LSP fragments containing directory data are updated to
      remove that data and, if the result is an empty fragment (contains
      nothing except possibly an Authentication TLV), the fragment is
      purged.  The Push Directory participates in ESDADI [RFC7357] and
      advertises its ESADI fragment zero that includes an ESADI-
      Parameters APPsub-TLV with the PDSS field set to 1.

   Active <S3>: The Push Directory participates in ESDADI [RFC7357] and
      advertises its ESADI fragment zero that includes an ESADI-
      Parameters APPsub-TLV with the PDSS field set to 2. It also
      advertises its directory data and any changes through ESADI
      [RFC7357] in its ESADI-LSPs using the Interface Addresses
      [RFC7961] APPsub-TLV and updates that information as it changes.

   Active Completing <S4>:  Same behavior as the Active state except
      that the server responds differently to events. The purpose of


D. Eastlake, et al                                              [Page 9]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


      this state is to be sure there has been enough time for directory
      information to propagate to subscribing edge TRILL switches (see
      the Time Condition, Section 2.3.2) before the Directory Server
      advertises that the information is complete.

   Active Complete <S5>:  The same behavior as Active except that the
      PDSS field in the ESADI-Parameters APPsub-TLV is set to 3 and the
      server responds differently to events.

   Going Stand-By Was Complete <S6>:  The same behavior as Active except
      that the server responds differently to events. The purpose of
      this state is to be sure that the information, that the directory
      will no longer be complete, has enough time to propagate to edge
      TRILL switches (see the Time Condition, Section 2.3.2) before the
      Directory Server stops advertising updates to the information.
      (See note below.)

   Active Uncompleting <S7>:  The same behavior as Active except that it
      responds differently to events. The purpose of this state is to be
      sure that the information, that the directory will no longer be
      complete, has enough time to propagate to edge TRILL switches (see
      the Time Condition, Section 2.3.2) before the Directory Server
      might stop advertising updates to the information. (See note
      below.)

         Note:  It might appear that a Push Directory could transition
         directly from Active Complete to Active, since Active state
         continues to advertise updates, eliminating the need for the
         Active Uncompleting transition state. But consider the case of
         the Push Directory that was complete being configured to be
         incomplete and then the Stand-By Condition (see Section 2.3.2)
         occurring shortly thereafter. If the first of these two events
         caused the server to transition directly to the Active state
         then, when the Stand-By Condition occurred, it would
         immediately transition to Stand-By and stop advertising updates
         even though there might not have been enough time for knowledge
         of its incompleteness to have propagated to all edge TRILL
         switches.

   The following table summarizes PDSS value for each state:

       State                     PDSS
      ----------                ------
      Down <S1>                   0
      Stand-By <S2>               1
      Active <S3>                 2
      Active Completing <S4>      2
      Active Complete <S5>        3
      Going Stand-By <S6>         2
      Active Uncompleting <S7>    2


D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 10]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


2.3.2 Push Directory Events and Conditions

   Three auxiliary conditions referenced later in this section are
   defined as follows for convenience:

   The Activate Condition: In order to have the desired number of Push
      Directory servers pushing data for Data Label X, this Push
      Directory server should be active. This is determined by the
      server finding that (A) it is priority K among the data reachable
      Push Directory servers (where highest priority server is 1) for
      Data Label X, (B) it is configured that there should be N copies
      pushed for Data Label X, and (C) K is less than or equal to N. For
      example, if the Push Directory server is configured so that 2
      copies should be pushed and finds that it is priority 1 or 2 among
      the Push Directory servers that are visible in its ESADI link
      state database and that are data reachable as indicated by its IS-
      IS link state database.

   The Stand-By Condition: In order to have the desired number of Push
      Directory servers pushing data for Data Label X, this Push
      Directory server should be stand-by (not active). This is
      determined by the server finding that (A) it is priority K among
      the data reachable Push Directory servers (where highest priority
      server is 1) for Data Label X, (B) it is configured that there
      should be N copies pushed for Data Label X, and (C) K is greater
      than N. For example, the Push Directory server is configured that
      2 copies should be pushed and finds that it is priority 3 or lower
      priority (higher number) among the available Push directory
      servers.

   The Time Condition: The Push Directory server has been in its current
      state for a configurable amount of time (PushDirTimer) that
      defaults to twice its CSNP (Complete Sequence Number PDU) time
      (see Sections 2.7 and 7.1).)

   The events and conditions listed below cause state transitions in
   Push Directory servers.

   1. Push Directory server comes Up.

   2. The Push Directory server or the TRILL switch on which it resides
      is being shut down. This is a persistent condition unless the shut
      down is canceled. So, for example, a Push Directory server in the
      Going Stand-By Was Complete state does not transition out of that
      state due to this condition but, after the Time Condition is met
      and the directory transitions to Stand-By and performs the actions
      required there (such as purging LSPs) continues to the Down state
      if this condition is still true. Similar comments apply to
      events/conditions 3, 4, and 5.



D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 11]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


   3. The Activate Condition is met and the server's configuration
      indicates it does not have complete data.

   4. The Stand-By Condition is met.

   5. The Activate Condition is met and the server's configuration
      indicates it has complete data.

   6. The server's configuration is changed to indicate it does not have
      complete data.

   7. The Time Condition is met.



2.3.3 State Transition Diagram and Table

   The state transition table is as follows:

   State|Down|Stand-By|Active|  Active  | Active | Going  |   Active
   -----+    |        |      |Completing|Complete|Stand-By|Uncompleting
   Event|<S1>|  <S2>  | <S3> |   <S4>   |  <S5>  |  <S6>  |    <S7>
   -----+----+--------+------+----------+--------+---------+------------
     1  |<S2>|  N/A   | N/A  |   N/A    |  N/A   |  N/A   |    N/A
     2  |<S1>|  <S1>  | <S2> |   <S2>   |  <S6>  |  <S6>  |    <S7>
     3  |<S1>|  <S3>  | <S3> |   <S3>   |  <S7>  |  <S3>  |    <S7>
     4  |<S1>|  <S2>  | <S2> |   <S2>   |  <S6>  |  <S6>  |    <S6>
     5  |<S1>|  <S4>  | <S4> |   <S4>   |  <S5>  |  <S5>  |    <S5>
     6  |<S1>|  <S2>  | <S3> |   <S3>   |  <S7>  |  <S6>  |    <S7>
     7  |<S1>|  <S2>  | <S3> |   <S5>   |  <S5>  |  <S2>  |    <S3>

   The above state table is equivalent to the following transition
   diagram:



















D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 12]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


   +-----------+
   | Down <S1> |<---------+
   +-----------+          |
     |1  ^   | 3,4,5,6,7  |
     |   |   +------------+
     V   |2
   +---------------+
   | Stand-By <S2> |<--------------------------------------+
   +---------------+    ^   ^            ^                 |
     |5   |3  |1,4,6,7  |   |            |                 |
     |    |   +---------+   |            |                 |
     |    V                 |2,4         |                 |
     |  +---------------------+          |                 |
     |  | Active <S3>         |<---------|-------------+   |
     |  +---------------------+     ^    |             |   |
     |   |5  ^    |1,3,6,7  ^       |    |             |   |
     |   |   |    |         |       |    |             |   |
     |   |   |    +---------+       |    |             |   |
     |   |   |                      |    |             |   |
     V   V   |3,6                   |    |             |   |
   +------------------------+       |    |             |   |
   | Active Completing <S4> |------------+             |   |
   +------------------------+ 2,4   |                  |   |
     |7  |1,5    ^                  |                  |   |
     |   |       |                  |                  |   |
     |   +-------+                  |                  |   |
     |                              |                  |   |
     |        +------------------------------------+   |   |
     |        |                     |              |   |   |
     V        V                     |7             |5  |3  |7
   +-------------+ 3,6    +----------------+ 4  +----------------+
   |    Active   |------->|     Active     |--->| Going Stand-By |
   |   Complete  |        |  Uncompleting  |    |  Was Complete  |
   |     <S5>    |<-------|      <S7>      |    |      <S6>      |
   +-------------+      5 +----------------+    +----------------+
    |1,5,7  ^  |2,4         |1,2,3,6     ^        ^   |1,2,4,6 ^
    |       |  |            |            |        |   |        |
    +-------+  |            +------------+        |   +--------+
               |                                  |
               +----------------------------------+

                    Figure 1. Push Server State Diagram



2.4 End Stations and Push Directories

   End station hosting or use of Push Directories is outside of the
   scope of this document. Push Directory information distribution is
   accomplished using ESADI [RFC7357], which does not operate to end


D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 13]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


   stations. In the future, ESADI might be extended to operate to end
   stations or some other method, such as BGP, might be specified as a
   way to support end station hosting or use of Push Directories.



2.5 Additional Push Details

   Push Directory mappings can be distinguished from other data
   distributed through ESADI because mappings are distributed only with
   the Interface Addresses APPsub-TLV [RFC7961] and are flagged in that
   APPsub-TLV as being Push Directory data.

   TRILL switches, whether or not they are Push Directory servers, MAY
   continue to advertise any locally learned MAC attachment information
   in ESADI [RFC7357] using the Reachable MAC Addresses TLV [RFC6165].
   However, if a Data Label is being served by complete Push Directory
   servers, advertising such locally learned MAC attachment generally
   SHOULD NOT be done as it would not add anything and would just waste
   bandwidth and ESADI link state space. An exception might be when a
   TRILL switch learns local MAC connectivity and that information
   appears to be missing from the directory mapping.

   Because a Push Directory server needs to advertise interest in one or
   more Data Labels even though it might not want to receive multi-
   destination TRILL Data packets in those Data Labels, the No Data
   (NOD) flag bit is provided as discussed in Section 3.8.

   When a Push Directory server is no longer data reachable [RFC7780] as
   indicated by the IS-IS link state database, other TRILL switches MUST
   ignore any Push Directory data from that server because it is no
   longer being updated and may be stale.

   The nature of dynamic distributed asynchronous systems is such that
   it is impossible for a TRILL switch receiving Push Directory
   information to be absolutely certain that it has complete
   information.  However, it can obtain a reasonable assurance of
   complete information by requiring two conditions to be met:
      1. The PDSS field is 3 in the ESADI zero fragment from the server
         for the relevant Data Label.
      2. In so far as it can tell, it has had continuous data
         connectivity to the server for a configurable amount of time
         that defaults to twice the server's CSNP time (PushDirTimer,
         see Section 2.7).
   Condition 2 is necessary because a client TRILL switch might be just
   coming up and receive an EASDI LSP meeting the requirement in
   condition 1 above but has not yet received all of the ESADI LSP
   fragments from the Push Directory server.

   Likewise, due to various delays, when an end station connects to or


D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 14]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


   disconnects from the campus there are timing differences between such
   connection or disconnection, the update of directory information at
   the directory, and the update of directory information at any
   particular RBridge in the TRILL campus. Thus, there is commonly a
   small window during which an RBridge using directory information
   might either (1) drop or unnecessarily flood a frame as having an
   unknown unicast destination or (2) encapsulate a frame to an edge
   RBridge where the end station is not longer connected when the frame
   arrives at that edge RBridge.

   There may be conflicts between mapping information from different
   Push Directory servers or conflicts between locally learned
   information and information received from a Push Directory server. In
   case of such conflicts, information with a higher confidence value
   [RFC6325] [RFC7961] is preferred over information with a lower
   confidence. In case of equal confidence, Push Directory information
   is preferred to locally learned information and if information from
   Push Directory servers conflicts, the information from the higher
   priority Push Directory server is preferred.



2.6 Primary to Secondary Server Push Service

   A secondary Push or Pull Directory server is one that obtains its
   data from a primary directory server. Such mechanisms, where some
   directory servers can be populated from others, have been found
   useful for multiple-server directory applications, for example in the
   DNS where it is the normal case that some authoritative servers
   (secondary servers) are populated with data from other authoritative
   servers (primary servers).

   Other techniques MAY be used but, by default, this data transfer
   occurs through the primary server acting as a Push Directory server
   for the Data Labels involved while the secondary directory server
   takes the pushed data it receives from the highest priority Push
   Directory server and re-originates it. Such a secondary server may be
   a Push Directory server or a Pull Directory server or both for any
   particular Data Label. Because the data from a secondary server will
   necessarily be at least a little less fresh than that from a primary
   server, it is RECOMMENDED that the re-originated secondary server
   data be given a confidence level at least one less than that of the
   data as received from the primary (or unchanged if it is already of
   minimum confidence).








D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 15]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


2.7 Push Directory Configuration

   The following per Data Label configuration parameters are available
   for controlling Push Directory behavior:

            Name           Range     Default   Section
      ---------------     --------   -------   -------
      PushDirService           T/F        F    2.2
      PushDirServers         1 - 8        2    2.2
      PushDirPriority      0 - 255     0x3F    2.2
      PushDirComplete          T/F        F    2.3.1, 2.3.2
      PushDirTimer         1 - 511   2*CSNP    2.3.2, 2.5

   PushDirService is a boolean. When false, Push Directory service is
   not provided; when true, it is.

   PushDirComplete is a boolean. When false, the server never indicates
   that the information it has pushed is complete; when true, it does so
   indicate after pushing all the information it knows.

   PushDirTimer defaults to two times the ESADI CSNP configuration value
   but not less than 1 second.






























D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 16]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


3. Pull Model Directory Assistance Mechanisms

   In the Pull Model [RFC7067], a TRILL switch (RBridge) pulls directory
   information from an appropriate Directory Server when needed.

   A TRILL switch that makes use of Pull Directory services must
   implement appropriate connections between its directory utilization
   and its link state database and link state updating. For example,
   Pull Directory servers for a particular Data Label X are found by
   looking in the core TRILL IS-IS link state database for data
   reachable [RFC7780] TRILL switches that advertise themselves by
   having the Pull Directory flag (PUL) on in their Interested VLANs or
   Interested Labels sub-TLV (see Section 7.3) for that Data Label. The
   set of such switches can change with configuration changes by network
   management, such as starting up or shutting down of Pull Directory
   servers, or changes in network topology, such the connection or
   disconnection of TRILL switches that are Pull Directory servers, or
   network partition or merger. As described in Section 3.7, a TRILL
   switch MUST notice if a Pull Directory from which it has cached data
   is no longer data reachable so it can discard such cached data.

   If multiple data reachable TRILL switches indicate in the link state
   database that they are Pull Directory Servers for a particular Data
   Label, pull requests can be sent to any one or more of them but it is
   RECOMMENDED that pull requests be preferentially sent to the server
   or servers that are lowest cost from the requesting TRILL switch.

   Pull Directory requests are sent by enclosing them in an RBridge
   Channel [RFC7178] message using the Pull Directory channel protocol
   number (see Section 7.2).  Responses are returned in an RBridge
   Channel message using the same channel protocol number. See Section
   3.2 for Query and Response Message formats. For cache consistency or
   notification purposes, Pull Directory servers, under certain
   conditions, MUST send unsolicited Update Messages to client TRILL
   switches they believe may be holding old data and those clients can
   acknowledge such updates, as described in Section 3.3. All these
   messages have a common header as described in Section 3.1. Errors are
   returned as described in Section 3.6.

   The requests to Pull Directory Servers are typically derived from
   ingressed ARP [RFC826], ND [RFC4861], RARP [RFC903], or SEND
   [RFC3971] messages, or data frames with unknown unicast destination
   MAC addresses, intercepted by an ingress TRILL switch, as described
   in Section 1.1.

   Pull Directory responses include an amount of time for which the
   response should be considered valid. This includes negative responses
   that indicate no data is available. It is RECOMMENDED that both
   positive responses with data and negative responses be cached and
   used to locally handle ARP, ND, RARP, unknown destination MAC frames,


D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 17]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


   or the like [ARPND], until the responses expire. If information
   previously pulled is about to expire, a TRILL switch MAY try to
   refresh it by issuing a new pull request but, to avoid unnecessary
   requests, SHOULD NOT do so unless it has been recently used. The
   validity timer of cached Pull Directory responses is NOT reset or
   extended merely because that cache entry is used.



3.1 Pull Directory Message Common Format

   All Pull Directory messages are transmitted as the Channel Protocol
   specific payload of RBridge Channel messages [RFC7178].  Pull
   Directory messages are formatted as described herein starting with
   the following common 8-byte header:

                           1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |  Ver  | Type  | Flags | Count |      Err      |    SubErr     |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                        Sequence Number                        |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      | Type Specific Payload - variable length
      +-+-+- ...

      Ver: Version of the Pull Directory protocol as an unsigned
         integer.  Version zero is specified in this document. See
         Section 3.1.1 for a discussion of version negotiation.

      Type: The Pull Directory message type as follows:

            Type   Section    Name
            ----   -------   --------
               0    -         Reserved
               1    3.2.1     Query
               2    3.2.2     Response
               3    3.3.1     Update
               4    3.3.2     Acknowledge
            5-14    -         Unassigned
              15    -         Reserved

      Flags: Four flag bits whose meaning depends on the Pull Directory
         message Type. Flags whose meanings are not specified are
         reserved, MUST be sent as zero, and MUST be ignored on receipt.

      Count: Some Pull Directory message types specified herein have
         zero or more occurrences of a Record as part of the type
         specific payload. The Count field is the number of occurrences
         of that Record as an unsigned integer. For any Pull Directory


D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 18]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


         messages not structured with such occurrences, this field MUST
         be sent as zero and ignored on receipt.

      Err, SubErr: The error and suberror fields are only used in
         messages that are in the nature of replies. In messages that
         are requests or updates, these fields MUST be sent as zero and
         ignored on receipt. An Err field containing the value zero
         means no error. The meaning of values in the SubErr field
         depends on the value of the Err field but, in all cases, a zero
         SubErr field is allowed and provides no additional information
         beyond the value of the Err field.

      Sequence Number: An identifying 32-bit quantity set by the TRILL
         switch sending a request or other unsolicited message and
         returned in every corresponding reply or acknowledgment. It is
         used to match up responses with the message to which they
         respond.

      Type Specific Payload: Format depends on the Pull Directory
         message Type.



3.1.1 Version Negotiation

   The version number (Ver) in the Pull Directory message header is
   incremented for a future version with changes such that TRILL
   directory messages cannot be parsed correctly by an earlier version.
   Ver is not incremented for minor changes such as defining a new field
   value for an existing field.

   Pull Directory messages come in pairs (Request-Response, Update-
   Acknowledgment).  The version number in the Request/Update (Ver1)
   indicates the format of that message and of the corresponding
   returned Response/Acknowledgment.  The version number in the returned
   Response/Acknowledgment (Ver2) indicates the highest version number
   that the sender of that Response/Acknowledgment understands.

   In the most common case of a well configured network, Ver1 and Ver2
   will be equal.

   If Ver2 is less than Ver1, the returned Response/Acknowledgment will
   be an error message saying that the version is not understood.

   If Ver2 is greater than Ver1 and the responder understands Ver1, it
   responds normally in Ver1 format. However, if the responder does not
   understand Ver1, it MUST send a version-not-understood error message
   correctly formatted for Ver1. Thus all implementations that support
   some version X MUST be able to send a version-not-understood error
   message formatted correctly formatted for all lower versions down to


D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 19]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


   version zero.



3.2 Pull Directory Query and Response Messages

   The format of Pull Directory Query and Response Messages is specified
   below.



3.2.1 Pull Directory Query Message Format

   A Pull Directory Query Message is sent as the Channel Protocol
   specific content of an RBridge Channel message [RFC7178] TRILL Data
   packet or as a native RBridge Channel data frame (see Section 3.5).
   The Data Label of the packet is the Data Label in which the query is
   being made. The priority of the channel message is a mapping of the
   priority of the ingressed frame that caused the query.  The default
   mapping depends, per Data Label, on the strategy (see Section 4) or a
   configured priority (DirGenQPriority, Section 3.9) for generated
   queries. (Generated queries are those not the result of a mapping.
   For example, a query to refresh a cache entry.)  The Channel Protocol
   specific data is formatted as a header and a sequence of zero or more
   QUERY Records as follows:

                           1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |  Ver  | Type  | Flags | Count |      Err      |    SubErr     |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                        Sequence Number                        |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      | QUERY 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...
      | QUERY 2
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...
      | ...
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...
      | QUERY K
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...

      Ver, Sequence Number: See Section 3.1.

      Type: 1 for Query. Queries received by an TRILL switch that is not
         a Pull Directory for the relevant Data Label result in an error
         response (see Section 3.6) unless inhibited by rate limiting.
         (See [RFC7178] for response if the Pull Directory RBridge
         Channel protocol is not implemented or enabled.)



D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 20]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


      Flags, Err, and SubErr: MUST be sent as zero and ignored on
         receipt.

      Count: Number of QUERY Records present. A Query Message Count of
         zero is explicitly allowed, for the purpose of pinging a Pull
         Directory server to see if it is responding. On receipt of such
         an empty Query Message, a Response Message that also has a
         Count of zero is returned unless inhibited by rate limiting.

      QUERY: Each QUERY Record within a Pull Directory Query Message is
         formatted as follows:

             0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9 10 11 12 13 14 15
           +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
           |        SIZE           |FR|  RESV  |   QTYPE   |
           +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
         If QTYPE = 1
           +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
           |                      AFN                      |
           +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
           |  Query address ...
           +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--...
         If QTYPE = 2 or 5
           +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
           |  Query frame ...
           +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--...

         SIZE: Size of the QUERY Record in bytes as an unsigned integer
            not including the SIZE field and following byte. A value of
            SIZE so large that the material doesn't fit in the Query
            Message indicates a malformed QUERY Record. The QUERY Record
            with the illegal SIZE value and any subsequent QUERY Records
            MUST be ignored and the entire Query Message MAY be ignored.

         FR: The Flood Record flag that is ignored if QTYPE is zero. If
            QTYPE is 2 or 5 and the directory information sought is not
            found, the frame provided is flooded, otherwise it is not
            forwarded. See Section 3.2.2.2. For QTYPEs other than 2 or
            5, the FR flag has no effect.

         RESV: A block of three reserved bits. MUST be sent as zero and
            ignored on receipt.

         QTYPE: There are several types of QUERY Records currently
            defined in two classes as follows: (1) a QUERY Record that
            provides an explicit address and asks for all addresses for
            the interface specified by the query address and (2) a QUERY
            Record that includes a frame. The fields of each are
            specified below. Values of QTYPE are as follows:



D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 21]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


                  QTYPE   Description
                  -----   -----------
                     0    Reserved
                     1    Address query
                     2    Frame query
                   3-4    Unassigned
                     5    Unknown unicast MAC query frame
                  6-14    Unassigned
                    15    Reserved

            AFN: Address Family Number of the query address.

            Query Address: The query is asking for any other addresses,
               and the nickname of the TRILL switch from which they are
               reachable, that correspond to the same interface as this
               address, within the Data Label of the query of the
               address provided. A typically Query Address would be
               something like the following:
               (1) A 48-bit MAC address with the querying TRILL switch
                   primarily interested in either
                   (1a) the RBridge by which that MAC address is
                        reachable so that the querying RBridge can
                        forward an unknown (before the query)
                        destination MAC address native frame as a
                        unicast TRILL Data packet rather than flooding
                        it, or
                   (1b) the IP address corresponding to the MAC address
                        so that RBridge can locally respond to a RARP
                        [RFC903] native frame.
               (2) An IPv4 or IPv6 address with the querying RBridge
                   interested in the corresponding MAC address so it can
                   locally respond to an ARP [RFC826] or ND [RFC4861]
                   native frame [ARPND].
               But the query address could be some other address type
               for which an AFN has been assigned, such as a 64-bit MAC
               address [RFC7042] or a CLNS address [X.233].

            Query Frame: Where a QUERY Record is the result of an ARP,
               ND, RARP, SEND, or unknown unicast MAC destination
               address, the ingress TRILL switch MAY send the frame to a
               Pull Directory Server if the frame is small enough that
               the resulting Query Message fits into a TRILL Data packet
               within the campus MTU. The full frame is included,
               starting with the destination and source MAC addresses
               but does not include the FCS.

   If no response is received to a Pull Directory Query Message within a
   configurable timeout (DirQueryTimeout, see Section 3.9), then the
   Query Message should be re-transmitted with the same Sequence Number
   (up to a configurable number of times (DirQueryRetries, see Section


D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 22]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


   3.9)). If there are multiple QUERY Records in a Query Message,
   responses can be received to various subsets of these QUERY Records
   before the timeout.  In that case, the remaining unanswered QUERY
   Records should be re-sent in a new Query Message with a new sequence
   number.  If a TRILL switch is not capable of handling partial
   responses to queries with multiple QUERY Records, it MUST NOT send a
   Request Message with more than one QUERY Record in it.

   See Section 3.6 for a discussion of how Query Message errors are
   handled.



3.2.2 Pull Directory Responses

   A Pull Directory Query Message results in a Pull Directory Response
   Message as described in Section 3.2.2.1.

   In addition, if the QUERY Record QTYPE was 2 or 5, the frame included
   in the Query may be modified and forwarded by the Pull Directory
   server as described in Section 3.2.2.2.



3.2.2.1 Pull Directory Response Message Format

   Pull Directory Response Messages are sent as the Channel Protocol
   specific content of an RBridge Channel message [RFC7178] TRILL Data
   packet or as a native RBridge Channel data frame (see Section 3.5).
   Responses are sent with the same Data Label and priority as the Query
   Message to which they correspond except that the Response Message
   priority is limited to be not more than the configured value
   DirRespMaxPriority (Section 3.9).

   The RBridge Channel protocol specific data format is as follows:

















D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 23]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


                           1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |  Ver  | Type  | Flags | Count |      Err      |    SubErr     |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                        Sequence Number                        |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      | RESPONSE 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...
      | RESPONSE 2
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...
      | ...
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...
      | RESPONSE K
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...

      Ver, Sequence Number: As specified in Section 3.1.

      Type: 2 = Response.

      Flags: MUST be sent as zero and ignored on receipt.

      Count: Count is the number of RESPONSE Records present in the
         Response Message.

      Err, SubErr: A two-part error code. Zero unless there was an error
         in the Query Message, for which case see Section 3.6.

      RESPONSE: Each RESPONSE Record within a Pull Directory Response
         Message is formatted as follows:

           0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9 10 11 12 13 14 15
         +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
         |         SIZE          |OV|  RESV  |   Index   |
         +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
         |                   Lifetime                    |
         +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
         |                Response Data ...
         +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--...

         SIZE: The size of the RESPONSE Record is an unsigned integer
            number of bytes not including the SIZE field and following
            byte. A value of SIZE so large that the material doesn't fit
            in the Query Message indicates a malformed RESPONSE Record.
            The RESPONSE Record with such an excessive SIZE value and
            any subsequent RESPONSE Records MUST be ignored and the
            entire Response Message MAY be ignored.

         OV: The overflow flag. Indicates, as described below, that
            there was too much Response Data to include in one Response


D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 24]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


            Message.

         RESV: Three reserved bits that MUST be sent as zero and ignored
            on receipt.

         Index: The relative index of the QUERY Record in the Query
            Message to which this RESPONSE Record corresponds. The index
            will always be one for Query Messages containing a single
            QUERY Record. If the Index is larger than the Count was in
            the corresponding Query, that RESPONSE Record MUST be
            ignored and subsequent RESPONSE Records or the entire
            Response Message MAY be ignored.

         Lifetime: The length of time for which the response should be
            considered valid in units of 100 milliseconds except that
            the values zero and 2**16-1 are special. If zero, the
            response can only be used for the particular query from
            which it resulted and MUST NOT be cached. If 2**16-1, the
            response MAY be kept indefinitely but not after the Pull
            Directory server goes down or becomes unreachable. (The
            maximum definite time that can be expressed is a little over
            1.8 hours.)

         Response Data: There are three types of RESPONSE Records.
            -  If the Err field of the enclosing Response Message has a
               message level error code in it, then the RESPONSE Records
               are omitted and Count will be zero. See Section 3.6 for
               additional information on errors.
            -  If the Err field of the enclosing Response Message has a
               record level error code in it, then the RESPONSE Records
               are those in error as further described in Section 3.6.
            -  If the Err field of the enclosing Response Message is
               zero, then the Response Data in each RESPONSE Record is
               formatted as the value part of an Interface Addresses
               APPsub-TLV [RFC7961]. The maximum size of such contents
               is 255 bytes, in which case the RESPONSE Record SIZE
               field is 255.

   Multiple RESPONSE Records can appear in a Response Message with the
   same Index if an answer to the QUERY Record consists of multiple
   Interface Address APPsub-TLV values. This would be necessary if, for
   example, a MAC address within a Data Label appears to be reachable by
   multiple TRILL switches. However, all RESPONSE Records to any
   particular QUERY Record MUST occur in the same Response Message. If a
   Pull Directory holds more mappings for a queried address than will
   fit into one Response Message, it selects which to include by some
   method outside the scope of this document and sets the overflow flag
   (OV) in all of the RESPONSE Records responding to that query address.

   See Section 3.6 for a discussion of how errors are handled.


D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 25]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


3.2.2.2 Pull Directory Forwarding

   Query Messages with QTYPEs 2 and 5 are interpreted and handled as
   described below. In these cases, if the information implicitly sought
   is not in the directory and the FR flag in the query message was one,
   the provided frame is forwarded by the Pull Directory server as a
   multi-destination TRILL Data packet with the ingress nickname of the
   Pull Directory server (or proxy if it is hosted on an end station) in
   the TRILL header. If the FR flag is zero, the frame is not forwarded
   in this case.

   If there was no error in the handling of the enclosing Query Message,
   the Pull Directory server forwards the frame inside that QUERY
   Record, after modifying it in some cases, as described below:

   ARP: When QTYPE is 2 and the Ethertype in the QUERY Record indicates
      that an ARP [RFC826] frame is included in the Record: The ar$op
      field MUST be ares_op$REQUEST and for the response described in
      3.2.2.1, this is treated as a query for the target protocol
      address where the AFN of that address is given by ar$pro.  (ARP
      field and value names with embedded dollar signs are specified in
      [RFC826].) If ar$op is not ares_op$REQUEST or the ARP is malformed
      or the query fails, an error is returned. Otherwise the ARP is
      modified into the appropriate ARP response that is then sent by
      the Pull Directory server as a TRILL Data packet.

   ND/SEND: When QTYPE is 2 and the Ethertype in the QUERY Record
      indicates an IPv6 Neighbor Discover (ND [RFC4861]) or Secure
      Neighbor Discover (SEND [RFC3971]) frame is included in the
      Record: Only Neighbor Solicitation ND frames (corresponding to an
      ARP query) are allowed. An error is returned for other ND frames
      or if the target address is not found. Otherwise, if the ND is not
      a SEND, an ND Neighbor Advertisement response is returned by the
      Pull Directory server as a TRILL Data packet. In the case of SEND
      [RFC3971], an error is returned indicating that SEND was received
      by the Pull Directory and the Pull Directory then either forwards
      the SEND frame to the holder of the IPv6 address if that
      information is in the directory or the directory multicasts the
      SEND frame.

   RARP: When QTYPE is 2 and the Ethertype in the QUERY Record indicates
      that a RARP [RFC903] frame is included in the Record: If the ar$op
      field is ares_op$REQUEST, the frame is handled as an ARP as
      described above. Otherwise the ar$op field MUST be 'reverse
      request' and for the response described in 3.2.2.1, this is
      treated as a query for the target hardware address where the AFN
      of that address is given by ar$hrd. (See [RFC826] for RARP
      fields.) If ar$op is not one of these values or the RARP is
      malformed or the query fails, an error is returned. Otherwise the
      RARP is modified into the appropriate RARP response that is then


D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 26]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


      unicast by the Pull Directory server as a TRILL Data packet to the
      source hardware MAC address.

   MacDA: When QTYPE is 5, indicating a frame is provided in the QUERY
      Record whose destination MAC address TRILL switch attachment is
      unknown, the only requirement is that this MAC address has to be
      unicast. The Ethertype in the QUERY Record is ignored. If it is
      group addressed an error is returned. For the response described
      in 3.2.2.1, it is treated as a query for the MacDA. If the Pull
      Directory contains TRILL switch attachment information for the MAC
      address in the Data Label of the Query Message, it forwards the
      frame to that switch in a unicast TRILL Data packet.



3.3 Cache Consistency

   Unless it sends all responses with a Lifetime of zero, a Pull
   Directory MUST take action, by sending Update Messages, to minimize
   the amount of time that a TRILL switch will continue to use stale
   information from that Pull Directory. The format of Update Messages
   and the Acknowledge Messages used to respond to Update Messages are
   given in Sections 3.3.1 and 3.3.2.

   A Pull Directory server MUST maintain one of three sets of records
   concerning possible cached data at clients of that server.  These are
   numbered and listed below in order of increasing specificity:

     Method 1, Least Specific. An overall record per Data Label of when
        the last positive response data sent will expire and when the
        last negative response sent will expire; the records are
        retained until such expiration.
           Pro: Minimizes the record keeping burden on the Pull
        Directory server.
           Con: Increases the volume of and overhead due to spontaneous
        Update Messages and due to unnecessarily invalidating cached
        information.

     Method 2, Medium Specificity. For each unit of data (IA APPsub-TLV
        Address Set [RFC7961]) held by the server, record when the last
        response sent with that positive response data will expire. In
        addition, record each address about which a negative response
        was sent by the server and when the last such negative response
        will expire. Each such record of a positive or negative response
        is discarded upon expiration.
           Pro/Con: An intermediate level of detail in server record
        keeping and an intermediate volume of and overhead due to
        spontaneous Update Messages with some unnecessary invalidation
        of cached information.



D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 27]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


     Method 3, Most Specific. For each unit of data held by the server
        (IA APPsub-TLV Address Set [RFC7961]) and each address about
        which a negative response was sent, a list of TRILL switches
        that were sent that data as a positive response or sent a
        negative response for the address, and the expected time to
        expiration for that data or address at each such TRILL switch,
        assuming the requester cached the response. Each list entry is
        retained until such expiration time.
           Pro: Minimizes spontaneous Update Messages sent to update
        pull client TRILL switch caches and minimizes unnecessary
        invalidation of cached information.
           Con: Increased record keeping burden on the Pull Directory
        server.

   RESPONSE Records sent with a zero lifetime are considered to have
   already expired and so do not need to be tracked. In all cases, there
   may still be brief periods of time when directory information has
   changed, but information a pull client has cached has not yet been
   updated or expunged.

   A Pull Directory server might have a limit as to how many TRILL
   switches for which it can maintain detailed expiry information by
   method 3 above or how many data units or addresses it can maintain
   expiry information for by method 2 or the like. If such limits are
   exceeded, it MUST transition to a lower numbered method but, in all
   cases, MUST support, at a minimum, method 1, and SHOULD support
   methods 2 and 3.  Use of method 1 may be quite inefficient due to
   large amounts of cached positive and negative information being
   unnecessarily discarded.

   When data at a Pull Directory is changed, deleted, or added and there
   may be unexpired stale information at a requesting TRILL switch, the
   Pull Directory MUST send an Update Message as discussed below. The
   sending of such an Update Message MAY be delayed by a configurable
   number of milliseconds (DirUpdateDelay, see Section 3.9) to await
   other possible changes that could be included in the same Update.

     1. If method 1, the least detailed method, is being followed, then
        when any Pull Directory information in a Data Label is changed
        or deleted and there are outstanding cached positive data
        response(s), an all-addresses flush positive data Update Message
        is flooded within that Data Label as an RBridge Channel Message.
        Similarly if data is added and there are outstanding cached
        negative responses, an all-addresses flush negative message is
        similarly flooded. The Count field is zero in an Update Message
        indicates "all-addresses". On receiving an all-addresses flooded
        flush positive Update from a Pull Directory server it has used,
        indicated by the F and P bits being one and the Count being
        zero, a TRILL switch discards the cached data responses it has
        for that Data Label.  Similarly, on receiving an all addresses


D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 28]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


        flush negative Update, indicated by the F and N bits being one
        and the Count being zero, it discards all cached negative
        replies for that Data Label. A combined flush positive and
        negative can be flooded by having all of the F (flood), P
        (positive), and N (negative) bits (see Section 3.3.1) set to one
        and the Count field zero resulting in the discard of all
        positive and negative cached information for the Data Label.

     2. If method 2 is being followed, then a TRILL switch floods
        address specific positive Update Messages when data that might
        be cached by a querying TRILL switch is changed or deleted and
        floods address specific negative Update Messages when such
        information is added to.  Such messages are sent as RBridge
        Channel messages. The F bit will be one; however, the Count
        field will be non-zero and either the P or N bit, but not both,
        will be one.  There are actually four possible message types
        that can be flooded:

        2.a If data that might still be cached is updated:
                An unsolicited Update Message is sent with the P flag
            set and the Err field zero. On receipt, the addresses in the
            RESPONSE Records are compared to the addresses for which the
            receiving TRILL switch is holding cached positive
            information from that server. If they match, the cached
            information is updated.

        2.b If data that might still be cached is deleted:
                An unsolicited Update Message is sent with the P flag
            set and the Err field non-zero giving the error that would
            now be encountered in attempting to pull information for the
            relevant address from the Pull Directory server. In this
            non-zero Err field case, the RESPONSE Record(s) differ from
            non-zero Err Reply Message RESPONSE Records in that they do
            include an interface address set.  Any cached positive
            information for the addresses given is deleted and the
            negative response is cached as per the lifetime given.

        2.c If data for an address for which a negative response was
            sent is added, so that negative response that might still be
            cached is now incorrect:
                An unsolicited Update Message is sent with the N flag
            set to one and the Err field zero. The addresses in the
            RESPONSE Records are compared to the addresses for which the
            receiving TRILL switch is holding cached negative
            information from that server; if they match, the cached
            negative information is deleted and the positive information
            provided is cached as per the lifetime given.

        2.d In the rare case where it is desired to change the lifetime
            or error associated with negative information that might


D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 29]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


            still be cached:
                An unsolicited Update Message is sent with the N flag
            set to one and the Err field non-zero. As in case 2.b above,
            the RESPONSE Record(s) give the relevant addresses.  Any
            cached negative information for the address is updated.

     3. If method 3 is being followed, the same sort of unsolicited
        Update Messages are sent as with method 2 above except they are
        not normally flooded but unicast only to the specific TRILL
        switches the directory server believes may be holding the cached
        positive or negative information that needs deletion or
        updating. However, a Pull Directory server MAY flood unsolicited
        updates under method 3, for example if it determines that a
        sufficiently large fraction of the TRILL switches in some Data
        Label are requesters that need to be updated so that flooding is
        more efficient that unicast.

   A Pull Directory server tracking cached information with method 3
   MUST NOT clear the indication that it needs to update cached
   information at a querying TRILL switch until it has either (a) sent
   an Update Message and received a corresponding Acknowledge Message or
   (b) it has sent a configurable number of updates at a configurable
   interval that default to 3 updates 100 milliseconds apart (see
   Section 3.9).

   A Pull Directory server tracking cached information with methods 2 or
   1 SHOULD NOT clear the indication that it needs to update cached
   information until it has sent an Update Message and received a
   corresponding Acknowledge Message from all of its ESADI neighbors or
   it has sent a number of updates at an interval as in the paragraph
   above.



3.3.1 Update Message Format

   An Update Message is formatted as a Response Message with the
   differences described in Section 3.3 above and the following:

   o  The Type field in the message header is set to 3.
   o  The Index field in the RESPONSE Record(s) is set to zero on
      transmission and ignored on receipt (but the Count field in the
      Update Message header MUST still correctly indicate the number of
      RESPONSE Records present).
   o  The priority with which the message is sent, DirUpdatePriority, is
      configurable and defaults to 5 (see Section 3.9).

   Update Messages are initiated by a Pull Directory server. The
   Sequence number space used is controlled by the originating Pull
   Directory server. This update Sequence number space is different from


D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 30]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


   the Sequence number space used in a Query and the corresponding
   Response that are controlled by the querying TRILL switch.

   The 4-bit Flags field of the message header for an Update Message is
   as follows:

         +---+---+---+---+
         | F | P | N | R |
         +---+---+---+---+

   F: The Flood bit. If zero, the Update Message is unicast. If F=1, it
      is multicast to All-Egress-RBridges.

   P, N: Flags used to indicate positive or negative Update Messages.
      P=1 indicates positive. N=1 indicates negative. Both may be 1 for
      a flooded all addresses Update.

   R: Reserved. MUST be sent as zero and ignored on receipt

   For tracking methods 2 and 3 in Section 3.3.1, a particular Update
   Message MUST have either the P flag or the N flag set but not both.
   If both are set, the Update Message MUST be ignored as this
   combination is only valid for method 1.



3.3.2 Acknowledge Message Format

   An Acknowledge Message is sent in response to an Update Message to
   confirm receipt or indicate an error, unless response is inhibited by
   rate limiting. It is formatted as a Response Message but the Type is
   set to 4.

   If there are no errors in the processing of an Update Message or if
   there is a message level overall or header error in an Update
   Message, the message is echoed back with the Err and SubErr fields
   set appropriately, the Type changed to Acknowledge, and a null
   records section with the Count field set to zero.

   If there is a record level error in an Update Message, one or more
   Acknowledge Messages may be returned with the erroneous record(s)
   indicated as discussed in Section 3.6.

   The Acknowledge Messages is sent with the same priority as the Update
   Message it acknowledges but not more than a configured priority
   (DirAckMaxPriority) that defaults to 5 (see Section 3.9).






D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 31]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


3.4 Summary of Records Formats in Messages

   As specified in Section 3.2 and 3.3, the Query, Response, Update, and
   Acknowledge Messages can have zero or more repeating Record
   structures under different circumstances, as summarized below. The
   "Err" column abbreviations in this table have the meanings listed
   below. "IA APPsub-TLV value" means the value part of the IA APPsub-
   TLV specified in [RFC7961].

                 MBZ = MUST be zero
                 Z   = zero
                 NZ  = non-zero
                 NZM = non-zero message level error
                 NZR = non-zero record level error

       Message    Err  Section  Record Structure    Response Data
     -----------  ---  -------  ----------------  ------------------
     Query        MBZ  3.2.1    QUERY Record       -
     Response     Z    3.2.2.1  RESPONSE Record   IA APPsub-TLV value
     Response     NZM  3.2.2.1  null               -
     Response     NZR  3.2.2.1  RESPONSE Record   Records with error
     Update       MBZ  3.3.1    RESPONSE Record   IA APPsub-TLV value
     Acknowledge  Z    3.3.2    null               -
     Acknowledge  NZM  3.3.2    null               -
     Acknowledge  NZR  3.3.2    RESPONSE Record   Records with error

   See Section 3.6 for further details on errors.



3.5 End Stations and Pull Directories

   A Pull Directory can be hosted on an end station as specified in
   Section 3.5.1.

   A end station can use a Pull Directory as specified in Section 3.5.2.
   This capability would be useful in supporting an end station that
   performs directory assisted encapsulation [DirAsstEncap] or that is a
   "smart end node" [SmartEN].

   The native Pull Directory messages used in these cases are as
   specified in Section 3.5.3. In these cases, the edge RBridge(s) and
   end station(s) involved need to detect each other and exchange some
   control information. This is accomplished with the TRILL ES-IS
   mechanism specified in Section 5.







D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 32]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


3.5.1 Pull Directory Hosted on an End Station

   Optionally, a Pull Directory actually hosted on an end station MAY be
   supported. In that case, one or more TRILL switches must act as
   indirect Pull Directory servers. That is, they host a Pull Directory
   server, which is seen by other TRILL switches in the campus, and a
   Pull Directory client, which fetches directory information from one
   or more End Station Pull Directory servers, where at least some of
   the information served up by the Pull Directory server may be
   information fetched from an end station to which it is directly
   connected by the co-located Pull Directory client. (Direct connection
   means a connection not involving any intermediate TRILL switches.)

   End stations hosting a Pull Directory server MUST support TRILL ES-IS
   (see Section 5) and advertise the Data Labels for which they are
   providing service in one or more Interested VLAN or Interested Label
   sub-TLVs by setting the PUL flag (see Section 7.3).

                                                *  *  *  *  *  *  *
      +---------------+                         *                 *
      | End Station 1 |              +---------------+            *
      | Pull Directory+--------------+ RB1, Pull     |            *
      | Server        |              |      Directory|            *
      +---------------+      +-------+ Client|Server |         +----+
                             |       +---------------+         |RB99|
      +---------------+      |                  *              +----+
      | End Station 2 |   +--+---+   +---------------+            *
      | Pull Directory+---+Bridge+---+ RB2, Pull     |            *
      | Server        |   +--+---+   |      Directory|            *
      +---------------+      |       | Client|Server |            *
                             |       +---------------+            *
                             |                  *        TRILL    *
                             .                  *        Campus   *
                             .                  *                 *
                             .                  *  *  *  *  *  *  *

                 Figure 2. End Station Pull Directory Example

   The figure above gives an example where RB1 and RB2 advertise
   themselves to the rest of the TRILL campus, such as RB99, as Pull
   Directory servers and obtain at least some of the information they
   are serving up by issuing Pull Directory queries to end stations 1
   and/or 2.  This example is specific but many variations are possible.
   The Bridge shown might be a complex bridged LAN, a LAN without a
   bridge (as shown for End Station 1), or connected via point-to-point
   links (as shown for End Station 2 that is connected through a bridge
   with point-to-point Ethernet links to RB1 and RB2). There could be
   one or more than two RBridges having such indirect Pull Directory
   servers. Furthermore, there could be one or more than two end
   stations with Pull Directory servers on them. Each TRILL switch


D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 33]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


   server could then be differently configured as to the Data Labels for
   which it is providing indirect service selected from the union of the
   Data Labels supported by the End Station hosted servers and could
   select from among those End Station hosted servers supporting each
   Data Label the indirect server is configured to serve up.

   When an indirect Pull Directory server receives a Query Message from
   another TRILL switch, it answers from information it has cached or
   issues Pull Directory request to End Station Pull Directory servers
   with which it has TRILL ES-IS adjacency to obtain the information.
   Any Response sent by an indirect Pull Directory server MUST NOT have
   a validity time longer that the valid of the data on which it is
   based. When an indirect Pull Directory server receives Update
   Messages, it updates its cached information and MUST originate Update
   messages to any clients that may have mirrors of the cached
   information so updated.

   Since an indirect Pull Directory server discards information it has
   cached from queries to an end station Pull Directory server if it
   loses adjacency to the server (Section 3.7), if it detects that such
   information may be cached at RBridge clients and has no other source
   for the information, it MUST send Update Messages to those clients
   withdrawing the information. For this reason, indirect Pull Directory
   servers may wish to query multiple sources, if available, and cache
   multiple copies of returned information from those multiple sources.
   Then if one end station source becomes inaccessible or withdraws the
   information but the indirect Pull Directory server has the
   information from another source, it need not originate Updates.



3.5.2 Use of Pull Directory by End Stations

   Some special end stations, such as those discussed in [DirAsstEncap]
   and [SmartEN], may need to access directory information. How edge
   RBridges provide this optional service is specified below.

   When Pull Directory support is provided by an edge RBridge to end
   stations, the messages used are as specified in Section 3.5.3 below.
   The edge RBridge MUST support TRILL ES-IS (Section 5) and advertises
   the Data Labels for which it offers this service to end stations by
   setting the Pull Directory flag (PUL) to one in its Interested VLANs
   or Interested Labels sub-TLV (see Section 7.3) for that Data Label
   advertised through TRILL ES-IS.








D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 34]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


3.5.3 Native Pull Directory Messages

   The Pull Directory messages used between TRILL switches and end
   stations are native RBridge Channel messages [RFC7178].  These
   RBridge Channel messages use the same Channel protocol number as the
   inter-RBridge Pull Directory RBridge Channel messages. The Outer.VLAN
   ID used is the TRILL ES-IS Designated VLAN (see Section 5) on the
   link to the end station. Since there is no TRILL Header or inner Data
   Label for native RBridge Channel messages, that information is added
   to the Pull Directory message header as specified below.

   The native RBridge Channel message Pull Directory message protocol
   dependent data part is the same as for inter-RBridge Channel messages
   except that the 8-byte header described in Section 3.1 is expanded to
   12 or 16 bytes as follows:

                           1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |  Ver  | Type  | Flags | Count |      Err      |    SubErr     |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                        Sequence Number                        |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |   Data Label ... (4 or 8 bytes)                               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...+-+
      | Type Specific Payload - variable length
      +-+-+- ...

   Fields other than Data Label are as in Section 3.1.  The Data Label
   that normally appears right after the Inner.MacSA of the an RBridge
   Channel Pull Directory message appears in the Data Label field of the
   Pull Directory message header in the native RBridge Channel message
   version. This Data Label appears in a native Query Message, to be
   reflected in a Response Message, or it might appear in a native
   Update to be reflected in an Acknowledge Message. Since the
   appropriate VLAN or FGL [RFC7172] Ethertype is included, the length
   of the Data Label can be determined from the first two bytes.



3.6 Pull Directory Message Errors

   A non-zero Err field in the Pull Directory Response or Acknowledge
   Message header indicates an error message.

   If there is an error that applies to an entire Query or Update
   Message or its header, as indicated by the range of the value of the
   Err field, then the QUERY Records probably were not even looked at by
   the Pull Directory Server and would provide no additional information
   in the Response or Acknowledge Message.  Therefore, the Records


D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 35]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


   section of the Query Response or Update Message is omitted and the
   Count field is set to zero in the Response or Acknowledgment Message.

   If errors occur at the QUERY Record level for a Query Message, they
   MUST be reported in a Response Message separate from the results of
   any successful non-erroneous QUERY Records. If multiple QUERY Records
   in a Query Message have different errors, they MUST be reported in
   separate Response Messages. If multiple QUERY Records in a Query
   Message have the same error, this error response MAY be reported in
   one or multiple Response Messages.  In an error Response Message, the
   QUERY Record or Records being responded to appear, expanded by the
   Lifetime for which the server thinks the error might persist (usually
   2**16-1 which indicates indefinitely) and with their Index inserted,
   as the RESPONSE Record or Records.

   If errors occur at the RESPONSE Record level for an Update Message,
   they MUST be reported in an Acknowledge Message separate from the
   acknowledgment of any non-erroneous RESPONSE Records. If multiple
   RESPONSE Records in an Update have different errors, they MUST be
   reported in separate Acknowledge Messages. If multiple RESPONSE
   Records in an Update Message have the same error, this error response
   MAY be reported in one or multiple Acknowledge Messages.  In an error
   Acknowledge Message, the RESPONSE Record or Records being responded
   to appear, expanded by the time for which the server thinks the error
   might persist and with their Index inserted, as a RESPONSE Record or
   Records.

   Err values 1 through 126 are available for encoding Request or Update
   Message level errors. Err values 128 through 254 are available for
   encoding QUERY or RESPONSE Record level errors. The SubErr field is
   available for providing more detail on errors. The meaning of a
   SubErr field value depends on the value of the Err field.



3.6.1 Error Codes

   The following table lists error code values for the Err field, their
   meaning, and whether they apply at the Message or Record level.













D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 36]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


       Err     Level   Meaning
      ------  -------  -------
          0      -     No Error

          1   Message  Unknown or reserved Query Message field value
          2   Message  Request Message/data too short
          3   Message  Unknown or reserved Update Message field value
          4   Message  Update Message/data too short
      5-126   Message  Unassigned
        127      -     Reserved

        128   Record   Unknown or reserved QUERY Record field value
        129   Record   QUERY Record truncated
        130   Record   Address not found
        131   Record   Unknown or reserved RESPONSE Record field value
        132   Record   RESPONSE Record truncated
      133-254 Record   Unassigned
        255      -     Reserved

   Note that some error codes are for overall message level errors while
   some are for errors in the repeating records that occur in messages.



3.6.2 Sub-Errors Under Error Codes 1 and 3

   The following sub-errors are specified under error codes 1 and 3:

      SubErr   Field with Error
      ------   ----------------
          0     Unspecified
          1     Version not understood (see Section 3.1.1)
          2     Unknown Type field value
          3     Specified Data Label not being served
      4-254     Unassigned
        255     Reserved



3.6.3 Sub-Errors Under Error Codes 128 and 131

   The following sub-errors are specified under error code 128 and 131:










D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 37]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


      SubErr   Field with Error
      ------   ----------------
          0     Unspecified
          1     Unknown AFN field value
          2     Unknown or Reserved QTYPE field value
          3     Invalid or inconsistent SIZE field value
          4     Invalid frame for QTYPE 2 (other than SEND)
          5     SEND frame sent as QTYPE 2
          6     Invalid frame for QTYPE 5 (such as multicast MacDA)
      7-254     Unassigned
        255     Reserved



3.7 Additional Pull Details

   A Pull Directory client MUST notice, by tracking link state changes,
   when a Pull Directory server is no longer accessible (data reachable
   [RFC7780] for the inter-RBridge case or TRILL ES-IS (Section 5)
   adjacent for end station to RBridge case), and MUST promptly discard
   all pull responses it is retaining from that server as it can no
   longer receive cache consistency Update Messages from the server.

   A secondary Pull Directory server is one that obtains its data from a
   primary directory server. See discussion of primary to secondary
   directory information transfer in Section 2.6.



3.8 The No Data Flag

   In the TRILL base protocol [RFC6325] as extended for FGL [RFC7172],
   the mere presence of an Interested VLANs or Interested Labels sub-
   TLVs in the LSP of a TRILL switch indicates connection to end
   stations in the VLAN(s) or FGL(s) listed and thus a need to receive
   multi-destination traffic in those Data Labels. However, with Pull
   Directories, advertising that you are a directory server requires
   using these sub-TLVs to indicate the Data Label(s) you are serving.

   If a directory server does not wish to received multi-destination
   TRILL Data packets for the Data Labels it lists in one of the
   Interested VLAN or Interested FGL [RFC7172] sub-TLVs, it sets the "No
   Data" (NOD) bit to one (see Section 7.3). This means that data on a
   distribution tree may be pruned so as not to reach the "No Data"
   TRILL switch as long as there are no TRILL switches interested in the
   Data Label that are beyond the "No Data" TRILL switch on that
   distribution tree.  The NOD bit is backwards compatible as TRILL
   switches ignorant of it will simply not prune when they could, which
   is safe although it may cause increased link utilization by some
   sending multi-destination traffic where it is not needed.


D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 38]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


   Push Directories advertise themselves inside ESADI which normally
   requires the ability to send and receive multi-destination TRILL Data
   packets but can be implemented with serial unicast.

   Examples of a TRILL switch serving as a directory that might not want
   multi-destination traffic in some Data Labels would be a TRILL switch
   that does not offer end station service for any of the Data Labels
   for which it is serving as a directory and is either
      -  a Pull Directory and/or
      -  a Push Directory for one or more Data Labels where all of the
         ESADI traffic for those Data Labels will be handled by unicast
         ESADI [RFC7357].

   A Push Directory MUST NOT set the NOD bit for a Data Label if it
   needs to communicate via multi-destination ESADI or RBridge Channel
   PDUs in that Data Label since such PDUs look like TRILL Data packets
   to transit TRILL switches and are likely to be incorrectly pruned if
   NOD was set.



3.9 Pull Directory Service Configuration

   The following per RBridge scalar configuration parameters are
   available for controlling Pull Directory service behavior. In
   addition, there is a configurable per Data Label mapping from the
   priority of a native frame being ingress to the priority of any Pull
   Directory query it causes. The default such mapping depends on the
   client strategy as described in Section 4.

            Name         Default           Section   Note Below
     ------------------  -------           -------   ----------

     DirQueryTimeout     100 milliseconds  3.2.1           1
     DirQueryRetries       3               3.2.1           1
     DirGenQPriority       5               3.2.1           2

     DirRespMaxPriority    6               3.2.2.1         3

     DirUpdateDelay       50 milliseconds  3.3
     DirUpdatePriority     5               3.3.1
     DirUpdateTimeout    100 milliseconds  3.3.3
     DirUpdateRetries      3               3.3.3

     DirAckMaxPriority     5               3.3.2           4

   Note 1: Pull Directory Query client timeout waiting for response and
   maximum number of retries




D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 39]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


   Note 2: Priority for client generated requests (such as a query to
   refresh cached information).

   Note 3: Pull Directory Response Messages SHOULD NOT be sent with
   priority 7 as that priority SHOULD be reserved for messages critical
   to network connectivity.

   Note 4: Pull Directory Acknowledge Messages SHOULD NOT be sent with
   priority 7 as that priority SHOULD be reserved for messages critical
   to network connectivity.










































D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 40]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


4. Directory Use Strategies and Push-Pull Hybrids

   For some edge nodes that have a great number of Data Labels enabled,
   managing the MAC and Data Label <-> Edge RBridge mapping for hosts
   under all those Data Labels can be a challenge. This is especially
   true for Data Center gateway nodes, which need to communicate with
   many, if not all, Data Labels.

   For those edge TRILL switch nodes, a hybrid model should be
   considered.  That is, the Push Model is used for some Data Labels or
   addresses within a Data Label while the Pull Model is used for other
   Data Labels or addresses within a Data Label. It is the network
   operator's decision by configuration as to which Data Labels' mapping
   entries are pushed down from directories and which Data Labels'
   mapping entries are pulled.

   For example, assume a data center where hosts in specific Data
   Labels, say VLANs 1 through 100, communicate regularly with external
   peers.  Probably, the mapping entries for those 100 VLANs should be
   pushed down to the data center gateway routers. For hosts in other
   Data Labels that only communicate with external peers occasionally
   for management interfacing, the mapping entries for those VLANs
   should be pulled down from directory when the need comes up.

   Similarly, it could be that within a Data Label that some addresses,
   such as the addresses of gateways, file, DNS, or database server
   hosts are commonly referenced by most other hosts but those other
   hosts, perhaps compute engines, are typically only referenced by a
   few hosts in that Data Label. In that case, the address information
   for the commonly referenced hosts could be pushed as an incomplete
   directory while the addresses of the others are pulled when needed.

   The mechanisms described in this document for Push and Pull Directory
   services make it easy to use Push for some Data Labels or addresses
   and Pull for others. In fact, different TRILL switches can even be
   configured so that some use Push Directory services and some use Pull
   Directory services for the same Data Label if both Push and Pull
   Directory services are available for that Data Label. And there can
   be Data Labels for which directory services are not used at all.

   There are a wide variety of strategies that a TRILL switch can adopt
   for making use of directory assistance. A few suggestions are given
   below.

      -  Even if a TRILL switch will normally be operating with
      information from a complete Push Directory server, there will be a
      period of time when it first comes up before the information it
      holds is complete.  Or, it could be that the only Push Directories
      that can push information to it are incomplete or that they are
      just starting and may not yet have pushed the entire directory.


D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 41]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


      Thus, it is RECOMMENDED that all TRILL switches have a strategy
      for dealing with the situation where they do not have complete
      directory information. Examples are to send a Pull Directory query
      or to revert to [RFC6325] behavior.

      -  If a TRILL switch receives a native frame X resulting in
      seeking directory information, a choice needs to be made as to
      what to do if it does not already have the directory information
      it needs. In particular, it could (1) immediately flood the TRILL
      Data packet resulting from ingressing X in parallel with seeking
      the directory information, (2) flood that TRILL Data packet after
      a delay, if it fails to obtain the directory information, or (3)
      discard X if it fails to obtain the information. The choice might
      depend on the priority of frame X since the higher that priority
      typically the more urgent the frame is and the greater the
      probability of harm in delaying it. If a Pull Directory request is
      sent, it is RECOMMENDED that its priority be derived from the
      priority of the frame X with the derived priority configurable and
      having the following defaults:


          Ingressed     If Flooded    If Flooded
          Priority      Immediately   After Delay
          --------      -----------   -----------
            7             5             6
            6             5             6
            5             4             5
            4             3             4
            3             2             3
            2             0             2
            0             1             0
            1             1             1

      NOTE: The odd looking numbers towards the bottom of the columns
      above are because priority 1 is lower than priority zero. That is
      to say, the values in the first column are in priority order. They
      will look more logical if you think of "0" as being "1 1/2".

   Priority 7 is normally only used for urgent messages critical to
   adjacency and so SHOULD NOT be the default for directory traffic.
   Unsolicited updates are sent with a priority that is configured per
   Data Label that defaults to priority 5.










D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 42]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


5. TRILL ES-IS

   TRILL ES-IS (End System to Intermediate System) is a variation of
   TRILL IS-IS [RFC7176] [RFC7177] [RFC7780] designed to operate on a
   TRILL link among and between one or more TRILL switches and end
   stations on that link. Support of TRILL ES-IS is generally optional
   for both the TRILL switches and the end stations on a link but may be
   required to support certain features. As of the date of this
   document, the only features requiring TRILL ES-IS are those listed in
   this Section 5.

   TRILL ES-IS is useful in supporting Pull Directory hosting on or use
   from end stations (see Section 3.5) and supporting specialized end
   stations [DirAsstEncap] [SmartEN] and may have additional future
   uses. The advantages of TRILL ES-IS over simply making an "end
   station" be a TRILL Switch include relieving the end station of
   having to maintain a copy of the core link state database (LSPs) and
   of having to perform routing calculations or having the ability to
   forward traffic.

   Except as provided below in this Section 5, TRILL ES-IS PDUs and TLVs
   are the same TRILL IS-IS PDUs and TLVs.



5.1 PDUs and System IDs

   All TRILL ES-IS PDUs (except some MTU-probe and MTU-ack PDUs which
   may be unicast) are multicast using the TRILL-ES-IS multicast MAC
   address (see Section 7.6). This use of a different multicast address
   assures that TRILL ES-IS and TRILL IS-IS PDUs will not be confused
   for one another.

   Because end stations do not have IS-IS System IDs, TRILL ES-IS uses
   port MAC addresses in their place. This is convenient since MAC
   addresses are 48-bit and almost all IS-IS implementations use 48-bit
   System IDs. Logically TRILL IS-IS operates between the TRILL switches
   in a TRILL campus as identified by System ID while TRILL ES-IS
   operates between Ethernet ports on an Ethernet link (which may be a
   bridged LAN) as identified by MAC address [RFC6325].

   As System IDs of TRILL Switches in a campus are required to be
   unique, so the MAC addresses of TRILL ES-IS ports on a link MUST be
   unique.








D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 43]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


5.2 Adjacency, DRB Election, Hellos, TLVs, Etc.

   TRILL ES-IS Adjacency formation and DRB election operate between the
   ports on the link as specified in [RFC7177] for a broadcast link.
   The DRB specifies an ES-IS Designated VLAN for the link. This
   adjacency determination, DRB election, and Designated VLAM are
   distinct from TRILL IS-IS adjacency, DRB election, and Designated
   VLAN.

   Although the "Report State" [RFC7177] exists for TRILL ES-IS
   adjacencies, such adjacencies are only reported in TRILL ES-IS LSPs,
   not in any TRILL IS-IS LSPs.

   End stations supporting TRILL ES-IS MUST assign a unique Port ID to
   each of their TRILL ES-IS ports which appears in the TRILL ES-IS
   Hellos they send.

   TRILL ES-IS has nothing to do with Appointed Forwarders and the
   Appointed Forwarders sub-TLV and VLANs Appointed sub-TLV [RFC7176]
   are not used and SHOULD NOT be sent in TRILL ES-IS; if such a sub-TLV
   is received in TRILL ES-IS it is ignored. (The Appointed Forwarders
   on a link are determined as specified in [rfc6439bis] using TRILL IS-
   IS.)

   Although some of the ports sending TRILL ES-IS PDUs are on end
   stations and thus not on routers (TRILL switches), they nevertheless
   may make use of the Router Capability (#242) and MT-Capability (#222)
   IS-IS TLVs to indicate capabilities as specified in [RFC7176].

   TRILL ES-IS Hellos are like TRILL IS-IS Hellos but note the
   following: In the Special VLANs and Flags Sub-TLV, any TRILL switches
   advertise a nickname they own but for end stations that field MUST be
   sent as zero and ignored on receipt. In addition, the AF and TR flag
   bits MUST be sent as zero and the AC flag bit MUST be sent as one and
   all three are ignored on receipt.



5.3 Link State

   The only link state transmission and synchronization that occurs in
   TRILL ES-IS is for E-L1CS PDUs (Extended Level 1 Circuit Scoped
   [RFC7356]). In particular, the end station Ethernet ports supporting
   TRILL ES-IS do not support the core TRILL IS-IS LSPs and do not
   support E-L1FS LSPs (or the CSNPs or PSNPs corresponding to either of
   them). TLVs and sub-TLVs that would otherwise be sent in TRILL IS-IS
   LSPs or E-L1FS SPs are instead sent in E-L1CS LSPs.





D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 44]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


6. Security Considerations

   For general TRILL security considerations, see [RFC6325].



6.1 Directory Information Security

   Incorrect directory information can result in a variety of security
   threats including those below. Directory servers therefore need to
   take care to implement and enforce access control policies that are
   not overly permissive.

      Incorrect directory mappings can result in data being delivered to
      the wrong end stations, or set of end stations in the case of
      multi-destination packets, violating security policy.

      Missing, incorrect, or inaccessible directory data can result in
      denial of service due to sending data packets to black holes or
      discarding data on ingress due to incorrect information that their
      destinations are not reachable or that their source addresses are
      forged.

   For these reasons directory information needs to be protected from
   unauthorized modification whatever server or end station it resides
   on. Parties authorized to modify directory data can violate
   availability and integrity policies.



6.2 Directory Confidentiality and Privacy

   In implementations of the base TRILL protocol [RFC6325] [RFC7780],
   RBridges deal almost exclusively with MAC addresses. Use of
   directories to map to/from IP addresses means that RBridges deal more
   actively with IP addresses as well. But RBridges in any case would be
   exposed to plain text ARP/ND/SEND/IP traffic and so can see all this
   addressing meta-data. So this more explicit dealing with IP addresses
   has little effect on the privacy of end station traffic.

   Parties authorized to read directory data can violate privacy polices
   for such data.



6.3 Directory Message Security Considerations

   Push Directory data is distributed through ESADI-LSPs [RFC7357].
   ESADI is built on IS-IS and such data can thus be authenticated with
   the widely implemented and deployed IS-IS PDU security. This


D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 45]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


   mechanism provides authentication and integrity protection. See
   [RFC5304] [RFC5310] and the Security Considerations section of
   [RFC7357].

   Pull Directory queries and responses are transmitted as RBridge-to-
   RBridge or native RBridge Channel messages [RFC7178]. Such messages
   can be secured by the mechanisms specified in [RFC7978].  These
   mechanisms can provide authentication and confidentiality
   protections. At the time of this RFC, these security mechanisms are
   believed to be less widely implemented than IS-IS security.










































D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 46]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


7. IANA Considerations

   This section gives IANA assignment and registry considerations.



7.1 ESADI-Parameter Data Extensions

   Action 1: IANA is requested to create a sub-registry in the TRILL
   Parameters Registry as follows:

      Sub-Registry: ESADI-Parameter APPsub-TLV Flag Bits
      Registration Procedures: Standards Action
      References: [RFC7357] [This document]

         Bit  Mnemonic  Description                    Reference
         ---  --------  -----------                    ---------
           0    UN      Supports Unicast ESADI         ESADI [RFC7357]
         1-2    PDSS    Push Directory Server Status   [this document]
         3-7    -       Available for assignment

   Action 2: In addition, the ESADI-Parameter APPsub-TLV is optionally
   extended, as provided in its original specification in ESADI
   [RFC7357], by one byte as show below. Therefore [this document]
   should be added as a second reference to the ESADI-Parameter APPsub-
   TLV in the "TRILL APPsub-TLV Types under IS-IS TLV 251 Application
   Identifier 1" Registry.

                +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                | Type          |           (1 byte)
                +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                | Length        |           (1 byte)
                +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                |R| Priority    |           (1 byte)
                +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                | CSNP Time     |           (1 byte)
                +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                | Flags         |           (1 byte)
                +---------------+
                |PushDirPriority|           (optional, 1 byte)
                +---------------+
                | Reserved for              (variable)
                |  expansion
                +-+-+-+-...

   The meanings of all the fields are as specified in ESDADI [RFC7357]
   except that the added PushDirPriority is the priority of the
   advertising ESADI instance to be a Push Directory as described in
   Section 2.3. If the PushDirPriority field is not present (Length = 3)
   it is treated as if it were 0x3F. 0x3F is also the value used and


D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 47]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


   placed here by an TRILL switch whose priority to be a Push Directory
   has not been configured.



7.2 RBridge Channel Protocol Numbers

   Action 3: IANA is requested to assign a new RBridge Channel protocol
   number from the range assignable by Standards Action and update the
   subregistry of such protocol number in the TRILL Parameters Registry.
   Description is "Pull Directory Services". Reference is [this
   document].



7.3 The Pull Directory (PUL) and No Data (NOD) Bits

   Actions 4 and 5: IANA is requested to assign a currently reserved
   bits in the Interested VLANs field of the Interested VLANs sub-TLV
   and the Interested Labels field of the Interested Labels sub-TLV
   [RFC7176] to indicate Pull Directory server (PUL). This bit is to be
   added, with this document as reference, to the "Interested VLANs Flag
   Bits" and "Interested Labels Flag Bits" subregistries created by
   [RFC7357] as shown below after Action 7.

   Actions 6 and 7: IANA is requested to assign a currently reserved bit
   in the Interested VLANs field of the Interested VLANs sub-TLV and the
   Interested Labels field of the Interested Labels sub-TLV [RFC7176] to
   indicate No Data (NOD, see Section 3.8). This bit is to be added,
   with this document as reference, to the "Interested VLANs Flag Bits"
   and "Interested Labels Flag Bits" subregistries created by [RFC7357]
   as shown below.

   Bits and format suggested for above actions 4 through 7 are shown
   below:

      Registry:  Interested BLANs Flag Bits

      Bit Mnemonic  Description     Reference
      --- -------- --------------  ---------------
       18    PUL   Pull Directory  [this document]
       19    NOD   No Data         [this document]

      Registry: Interested Labels Flag Bits

      Bit Mnemonic  Description     Reference
      --- -------- --------------  ---------------
        6    PUL   Pull Directory  [this document]
        7    NOD   No Data         [this document]



D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 48]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


7.4 TRILL Pull Directory QTYPEs

   Action 8: IANA is requested to create a new Registry on the
   "Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links (TRILL) Parameters" web
   page as follows:

      Name: TRILL Pull Directory Query Types (QTYPEs)
      Registration Procedure: IETF Review
      Reference: [this document]
      Initial contents as in Section 3.2.1.



7.5 Pull Directory Error Code Registries

   Actions 9, 10, and 11: IANA is requested to create a new Registry and
   two new indented SubRegistries under that Registry on the
   "Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links (TRILL) Parameters" web
   page as follows:

   Registry
      Name: TRILL Pull Directory Errors
      Registration Procedure: IETF Review
      Reference: [this document]

      Initial contents as in Section 3.6.1.

      Sub-Registry
         Name: Sub-codes for TRILL Pull Directory Errors 1 and 3
         Registration Procedure: Expert Review
         Reference: [this document]

         Initial contents as in Section 3.6.2.

      Sub-Registry
         Name: Sub-codes for TRILL Pull Directory Errors 128 and 131
         Registration Procedure: Expert Review
         Reference: [this document]

         Initial contents as in Section 3.6.3.



7.6 TRILL-ES-IS MAC Address

   Action 12: IANA is requested to assign a TRILL multicast MAC address
   from the "TRILL Multicast Addresses" registry on the TRILL Parameters
   IANA web page [value 01-80-C2-00-00-47 recommended]. Description is
   "TRILL-ES-IS". Reference is [this document].



D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 49]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


Normative References

   [RFC826] - Plummer, D., "An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol",
         RFC 826, November 1982.

   [RFC903] - Finlayson, R., Mann, T., Mogul, J., and M. Theimer, "A
         Reverse Address Resolution Protocol", STD 38, RFC 903, June
         1984

   [RFC2119] - Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
         Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997

   [RFC3971] - Arkko, J., Ed., Kempf, J., Zill, B., and P. Nikander,
         "SEcure Neighbor Discovery (SEND)", RFC 3971, March 2005.

   [RFC4861] - Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
         "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
         September 2007.

   [RFC5304] Li, T. and R. Atkinson, "IS-IS Cryptographic
         Authentication", RFC 5304, October 2008.

   [RFC5310] - Bhatia, M., Manral, V., Li, T., Atkinson, R., White, R.,
         and M. Fanto, "IS-IS Generic Cryptographic Authentication", RFC
         5310, February 2009.

   [RFC6165] - Banerjee, A. and D. Ward, "Extensions to IS-IS for
         Layer-2 Systems", RFC 6165, April 2011.

   [RFC6325] - Perlman, R., Eastlake 3rd, D., Dutt, D., Gai, S., and A.
         Ghanwani, "Routing Bridges (RBridges): Base Protocol
         Specification", RFC 6325, July 2011.

   [RFC7042] - Eastlake 3rd, D. and J. Abley, "IANA Considerations and
         IETF Protocol and Documentation Usage for IEEE 802 Parameters",
         BCP 141, RFC 7042, October 2013.

   [RFC7172] - Eastlake 3rd, D., Zhang, M., Agarwal, P., Perlman, R.,
         and D. Dutt, "Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links
         (TRILL): Fine-Grained Labeling", RFC 7172, May 2014,
         <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7172>.

   [RFC7176] - Eastlake 3rd, D., Senevirathne, T., Ghanwani, A., Dutt,
         D., and A. Banerjee, "Transparent Interconnection of Lots of
         Links (TRILL) Use of IS-IS", RFC 7176, May 2014,
         <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7176>.

   [RFC7177] - Eastlake 3rd, D., Perlman, R., Ghanwani, A., Yang, H.,
         and V. Manral, "Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links
         (TRILL): Adjacency", RFC 7177, DOI 10.17487/RFC7177, May 2014,


D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 50]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


         <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7177>.

   [RFC7178] - Eastlake 3rd, D., Manral, V., Li, Y., Aldrin, S., and D.
         Ward, "Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links (TRILL):
         RBridge Channel Support", RFC 7178, May 2014, <http://www.rfc-
         editor.org/info/rfc7178>.

   [RFC7356] - Ginsberg, L., Previdi, S., and Y. Yang, "IS-IS Flooding
         Scope Link State PDUs (LSPs)", RFC 7356, DOI 10.17487/RFC7356,
         September 2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7356>.

   [RFC7357] - Zhai, H., Hu, F., Perlman, R., Eastlake 3rd, D., and O.
         Stokes, "Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links (TRILL):
         End Station Address Distribution Information (ESADI) Protocol",
         RFC 7357, September 2014, <http://www.rfc-
         editor.org/info/rfc7357>.

   [RFC7780] - Eastlake 3rd, D., Zhang, M., Perlman, R., Banerjee, A.,
         Ghanwani, A., and S. Gupta, "Transparent Interconnection of
         Lots of Links (TRILL): Clarifications, Corrections, and
         Updates", RFC 7780, DOI 10.17487/RFC7780, February 2016,
         <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7780>.

   [RFC7961] - Eastlake 3rd, D. and L. Yizhou, "Transparent
         Interconnection of Lots of Links (TRILL): Interface Addresses
         APPsub-TLV", RFC 7961, DOI 10.17487/RFC7961, August 2016,
         <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7961>.

   [rfc6439bis] - D. Eastlake, Y. Li, M. Umair, A. Banerjee, and F. Hu,
         "Routing Bridges (RBridges): Appointed Forwarders", draft-ietf-
         trill-rfc6439bis, work in progress.



Informational References

   [RFC7067] - Dunbar, L., Eastlake 3rd, D., Perlman, R., and I.
         Gashinsky, "Directory Assistance Problem and High-Level Design
         Proposal", RFC 7067, November 2013.

   [RFC7978] - Eastlake 3rd, D., Umair, M., and Y. Li, "Transparent
         Interconnection of Lots of Links (TRILL): RBridge Channel
         Header Extension", RFC 7978, DOI 10.17487/RFC7978, September
         2016, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7978>.

   [ARPND] - Y. Li, D. Eastlake, L. Dunbar, R. Perlman, I. Gashinsky,
         "TRILL: ARP/ND Optimization", draft-ietf-trill-arp-
         optimization, work in progress.

   [DirAsstEncap] L. Dunbar, D. Eastlake, R. Perlman, I. Gashingksy,


D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 51]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


         "Directory Assisted TRILL Encapsulation", draft-ietf-trill-
         directory-assisted-encap, work in progress.

   [SmartEN] R. Perlman, F. Hu, D. Eastlake, K. Krupakaran, T. Liao,
         "TRILL Smart Endnodes", draft-ietf-trill-smart-endnodes",
         draft-ietf-trill-smart-endnodes, work in progress.

   [X.233] - ITU-T Recommendation X.233: Protocol for providing the
         connectionless-mode network service: Protocol specification,
         International Telecommunications Union, August 1997










































D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 52]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


Acknowledgments

   The contributions of the following persons are gratefully
   acknowledged:

        Amanda Barber, Matthew Bocci, Alissa Cooper, Stephen Farrell,
        Daniel Franke, Igor Gashinski, Joel Halpern, Susan Hares, Alexey
        Melnikov, Gsyle Noble, Tianran Zhou

   The document was prepared in raw nroff. All macros used were defined
   within the source file.









































D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 53]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


Authors' Addresses

   Donald Eastlake
   Huawei Technologies
   155 Beaver Street
   Milford, MA 01757, USA

   Phone: +1-508-333-2270
   Email: d3e3e3@gmail.com


   Linda Dunbar
   Huawei Technologies
   5430 Legacy Drive, Suite #175
   Plano, TX 75024, USA

   Phone: +1-469-277-5840
   Email: ldunbar@huawei.com


   Radia Perlman
   EMC
   2010 256th Avenue NE, #200
   Bellevue, WA 98007, USA

   Email: Radia@alum.mit.edu


   Yizhou Li
   Huawei Technologies
   101 Software Avenue,
   Nanjing 210012, China

   Phone: +86-25-56622310
   Email: liyizhou@huawei.com

















D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 54]


INTERNET-DRAFT                       TRILL: Directory Service Mechanisms


Copyright, Disclaimer, and Additional IPR Provisions

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors. All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document. Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.  The definitive version of
   an IETF Document is that published by, or under the auspices of, the
   IETF. Versions of IETF Documents that are published by third parties,
   including those that are translated into other languages, should not
   be considered to be definitive versions of IETF Documents. The
   definitive version of these Legal Provisions is that published by, or
   under the auspices of, the IETF. Versions of these Legal Provisions
   that are published by third parties, including those that are
   translated into other languages, should not be considered to be
   definitive versions of these Legal Provisions.  For the avoidance of
   doubt, each Contributor to the IETF Standards Process licenses each
   Contribution that he or she makes as part of the IETF Standards
   Process to the IETF Trust pursuant to the provisions of RFC 5378. No
   language to the contrary, or terms, conditions or rights that differ
   from or are inconsistent with the rights and licenses granted under
   RFC 5378, shall have any effect and shall be null and void, whether
   published or posted by such Contributor, or included with or in such
   Contribution.





















D. Eastlake, et al                                             [Page 55]


Html markup produced by rfcmarkup 1.124, available from https://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcmarkup/