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Versions: (draft-dunbar-trill-directory-assisted-edge) 00 01 02 04 05 06 07 RFC 7067

INTERNET-DRAFT                                              Linda Dunbar
Intended Status: Informational                           Donald Eastlake
                                                                  Huawei
                                                           Radia Perlman
                                                                   Intel
                                                          Igor Gashinsky
                                                                   Yahoo
Expires: August 22, 2012                               February 23, 2013


         TRILL (Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links):
                  Edge Directory Assistance Framework
             <draft-ietf-trill-directory-framework-04.txt>



Abstract

   Edge RBridges currently learn the mapping between MAC addresses and
   their egress RBridges by observing the data packets they ingress or
   egress or by the TRILL ESADI protocol. When an ingress RBridge
   receives a data frame whose destination address (MAC&VLAN) that
   RBridge does not know, the data frame is flooded within the VLAN
   across the TRILL campus.

   This document describes the framework for using directory services to
   assist edge RBridges in reducing multi-destination frames,
   particularly unknown unicast frames flooding, and ARP/ND, thus
   improving TRILL (Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links)
   network scalability.



Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Distribution of this document is unlimited. Comments should be sent
   to the TRILL working group mailing list.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
   Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."





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   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/1id-abstracts.html. The list of Internet-Draft
   Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.
















































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Table of Contents

      1. Introduction............................................4
      2. Terminology.............................................5

      3. Impact of Massive Number of End Stations................6
      3.1 Issues of Flooding Based Learning in Data Centers......6
      3.2 Two Examples...........................................7

      4. Benefits of Directory Assisted Edge RBridge.............8

      5. Generic operation of Directory Assistance..............10
      5.1 Information in Directory for Edge RBridges............10
      5.2 Push Model and Requirements...........................10
      5.3 Pull Model and Requirements...........................12

      6. Recommendation.........................................14

      7. Security Considerations................................14
      8. IANA Considerations....................................14
      9. Acknowledgements.......................................14

      10. References............................................15
      10.1 Normative References.................................15
      10.2 Informative References...............................15

      Authors' Addresses........................................16

























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1. Introduction

   Edge RBridges (devices implementing [RFC6325], also known as TRILL
   Switches) currently learn the mapping between destination MAC
   addresses and their egress RBridges by observing data packets or by
   the ESADI (End Station Address Distribution Information) protocol.
   When an ingress RBridge receives a data frame for a destination
   address (MAC&VLAN) that RBridge does not know, the data frame is
   flooded within that VLAN across the TRILL campus.

   This document describes a framework for using directory services to
   assist edge RBridges by reducing multi-destination frames,
   particularly ARP [RFC826], ND [RFC4861], and unknown unicast,
   improving TRILL network scalability in environments where a directory
   can be available, such as data centers.

   Data center networks differ from enterprise campus networks in
   several ways that make them attractive for the use of directory
   assistance, in particular:

   1. Data centers, especially Internet and/or multi-tenant data centers
      tend to have a large number of end stations with a wide variety of
      applications.
   2. Topology is often based on racks and rows.  Furthermore, guest
      operating system assignment to Servers, Racks, and Rows is
      orchestrated by a Server/VM (virtual machine) Management system,
      not done at random. So the information necessary for a directory
      is normally available.
   3. Rapid workload shifting in data centers can accelerate the
      frequency of the physical servers being re-loaded with different
      applications. Sometimes, the applications loaded into one physical
      server at different times can belong to different subnets. When a
      VM is moved to a new location or a server is loaded with a new
      application with different IP/MAC addresses, it is more likely
      that the destination address of data packets sent out from those
      VMs are unknown to their attached edge RBridges.
   4. With server virtualization, there is an increasing trend to
      dynamically create or delete VMs when demand for resource changes,
      to move VMs from overloaded servers to less loaded servers, or to
      aggregate VMs onto fewer servers when demand is light. This
      results in the more common occurrence of multiple subnets on the
      same port at the same time and a higher change rate for VMs than
      for physical servers.

   Both items 3 and 4 above can lead to applications in one subnet being
   placed in different locations (racks or rows) or one rack having
   applications belonging to different subnets.





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2. Terminology

   The terms "Subnet" and "VLAN" are used interchangeably in this
   document because it is common to map one subnet to one VLAN.

   Bridge:  IEEE Std 802.1Q-2011 compliant device [802.1Q]. In this
            document, Bridge is used interchangeably with Layer 2
            switch.

   EoR:     End of Row switches in data center. Also known as
            aggregation switches.

   End Station:  Guest OS running on a physical server or on a virtual
            machine. An end station in this document has at least one IP
            address and at least one MAC address.

   IS-IS:   Intermediate System to Intermediate System. TRILL uses IS-IS
            [IS-IS] [RFC6326].

   RBridge: "Routing Bridge", an alternative name for a TRILL switch.

   Station: A node, or a virtual node, with IP and/or MAC addresses.

   ToR:     Top of Rack Switch in data center. It is also known as
            access switches in some data centers.

   TRILL:   Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links [RFC6325]

   TRILL switch: A device implementing the TRILL protocol [RFC6325]

   VM:      Virtual Machine





















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3. Impact of Massive Number of End Stations

   This section discusses the impact of a massive number of end stations
   in a TRILL campus using Data Centers as an example.



3.1 Issues of Flooding Based Learning in Data Centers

   It is common for Data Center networks to have multiple tiers of
   switches, for example, one or two Access Switches for each server
   rack (ToR), aggregation switches for some rows (or EoR switches), and
   some core switches to interconnect the aggregation switches.  Many
   aggregation switches deployed in data centers have high port density.
   It is not uncommon to see aggregation switches interconnecting
   hundreds of ToR switches.

                    +-------+         +------+
                  +/------+ |       +/-----+ |
                  | Aggr11| + ----- |AggrN1| +    EoR Switches
                  +---+---+/        +------+/
                   /     \            /      \
                  /       \          /        \
               +---+    +---+      +---+     +---+
               |T11|... |T1x|      |T21| ..  |T2y| ToR switches
               +---+    +---+      +---+     +---+
                 |        |          |         |
               +-|-+    +-|-+      +-|-+     +-|-+
               |   |... |   |      |   | ..  |   |
               +---+    +---+      +---+     +---+Server racks
               |   |... |   |      |   | ..  |   |
               +---+    +---+      +---+     +---+
               |   |... |   |      |   | ..  |   |
               +---+    +---+      +---+     +---+

               Figure 1: Typical Data Center Network Design

   The following problems could occur when TRILL is deployed in a data
   center with large number of end stations and the end stations in one
   subnet/VLAN could be placed under multiple edge RBridges:

      - Unnecessary filling of slots in the MAC address learning table
        of edge RBridges, e.g. RBridge T11, due to T11 receiving
        broadcast / multicast traffic (e.g. ARP/ND, cluster multicast,
        etc.)  from end stations under other edge RBridges that are not
        actually communicating with any end stations attached to T11.

      - Packets being flooded across TRILL campus when their destination
        MAC addresses are not in ingress RBridge's MAC address to egress
        RBridge cache.


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      - In an environment where VMs migrates, there is higher chance of
        cached information becoming invalid, causing traffic to be
        black-holed by the ingress RBridge, that is, persistently sent
        to the wrong egress RBridge. If VMs do not flood gratuitous
        ARP/ND or VDP [802.1Qbg] messages upon arriving at new
        locations, the ingress nodes might not have MAC entries for the
        MAC of the newly arrived VMs, causing unknown address flooding.



3.2 Two Examples

   Consider a data center with 1600 server racks. Each server rack has
   at least one ToR switch. The ToR switches are further divided into 8
   groups, with each group being connected by a set of aggregation
   switches.  There could be 4 to 8 aggregation switches in each set to
   achieve load sharing for traffic to/from server racks. If TRILL is
   deployed in this data center environment, let's consider the
   following two scenarios for the TRILL campus boundary:

      - Scenario #1: TRILL campus boundary starts at ToR switches:

        If each server rack has one ToR, there are 1600 edge RBridges.
        If each rack has two ToR switches, then there will be 3200 edge
        RBridges

        In this scenario, the TRILL domain will have more than 1600 (or
        3200) + 8*4 (or 8*8) nodes, which is a large IS-IS domain. Even
        though a mesh IS-IS domain can scale up to thousands of nodes,
        it is challenging for aggregation switches to handle IS-IS link
        state advertisement among hundreds of parallel ports.

      - Scenario #2: TRILL campus boundary starts at the aggregation
        switches:

        With the same assumptions as before, the number of nodes in the
        TRILL campus will be less than 100, and aggregation switches
        don't have to handle IS-IS link state advisements among hundreds
        of parallel ports.

        However, the number of MAC&VLAN<->Egress RBridge Mapping entries
        to be learned and managed by RBridge edge node can be very
        large. In the example above, each edge RBridge has 200 edge
        ports facing the ToR switches. If each ToR has 40 downstream
        ports facing servers and each server has 10 VMs, there could be
        200*40*10 = 80000 end stations attached. If all those end
        stations belong to 1600 VLANs (i.e. 50 per VLAN) and each VLAN
        has 200 end stations, then under the worst-case scenario, the
        total number of MAC&VLAN entries to be learned by the edge
        RBridge can be 1600*200=320000, which is very large.


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4. Benefits of Directory Assisted Edge RBridge

   In some environments, particularly data centers, the assignment of
   applications to servers, including rack and row selection, is
   orchestrated by Server (or VM) Management System(s). That is, there
   is a database or multiple databases (distributed model) that have the
   knowledge of where each application is placed. If the application
   location information can be fed to RBridge edge nodes, in some form
   of Directory Service, then there is much less chance of RBridge edge
   nodes receiving unknown MAC destination address, therefore less
   chance of flooding.

   Avoiding unknown unicast address flooding to the TRILL campus is
   especially valuable in the data center environment because there is a
   higher chance of an edge RBridge receiving packets with unknown
   unicast destination address and broadcast / multicast messages due to
   VM migration and servers being loaded with different applications.
   When a VM is moved to a new location or a server is loaded with a new
   application with a different IP/MAC addresses, it is more likely that
   the destination address of data packets sent out from those VMs are
   unknown to their attached edge RBridges.  In addition, gratuitous ARP
   (IPv4, [RFC826]) or Unsolicited Neighbor Advertisement (IPv6,
   [RFC4861]) sent out from those newly migrated or activated VMs have
   to be flooded to other edge RBridges that have VMs in the same
   subnets.

   The benefits of using directory assistance include:

      - Avoid flooding unknown unicast destination address across TRILL
        campus. The Directory enforced MAC&VLAN <-> Egress RBridge
        mapping table can determine if a data packet needs to be
        forwarded across TRILL campus.

        When multiple RBridge edge ports are connected via a bridged LAN
        to end stations (servers/VMs), a directory assisted edge RBridge
        won't need to flood unknown unicast destination data frames to
        all ports of the edge RBridges in the frame's VLAN when it
        ingresses a frame. It can depend on the directory to tell it
        where the destination is. When the directory doesn't have the
        needed information, the frames can be dropped or flooded
        depending on the policy configured.

      - Reduce flooding of decapsulated Ethernet frames with unknown MAC
        destination address to a bridged LAN connected to RBridge edge
        ports.

        When an RBridge receives a TRILL data packet whose destination
        Nickname matches with its own, the normal procedure is for the
        RBridge to decapsulate it and forward the decapsulated Ethernet
        frame to the directly attached bridged LAN. If the destination


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        MAC is unknown, the RBridge floods the decapsulated Ethernet
        frame out all ports in the fame's VLAN. With directory
        assistance, the egress RBridge can determine if the MAC
        destination address in a frame matches any end stations attached
        via the bridged LAN. Frames can be discarded if their
        destination addresses do not match.

      - Reduce the amount of MAC&VLAN <-> Egress RBridge mapping
        maintained by edge RBridges. There is no need for an edge
        RBridge to keep MAC entries of remote end stations that don't
        communicate with the end stations locally attached.

      - Eliminate ARP/ND being broadcasted or multi-casted through the
        TRILL core.






































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5. Generic operation of Directory Assistance



5.1 Information in Directory for Edge RBridges

   To achieve the benefits of directory assistance for TRILL, the
   corresponding directory server entries will need, at a minimum, the
   following logical attributes:

   [{IP, MAC/VLAN, {list of attached RBridge nicknames}, {list of
   interested RBridges}]

   The {list of attached RBridges} are the edge RBridges to which the
   host (or VM) specified by the [IP or MAC/VLAN] in the entry is
   attached. The {list of interested RBridges} are the remote RBridges
   that might have attached hosts to communicate with the host in this
   entry.

   When a host has multiple IP addresses, there will be multiple
   entries.

   The {list of interested RBridges} could get populated when an RBridge
   queries for information, or pushed down from management systems. The
   list is used to notify those RBridges when the host (specified by the
   IP/MAC/VLAN) in the entry connectivity to its attached RBridges
   changes. An explicit list in the directory is not needed as long as
   the interested RBridges can be determined.

   There are two different models for Directory assistance to edge
   RBridges: Push Model and Pull Model.



5.2 Push Model and Requirements

   Under this model, Directory Server(s) push down the MAC&VLAN <->
   Egress RBridge mapping for all the end stations that might
   communicate with end stations attached to an RBridge edge node.  If
   the packet's destination address can't be found in the
   MAC&VLAN<->Egress RBridge table, the ingress RBridge could be
   configured to:

       simply drop a data packet,
       flood it to TRILL campus, or
       start the pull process to get information from directory
         server(s)

   It may not be necessary for every edge RBridge to get the entire
   mapping table for all the end stations in a campus. There are many


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   ways to narrow the full set down to a smaller set of remote end
   stations that communicate with end stations attached to an edge
   RBridge. A simple approach is to only pushing down the mapping for
   the VLANs that have active end stations under an edge RBridge. This
   approach can reduce the number of mapping entries being pushed down.

   However, the Push Model usually will push down more entries of
   MAC&VLAN<->Egress RBridge mapping to edge RBridges than needed.
   Under the normal process of edge RBridge cache aging and unknown
   destination address flooding, rarely used mapping entries would have
   been removed.  But it can be difficult for Directory Servers to
   predict the communication patterns among applications within one
   VLAN.  Therefore, it is likely that the Directory Servers will push
   down all the MAC&VLAN entries if there are end stations in the VLAN
   being attached to the edge RBridge. This is a disadvantage of the
   Push Model compared with the Pull Model described below.

   In the Push Model, it is necessary to have a way for an RBridge node
   to request directory server(s) to start pushing down the mapping
   entries. This method should at least include the VLANs enabled on the
   RBridge, so that directory server doesn't need to push down the
   entire mapping entries for all the end stations in the campus. An
   RBridge must be able to get mapping entries when it is initialized or
   restarted.

   The Push Model's detailed method and any handshake mechanism between
   RBridge and Directory Server(s) is beyond the scope of this framework
   document.

   When a directory server needs to push down a large number of entries
   to edge RBridges, efficient data organization should be considered.
   For example, with one edge RBridge Nickname being associated with all
   attached end stations' MAC addresses and VLANs as shown below:



















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      +------------+-------+--------------------------------+
      | Nickname1  |VID-1  | IP/MAC1, IP/MAC2, ,, IP/MACn   |
      |            |------ +--------------------------------+
      |            |VID-2  | IP/MAC1, IP/MAC2, ,, IP/MACn   |
      |            |------ +--------------------------------+
      |            |  .... | IP/MAC1, IP/MAC2, ,, IP/MACn   |
      +------------+------ +--------------------------------+
      | Nickname2  |VID-1  | IP/MAC1, IP/MAC2, ,, IP/MACn   |
      |            |------ +--------------------------------+
      |            |VID-2  | IP/MAC1, IP/MAC2, ,,IP/MACn    |
      |            |------ +--------------------------------+
      |            |       | IP/MAC1, IP/MAC2, ,, IP/MACn   |
      +------------+------ +--------------------------------+
      | -------    |------ +--------------------------------+
      |            |       | IP/MAC1, IP/MAC2, ,, IP/MACn   |
      +------------+------ +--------------------------------+

           Table 1: Summarized table pushed down from directory

   Whenever there is any change in MAC&VLAN <-> Egress RBridge mapping,
   that can be triggered by end stations being added, moved, or de-
   commissioned, an incremental update can be sent to the edge RBridges
   which are impacted by the change. Therefore, something like a
   sequence number has to be maintained by directory servers and
   RBridges. Detailed mechanisms will be specified in a separate
   document.



5.3 Pull Model and Requirements

   Under this model, an RBridge pulls the MAC&VLAN<->Egress RBridge
   mapping entry from the directory server when its cache doesn't have
   the entry. There are several possibilities to trigger the pulling
   process:

      - The RBridge edge node can send a pull request whenever it
        receives an unknown MAC destination, or
      - The RBridge edge node can intercept all ARP/ND requests and
        forward them or appropriate requests to the Directory Server(s)
        that has the information on where the target stations are
        located.
      - The Pull Directory response could indicate that the address
        being queried is unknown or that the requestor is
        administratively prohibited from getting an informative
        response.

   By using a Pull Directory, the frame with unknown MAC destination
   address doesn't have to be flooded across TRILL domain and the ARP/ND
   requests don't have to be broadcast or multicast across the TRILL


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   domain.

   The ingress RBridge can cache the response pulled down from the
   directory. The timer for cache should be short in an environment
   where VMs move frequently. The cache timer could be configured by
   management system or could be sent down along with the Pulled reply
   by the directory server(s). It is important that the cached
   information be kept consistant with the actual placement of addresses
   in the campus; therefore, there needs to be some mechanism by which
   RBridges that have pulled information that has not expired can be
   informed when that information changes or the like.

   One advantage of the Pull Model is that edge RBridges can age out
   MAC&VLAN entries if they haven't been used for a certain configured
   period of time or a period of time provided by the Directory.
   Therefore, each edge RBridge will only keep the entries that are
   frequently used, so mapping table size will be smaller. Edge RBridges
   would query the Directory Server(s) for unknown MAC destination
   addresses in data frames or ARP/ND and cache the response.  When end
   stations attached to remote edge RBridges rarely communicate with the
   locally attached end stations, the corresponding MAC&VLAN entries
   would be aged out from the RBridge's cache.

   An RBridge waiting for response from Directory Servers upon receiving
   a data frame with an unknown destination address is similar to an
   L2/L3 boundary router waiting for ARP/ND response upon receiving an
   IP data packet whose destination IP is not in the router's IP/MAC
   cache table.  Most deployed routers today do hold the packet and send
   ARP/ND requests to the target upon receiving a packet with
   destination IP not in its IP to MAC cache. When ARP/ND replies are
   received, the router will send the data packet to the target. This
   practice minimizes flooding when targets don't exist in the subnet.

   When the target doesn't exist in the subnet, routers generally re-
   send an ARP/ND request a few more times before dropping the packets.
   So, the holding time by routers to wait for ARP/ND response can be
   longer than the time taken by the Pull Model to get IP to MAC mapping
   from a directory if target doesn't exist in the subnet.

   For RBridges with mapping entries being pushed down from directory
   server, they can be configured to use Pull model for targets which
   don't exist in the mapping data pushed down.

   A separate document will specify the detailed messages and mechanism
   for edge RBridges to pull information from directory server(s).







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6. Recommendation

   TRILL should provide a directory assisted approach.  This document
   describes a basic framework of using a directory assisted approach
   for RBridge edge nodes. More detailed mechanisms will be described in
   a separate document or documents.



7. Security Considerations

   Accurate mapping of IP addresses into MAC addresses and of MAC
   addresses to the RBridge from which they are reachable is important
   to the correct delivery of information. The security of specific
   directory assisted mechanisms will be discussed in the document or
   documents specifying those mechanisms.

   For general TRILL security considerations, see [RFC6325].



8. IANA Considerations

   This document requires no IANA actions. RFC Editor: please delete
   this section before publication.



9. Acknowledgements

   Thanks for comments and review from the following:

         David Black, Erik Nordmark

   The document was prepared in raw nroff. All macros used were defined
   within the source file.
















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10. References



10.1 Normative References

   As an Informational document, this draft has no Normative References.



10.2 Informative References

   [802.1Q] - IEEE Std 802.1Q-2011, "IEEE Standard for Local and
         metropolitan area networks - Virtual Bridged Local Area
         Networks", May 2011.

   [802.1Qbg] - IEEE Std 802.1Qbg-2012, ''Media Access Control (MAC)
         Bridges and Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks --- Edge
         Virtual Bridging'', July 2012.

   [IS-IS] - ISO/IEC, "Intermediate system to Intermediate system
         routeing information exchange protocol for use in conjunction
         with the Protocol for providing the Connectionless-mode Network
         Service (ISO 8473)", ISO/IEC 10589:2002.

   [RFC826] - Plummer, D., "An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol",
         RFC 826, November 1982.

   [RFC4861] - Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
         "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
         September 2007.

   [RFC6325] - Perlman, R., Eastlake 3rd, D., Dutt, D., Gai, S., and A.
         Ghanwani, "Routing Bridges (RBridges): Base Protocol
         Specification", RFC 6325, July 2011.

   [RFC6326] - Eastlake, D., Banerjee, A., Dutt, D., Perlman, R., and A.
         Ghanwani, "Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links (TRILL)
         Use of IS-IS", RFC 6326, July 2011.













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Authors' Addresses

   Linda Dunbar
   Huawei Technologies
   5430 Legacy Drive, Suite #175
   Plano, TX 75024, USA
   Phone: +1-469-277-5840
   Email: ldunbar@huawei.com


   Donald Eastlake
   Huawei Technologies
   155 Beaver Street
   Milford, MA 01757 USA
   Phone: +1-508-333-2270
   Email: d3e3e3@gmail.com


   Radia Perlman
   Intel Labs
   2200 Mission College Blvd.
   Santa Clara, CA 95054-1549 USA
   Phone: +1-408-765-8080
   Email: Radia@alum.mit.edu


   Igor Gashinsky
   Yahoo
   45 West 18th Street 6th floor
   New York, NY 10011 USA
   Email: igor@yahoo-inc.com





















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Copyright, Disclaimer, and Additional IPR Provisions

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