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Network Working Group                                    R. R. Stewart
INTERNET-DRAFT                                           M. A. Ramalho
                                                         Cisco Systems
                                                                Q. Xie
                                                              Motorola
                                                             M. Tuexen
                                                            Siemens AG
                                                             I. Rytina
                                                          M. Belinchon
                                                              Ericsson
                                                             P. Conrad
                                                     Temple University


expires in six months                                     May 12, 2002


                Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP)
                   Dynamic Address Reconfiguration

                   <draft-ietf-tsvwg-addip-sctp-05.txt>

    Status of This Memo

    This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
    all provisions of Section 10 of RFC 2026 [RFC2026]. Internet-Drafts
    are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF),
    its areas, and its working groups. Note that other groups may also
    distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.

    The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
    http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

    The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
    http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.



   Abstract

    This document describes extensions to the Stream Control
    Transmission Protocol (SCTP) [RFC2960] that provides a method to
    reconfigure IP address information on an existing association.


                        TABLE OF CONTENTS
    1. Introduction............................................... 2
    2. Conventions................................................ 3
    3. Additional Chunks and Parameters........................... 3
    3.1 New Chunk Types........................................... 3
    3.1.1 Address Configuration Change Chunk (ASCONF)............. 3
    3.1.2 Address Configuration Acknowledgment Chunk
          (ASCONF-ACK)............................................ 4
    3.2 New Parameter Types....................................... 5
    3.2.1 Add IP Address.......................................... 6

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    3.2.2 Delete IP Address........................................ 6
    3.2.3 Error Cause Indication................................... 7
    3.2.4 Set Primary IP Address................................... 8
    3.2.5 Success Indication....................................... 9
    3.2.6 Adaption Layer Indication................................10
    3.3 New Error Causes...........................................10
    3.3.1 Error Cause: Request to Delete Last Remaining IP Address.10
    3.3.2 Error Cause: Operation Refused Due to Resource Shortage..11
    3.3.3 Error Cause: Request to Delete Source IP Address.........12
    3.3.4 Error Cause: Association Aborted due to illegal
          ASCONF-ACK...............................................12
    4. Procedures..................................................12
    4.1 ASCONF Chunk Procedures....................................13
    4.1.1 Congestion Control of ASCONF Chunks......................14
    4.2 Upon reception of an ASCONF Chunk..........................15
    4.3 General rules for address manipulation.....................17
    4.3.1 A special case for OOTB ABORT chunks.....................19
    4.3.2 A special case for changing an address...................20
    4.4 Setting of the primary address.............................20
    5. Abstract description of SCTP addressing.....................21
    6. Security Considerations.....................................24
    7. IANA considerations.........................................24
    8. Acknowledgments.............................................24
    9. Authors' Addresses..........................................24
    10.Normative References........................................25

    1. Introduction

    To extend the utility and application scenarios of SCTP, this
    document introduces optional extensions that provide SCTP with the
    ability to:

     1.  reconfigure IP address information on an existing association.
     2.  set the remote primary path.
     3.  exchange adaptation layer information during association setup.

    These extensions enable SCTP to be utilized in the following
    applications:

    1. For computational or networking platforms that allow
       addition/removal of physical interface cards this feature can
       provide a graceful method to add to the interfaces of an existing
       association. For IPv6 this feature allows renumbering of existing
       associations.

    2. This provides a method for an endpoint to request that its peer
       set its primary destination address.  This can be useful when an
       address is about to be deleted, or when an endpoint has some
       predetermined knowledge about which is the preferred address to
       receive SCTP packets upon.

    3. This feature can be used to extend the usability of SCTP without
       modifying it by allowing endpoints to exchange some information
       during association setup.



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    2. Conventions

    The keywords MUST, MUST NOT, REQUIRED, SHALL, SHALL NOT, SHOULD,
    SHOULD NOT, RECOMMENDED, NOT RECOMMENDED, MAY, and OPTIONAL, when
    they appear in this document, are to be interpreted as described in
    RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

    3. Additional Chunks and Parameters

    This section describes the addition of two new chunks and, eight
    new parameters to allow:

         - Dynamic addition of IP Addresses to an association.
         - Dynamic deletion of IP Addresses to an association.
         - A request to set the primary address the peer will
           use when sending to an endpoint.

    Additionally, this section describes three new error causes that
    support these new chunks and parameters.

    3.1 New Chunk Types

    This section defines two new chunk types that will be used to
    transfer the control information reliably. Table 1 illustrates the
    two new chunk types.

    Chunk Type  Chunk Name
    --------------------------------------------------------------
     0xC1    Address Configuration Change Chunk        (ASCONF)
     0x80    Address Configuration Acknowledgment      (ASCONF-ACK)

          Table 1: Address Configuration Chunks

    It should be noted that the ASCONF Chunk format requires the
    receiver to report to the sender if it does not understand the
    ASCONF Chunk. This is accomplished by setting the upper bits in the
    chunk type as described in [RFC2960] section 3.2. Note that the
    upper two bits in the ASCONF Chunk are set to one.  As defined in
    [RFC2960] section 3.2, setting these upper bits in this manner will
    cause the receiver that does not understand this chunk to skip the
    chunk and continue processing, but report in an Operation Error
    Chunk using the 'Unrecognized Chunk Type' cause of error.

    3.1.1  Address Configuration Change Chunk (ASCONF)

    This chunk is used to communicate to the remote endpoint one of the
    configuration change requests that MUST be acknowledged.  The
    information carried in the ASCONF Chunk uses the form of a
    Type-Length-Value (TLV), as described in "3.2.1
    Optional/Variable-length Parameter Format" in [RFC2960], for
    all variable parameters.

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1

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    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    | Type = 0xC1   |  Chunk Flags  |      Chunk Length             |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                       Serial Number                           |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                    Address Parameter                          |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                     ASCONF Parameter #1                       |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    \                                                               \
    /                             ....                              /
    \                                                               \
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                     ASCONF Parameter #N                       |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

    Serial Number : 32 bits (unsigned integer)

    This value represents a Serial Number for the ASCONF Chunk. The
    valid range of Serial Number is from 0 to 4294967295 (2**32 - 1).
    Serial Numbers wrap back to 0 after reaching 4294967295.

    Reserved: 24 bits

    Reserved, set to 0 by the sender and ignored by the
    receiver.

    Address Parameter :  8 or 20 bytes (depending on type)

    This field contains an address parameter, either IPv6
    or IPv4, from RFC2960. The address is an address of the
    sender of the ASCONF chunk, the address MUST be considered
    part of the association by the peer endpoint (the receiver
    of the ASCONF chunk). This field may be used by the receiver
    of the ASCONF to help in finding the association. This
    parameter MUST be present in every ASCONF message i.e.
    it is a mandatory TLV parameter.

    Note the host name address parameter is NOT allowed.

    ASCONF Parameter: TLV format

    Each Address configuration change is represented by a TLV
    parameter as defined in Section 3.2. One or more requests
    may be present in an ASCONF Chunk.

    3.1.2 Address Configuration Acknowledgment Chunk (ASCONF-ACK)

    This chunk is used by the receiver of an ASCONF Chunk to acknowledge
    the reception. It carries zero or more results for any ASCONF
    Parameters that were processed by the receiver.


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     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    | Type = 0x80   |  Chunk Flags  |      Chunk Length             |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                       Serial Number                           |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                 ASCONF Parameter Response#1                   |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    \                                                               \
    /                             ....                              /
    \                                                               \
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                 ASCONF Parameter Response#N                   |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

    Serial Number : 32 bits (unsigned integer)

    This value represents the Serial Number for the received ASCONF Chunk
    that is acknowledged by this chunk. This value is
    copied from the received ASCONF Chunk.

    ASCONF Parameter Response : TLV format

    The ASCONF Parameter Response is used in the ASCONF-ACK to report
    status of ASCONF processing. By default, if a responding endpoint
    does not include any Error Cause, a success is indicated. Thus a
    sender of an ASCONF-ACK MAY indicate complete success of all TLVs in
    an ASCONF by returning only the Chunk Type, Chunk Flags, Chunk Length
    (set to 8) and the Serial Number.

    3.2 New Parameter Types


     The six new parameters added follow the format defined in section
     3.2.1 of [RFC2960]. Table 2 and 3 describes the parameters.

     Address Configuration Parameters   Parameter Type
     -------------------------------------------------
     Add IP Address                       0xC001
     Delete IP Address                    0xC002
     Set Primary Address                  0xC004
     Adaption Layer Indication            0xC006

           Table 2: Parameters used in ASCONF Parameter

     Address Configuration Parameters   Parameter Type
     -------------------------------------------------
     Error Cause Indication               0xC003
     Success report                       0xC005

           Table 3: Parameters used in ASCONF Parameter Response


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    3.2.1 Add IP Address

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |        Type = 0xC001          |    Length = Variable          |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |               ASCONF-Request Correlation ID                   |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                       Address Parameter                       |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

    ASCONF-Request Correlation ID: 32 bits

    This is an opaque integer assigned by the sender to identify each
    request parameter. It is in host byte order and is only meaningful
    to the sender. The receiver of the ASCONF Chunk will copy this 32
    bit value into the ASCONF Response Correlation ID field of the
    ASCONF-ACK response parameter. The sender of the ASCONF can use this
    same value in the ASCONF-ACK to find which request the response is
    for.

    Address Parameter: TLV

    This field contains an IPv4 or IPv6 address parameter as described
    in 3.3.2.1 of RFC2960. The complete TLV is wrapped within this
    parameter.  It informs the receiver that the address specified is to
    be added to the existing association.

    An example TLV requesting that the IPv4 address 10.1.1.1 be
    added to the association would look as follows:

        +--------------------------------+
        |  Type=0xC001   | Length = 16   |
        +--------------------------------+
        |       C-ID = 0x01023474        |
        +--------------------------------+
        |  Type=5        | Length = 8    |
        +----------------+---------------+
        |       Value=0x0a010101         |
        +----------------+---------------+

    Valid Chunk Appearance

    The Add IP Address parameter may only appear in the ASCONF Chunk
    type.

    3.2.2 Delete IP Address

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |        Type =0xC002           |    Length = Variable          |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |               ASCONF-Request Correlation ID                   |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                       Address Parameter                       |

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    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

    ASCONF-Request Correlation ID: 32 bits

    This is an opaque integer assigned by the sender to identify each
    request parameter. It is in host byte order and is only meaningful
    to the sender. The receiver of the ASCONF Chunk will copy this 32
    bit value into the ASCONF Response Correlation ID field of the
    ASCONF-ACK response parameter. The sender of the ASCONF can use this
    same value in the ASCONF-ACK to find which request the response is
    for.

    Address Parameter: TLV

    This field contains an IPv4 or IPv6 address parameter as described in
    3.3.2.1 of [RFC2960]. The complete TLV is wrapped within this
    parameter.  It informs the receiver that the address specified is to
    be removed from the existing association.

    An example TLV deleting the IPv4 address 10.1.1.1 from an existing
    association would look as follows:

        +--------------------------------+
        |  Type=0xC002   | Length = 16   |
        +--------------------------------+
        |       C-ID = 0x01023476        |
        +--------------------------------+
        |  Type=5        | Length = 8    |
        +----------------+---------------+
        |       Value=0x0a010101         |
        +----------------+---------------+


    Valid Chunk Appearance

    The Delete IP Address parameter may only appear in the ASCONF Chunk
    type.



    3.2.3 Error Cause Indication

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |    Type = 0xC003              |      Length = Variable        |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |             ASCONF-Response Correlation ID                    |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |             Error Cause(s) or Return Info on Success          |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


    ASCONF-Response Correlation ID: 32 bits

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    This is an opaque integer assigned by the sender to identify each
    request parameter. The receiver of the ASCONF Chunk will copy this 32
    bit value from the ASCONF-Request Correlation ID into the ASCONF
    Response Correlation ID field so the peer can easily correlate the
    request to this response.

    Error Cause(s): TLV(s)

    When reporting an error this response parameter is used to wrap
    one or more standard error causes normally found within an SCTP
    Operational Error or SCTP Abort (as defined in [RFC2960]). The
    Error Cause(s) follow the format defined in section 3.3.10 of
    [RFC2960].

    Valid Chunk Appearance

    The Error Cause Indication parameter may only appear in the
    ASCONF-ACK chunk type.

    3.2.4 Set Primary IP Address

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |        Type =0xC004           |    Length = Variable          |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |               ASCONF-Request Correlation ID                   |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                       Address Parameter                       |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

    ASCONF-Request Correlation ID: 32 bits

    This is an opaque integer assigned by the sender to identify each
    request parameter. It is in host byte order and is only meaningful
    to the sender. The receiver of the ASCONF Chunk will copy this 32
    bit value into the ASCONF Response Correlation ID field of the
    ASCONF-ACK response parameter. The sender of the ASCONF can use this
    same value in the ASCONF-ACK to find which request the response is
    for.

    Address Parameter: TLV

    This field contains an IPv4 or IPv6 address parameter as described in
    3.3.2.1 of [RFC2960]. The complete TLV is wrapped within this
    parameter.  It requests the receiver to mark the specified address
    as the primary address to send data to (see section 5.1.2 of
    [RFC2960]). The receiver MAY mark this as its primary upon
    receiving this request.

    An example TLV requesting that the IPv4 address 10.1.1.1 be made the
    primary destination address would look as follows:


Stewart et.al.                                                  [Page 8]


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        +--------------------------------+
        |  Type=0xC004   | Length = 18   |
        +--------------------------------+
        |       C-ID = 0x01023479        |
        +--------------------------------+
        |  Type=5        | Length = 8    |
        +----------------+---------------+
        |       Value=0x0a010101         |
        +----------------+---------------+

    Valid Chunk Appearance

    The Set Primary IP Address parameter may appear in the ASCONF Chunk,
    the INIT, or the INIT-ACK chunk type. The inclusion of this parameter
    in the INIT or INIT-ACK can be used to indicate an initial preference
    of primary address.


    3.2.5 Success Indication

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |        Type = 0xC005          |      Length = 8               |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |               ASCONF-Response Correlation ID                   |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


    By default if a responding endpoint does not report an error for any
    requested TLV, a success is implicitly indicated. Thus a sender of a
    ASCONF-ACK MAY indicate complete success of all TLVs in an ASCONF by
    returning only the Chunk Type, Chunk Flags, Chunk Length (set to 8)
    and the Serial Number.

    The responding endpoint MAY also choose to explicitly report a
    success for a requested TLV, by returning a success report ASCONF
    Parameter Response.

    ASCONF-Response Correlation ID: 32 bits

    This is an opaque integer assigned by the sender to identify each
    request parameter. The receiver of the ASCONF Chunk will copy this 32
    bit value from the ASCONF-Request Correlation ID into the ASCONF
    Response Correlation ID field so the peer can easily correlate the
    request to this response.

    Valid Chunk Appearance

    The Success Indication parameter may only appear in the ASCONF-ACK
    chunk type.


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    3.2.6 Adaption Layer Indication

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |        Type =0xC006           |    Length = Variable          |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                      Reserved Bit Fields                      |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

    This parameter is specified for the communication of peer upper
    layer protocols. It is envisioned to be used for flow control
    and other adaption layers that require an indication to be
    carried in the INIT and INIT-ACK. Each adaption layer that
    is defined that wishes to use this parameter MUST specify
    a bit in the reserved bit field in an appropriate RFC. This
    parameter SHOULD NOT be examined by the receiving SCTP
    implementation and should be passed opaquely to the upper
    layer protocol.

    Valid Chunk Appearance

    The Adaption Layer Indication parameter may appear in INIT or
    INIT-ACK chunk and SHOULD be passed to the receivers upper layer
    protocol.

    3.3  New Error Causes

    Four new Error Causes are added to the SCTP Operational Errors,
    primarily for use in the ASCONF-ACK chunk.

    Cause Code
    Value          Cause Code
    ---------      ----------------
    0x000B          Request to Delete Last Remaining IP Address.
    0x000C          Operation Refused Due to Resource Shortage.
    0x000D          Request to Delete Source IP Address.
    0x000E          Association Aborted due to illegal ASCONF-ACK

          Table 3: New Error Causes

    3.3.1 Error Cause: Request to Delete Last Remaining IP Address

    Cause of error
    ---------------
    Request to Delete Last Remaining IP address: The receiver of this
    error sent a request to delete the last IP address from its
    association with its peer. This error indicates that the request is
    rejected.


     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |     Cause Code=0x000B         |      Cause Length=Variable    |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

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    \                     TLV-Copied-From-ASCONF                    /
    /                                                               \
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

    An example of a failed delete in an Error Cause TLV would look as
    follows in the response ASCONF-ACK message:

        +--------------------------------+
        | Type = 0xC003  | Length = 24   |
        +--------------------------------+
        |       C-ID = 0x01023476        |
        +--------------------------------+
        |  Cause=0x000B  | Length = 16   |
        +----------------+---------------+
        |  Type= 0xC002  | Length = 12   |
        +----------------+---------------+
        |   Type=0x0005  | Length = 8    |
        +----------------+---------------+
        |       Value=0x0A010101         |
        +----------------+---------------+

    3.3.2 Error Cause: Operation Refused Due to Resource Shortage

    Cause of error
    ---------------
    This error cause is used to report a failure by the receiver to
    perform the requested operation due to a lack of resources.  The
    entire TLV that is refused is copied from the ASCONF into the
    error cause.

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |     Cause Code=0x000C         |      Cause Length=Variable    |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    \                  TLV-Copied-From-ASCONF                      /
    /                                                              \
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

    An example of a failed addition in an Error Cause TLV would look as
    follows in the response ASCONF-ACK message:

        +--------------------------------+
        | Type = 0xC003  | Length = 24   |
        +--------------------------------+
        |       C-ID = 0x01023474        |
        +--------------------------------+
        |  Cause=0x000C  | Length = 16   |
        +----------------+---------------+
        |  Type=0xC001   | Length = 12   |
        +--------------------------------+
        |  Type=0x0005   | Length = 8    |
        +----------------+---------------+
        |       Value=0x0A010101         |

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        +----------------+---------------+

    3.3.3 Error Cause: Request to Delete Source IP Address

    Cause of error
    ---------------
    Request to Delete Source IP Address: The receiver of this error sent
    a request to delete the source IP address of the ASCONF
    message. This error indicates that the request is rejected.

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |     Cause Code=0x000D         |      Cause Length=Variable    |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    \                    TLV-Copied-From-ASCONF                     /
    /                                                               \
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

    An example of a failed delete in an Error Cause TLV would look as
    follows in the response ASCONF-ACK message:

        +--------------------------------+
        | Type = 0xC003  | Length = 24   |
        +--------------------------------+
        |       C-ID = 0x01023476        |
        +--------------------------------+
        |  Cause=0x000D  | Length = 16   |
        +----------------+---------------+
        |  Type=0xC002   | Length = 12   |
        +----------------+---------------+
        |   Type=0x0005  | Length = 8    |
        +----------------+---------------+
        |       Value=0x0A010101         |
        +----------------+---------------+

    IMPLEMENTATION NOTE: It is unlikely that an endpoint would source
    a packet from the address being deleted, unless the endpoint
    does not do proper source address selection.


    3.3.4 Error Cause: Association Aborted due to illegal ASCONF-ACK

    This error is to be included in an ABORT that is generated due
    to the reception of an ASCONF-ACK that was not expected but
    would have been the next correct ASCONF-ACK (see section
    4.3 rule D0).


     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |     Cause Code=0x000E         |      Cause Length=4           |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


    4. Procedures

    This section will lay out the specific procedures for address
    configuration change chunk type and its processing.


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    4.1 ASCONF Chunk Procedures

    When an endpoint has an ASCONF signaled change to be sent to the
    remote endpoint it should do the following:

    A1) Create an ASCONF Chunk as defined in section 3.1.1. The chunk
    should contain all of the TLV(s) of information necessary to be
    sent to the remote endpoint, and unique correlation identities for
    each request.

    A2) A serial number should be assigned to the Chunk. The serial
    number should be a monotonically increasing number. All serial
    numbers are defined to be initialized at the start of the
    association to the same value as the Initial TSN and are incremented
    by one.

    A3) If no ASCONF Chunk is outstanding (un-acknowledged) with the
    remote peer, send the chunk.

    A4) Start a T-4 RTO timer, using the RTO value of the selected
    destination address (normally the primary path; see [RFC2960] section
    6.4 for details).

    A5) When the ASCONF-ACK that acknowledges the serial number last
    sent arrives, stop the T-4 RTO timer, and clear the appropriate
    association and destination error counters as defined in [RFC2960]
    section 8.1 and 8.2.

    A6) Process all of the TLVs within the ASCONF-ACK to find out
    particular status information returned to the various requests that
    were sent. Use the Correlation IDs to correlate the request and the
    responses.

    A7) If an error response is received for a TLV parameter,
    all TLVs with no response before the failed TLV are considered
    successful if not reported.  All TLVs after the failed response are
    considered unsuccessful unless a specific success indication is
    present for the parameter.

    A8) If there is no response(s) to specific TLV parameter(s), and no
    failures are indicated, then all request(s) are considered
    successful.

    A9) If the peer responds to a ASCONF with an unrecognized chunk type,
    the sender of the ASCONF MUST NOT send any further ASCONF chunks and
    MUST stop its T-4 timer.

    If the T-4 RTO timer expires the endpoint should do the following:

    B1) Increment the error counters and perform path failure detection
    on the appropriate destination address as defined in [RFC2960]
    section 8.1 and 8.2.

    B2) Increment the association error counters and perform endpoint

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    failure detection on the association as defined in [RFC2960] section
    8.1 and 8.2.

    B3) Back-off the destination address RTO value to which the ASCONF
    chunk was sent by doubling the RTO timer value.

    Note: The RTO value is used in the setting of all timer types
    for SCTP. Each destination address has a single RTO estimate.

    B4) Re-transmit the ASCONF Chunk last sent and if possible choose an
    alternate destination address (please refer to [RFC2960] section
    6.4.1). An endpoint MUST NOT add new parameters to this chunk, it
    MUST be the same (including its serial number) as the last ASCONF
    sent.

    B5) Restart the T-4 RTO timer. Note that if a different destination is
    selected, then the RTO used will be that of the new destination
    address.

    Note: the total number of re-transmissions is limited by B2
    above. If the maximum is reached, the association will fail and enter
    a CLOSED state (see [RFC2960] section 6.4.1 for details).

    4.1.1 Congestion Control of ASCONF Chunks

    In defining the ASCONF Chunk transfer procedures, it is essential
    that these transfers MUST NOT cause congestion within the network.
    To achieve this, we place these restrictions on the transfer of
    ASCONF Chunks:

    R1) One and only one ASCONF Chunk MAY be in transit and
    unacknowledged at any one time.  If a sender, after sending an ASCONF
    chunk, decides it needs to transfer another ASCONF Chunk, it MUST
    wait until the ASCONF-ACK Chunk returns from the previous ASCONF
    Chunk before sending a subsequent ASCONF. Note this restriction
    binds each side, so at any time two ASCONF may be in-transit on any
    given association (one sent from each endpoint).

    R2) An ASCONF may be bundled with any other chunk type (except other
    ASCONF Chunks).

    R3) An ASCONF-ACK may be bundled with any other chunk type except
    other ASCONF-ACKs.

    R4) Both ASCONF and ASCONF-ACK chunks MUST NOT be sent in any SCTP
    state except ESTABLISHED.

    R5) An ASCONF MUST NOT be larger than the path MTU of the destination.

    R6) An ASCONF-ACK SHOULD not be larger than the path MTU. In some
    circumstances an ASCONF-ACK may exceed the path MTU and in such
    a case IP fragmentation must be used.

    If the sender of an ASCONF Chunk receives an Operational Error

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    indicating that the ASCONF chunk type is not understood, then the
    sender MUST not send subsequent ASCONF Chunks to the peer. The
    endpoint should also inform the upper layer application that the
    peer endpoint does not support any of the extensions detailed in this
    document.


    4.2 Upon reception of an ASCONF Chunk.

    When an endpoint receives an ASCONF Chunk from the remote peer
    special procedures MAY be needed to identify the association
    the ASCONF Chunk is associated with. To properly find the
    association the following procedures should be followed:

    L1) Use the source address and port number of the sender to
    attempt to identify the association (i.e. use the same method
    defined in [RFC2960] used for all other SCTP chunks ). If found
    proceed to rule L4.

    L2) If the association is not found, use the address found
    in the Address Bytes field combined with the port number
    found in the SCTP common header. If found proceed to rule
    L4.

    L3) If neither L1 or L2 locates the association, treat
    the chunk as an Out Of The Blue chunk as defined in
    [RFC2960].

    L4) Follow the normal rules to validate the SCTP verification
    tag found in [RFC2960].

    After identification and verification of the association,
    the following should be performed to properly process the ASCONF Chunk:

    C1) Compare the value of the serial number to the value the endpoint
    stored in a new association variable 'Peer-Serial-Number'.  This
    value MUST be initialized to the Initial TSN value minus 1.

    C2) If the value found in the serial number is equal to the
    ('Peer-Serial-Number' + 1), the endpoint MUST:

      V1) Process the TLVs contained within the Chunk performing the
      appropriate actions as indicated by each TLV type.  The TLVs MUST
      be processed in order within the Chunk. For example, if the sender
      puts 3 TLVs in one chunk, the first TLV (the one closest to the
      Chunk Header) in the Chunk MUST be processed first. The next TLV in
      the chunk (the middle one) MUST be processed second and finally the
      last TLV in the Chunk MUST be processed last.

      V2) In processing the chunk, the receiver should build a response
      message with the appropriate error TLVs, as specified in the
      Parameter type bits for any ASCONF Parameter it does not understand.
      To indicate an unrecognized parameter, cause type 8 as defined
      in the INIT-ACK in 3.3.10.8 of [RFC2960] should be used. The

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      endpoint may also use the response to carry rejections for other
      reasons such as resource shortages etc using the Error Cause TLV and
      an appropriate error condition.

      Note: a positive response is implied if no error is indicated by the
      sender.

      V3) All error responses MUST copy the ASCONF-Request Correlation ID
      field received in the ASCONF, from the TLV being responded to, into
      the ASCONF-Request Correlation ID field. The ASCONF-Request
      Correlation ID always precedes the request TLV. Note that a
      TLV sent in an ASCONF-ACK MUST be accompanied by a Correlation ID
      and a Correlation ID MUST NOT be sent without a TLV i.e. the two
      are atomic.

      V4) After processing the entire Chunk, it MUST send all TLVs for
      both unrecognized parameters and any other status TLVs inside the
      ASCONF-ACK chunk that acknowledges the arrival and processing of the
      ASCONF Chunk.

      V5) Update the 'Peer-Serial-Number' to the value found in the serial
      number field.

    C3) If the value found in the serial number is equal to the value
    stored in the 'Peer-Serial-Number', the endpoint should:

      X1) Parse the ASCONF Chunk TLVs but the endpoint MUST NOT take any
      action on the TLVs parsed (since it has already performed these
      actions).

      X2) Build a response message with the appropriate response TLVs
      as specified in the ASCONF Parameter type bits, for any
      parameter it does not understand or could not process.

      X3) After parsing the entire Chunk, it MUST send any response
      TLV errors and status with an ASCONF-ACK chunk acknowledging the
      arrival and processing of the ASCONF Chunk.

      X4) The endpoint MUST NOT update its 'Peer-Serial-Number'.

    Note: the response to the retransmitted ASCONF MUST be the same
    as the original response. This MAY mean an implementation must
    keep state in order to respond with the same exact answer
    (including resource considerations that may have made the
    implementation refuse a request).

    IMPLEMENTATION NOTE: As an optimization a receiver may wish to save
    the last ASCONF-ACK for some predetermined period of time and
    instead of re-processing the ASCONF (with the same serial number) it
    may just re-transmit the ASCONF-ACK. It may wish to use the arrival
    of a new serial number to discard the previously saved ASCONF-ACK or
    any other means it may choose to expire the saved ASCONF-ACK.

    C4) Otherwise, the ASCONF Chunk is discarded since it must be either

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    a stale packet or from an attacker. A receiver of such a packet MAY
    log the event for security purposes.

    C5) In both cases C2 and C3 the ASCONF-ACK MUST be sent back to the
    source address contained in the IP header of the ASCONF being
    responded to.


    4.3 General rules for address manipulation

    When building TLV parameters for the ASCONF Chunk that
    will add or delete IP addresses the following rules should be
    applied:

    D0) If an endpoint receives an ASCONF-ACK but no ASCONF chunk
    is outstanding the endpoint MUST ABORT the association.

    D1) When adding an IP address to an association, the IP address is
    NOT considered fully added to the association until the ASCONF-ACK
    arrives. This means that until such time as the ASCONF containing
    the add is acknowledged the sender MUST NOT use the new IP address
    as a source for ANY SCTP packet except on carrying an ASCONF chunk.
    The receiver of the add IP address request may use the
    address as a destination immediately.

    D2) After the ASCONF-ACK of an IP address add arrives, the
    endpoint MAY begin using the added IP address as a source
    address for any type of SCTP chunk.

    D3a) If an endpoint receives an Error Cause TLV indicating that the
    IP address Add or IP address Deletion parameters was not understood,
    the endpoint MUST consider the operation failed and MUST NOT attempt
    to send any subsequent Add or Delete requests to the peer.

    D3b) If an endpoint receives an Error Cause TLV indicating that the
    IP address Set Primary IP Address parameter was not understood,
    the endpoint MUST consider the operation failed and MUST NOT attempt
    to send any subsequent Set Primary IP Address requests to the peer.

    D4) When deleting an IP address from an association, the IP address
    MUST be considered a valid destination address for the reception of
    SCTP packets until the ASCONF-ACK arrives and MUST NOT be used as a
    source address for any subsequent packets. This means that any
    datagrams that arrive before the ASCONF-ACK destined to the IP address
    being deleted MUST be considered part of the current
    association. One special consideration is that ABORT chunks arriving
    destined to the IP address being deleted MUST be ignored (see
    Section 4.3.1 for further details).

    D5) An endpoint MUST NOT delete its last remaining IP address from an
    association. In other words if an endpoint is NOT multi-homed it
    MUST NOT use the delete IP address without an add IP address preceding
    the delete parameter in the ASCONF chunk. Or if an endpoint sends
    multiple requests to delete IP addresses it MUST NOT delete all

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    of the IP addresses that the peer has listed for the requester.

    D6) An endpoint MUST NOT set an IP header source address for an SCTP
    packet holding the ASCONF Chunk to be the same as an address being
    deleted by the ASCONF Chunk.

    D7) If a request is received to delete the last remaining IP address
    of a peer endpoint, the receiver MUST send an Error Cause TLV with
    the error cause set to the new error code 'Request to Delete Last
    Remaining IP Address'. The requested delete MUST NOT be performed or
    acted upon, other than to send the ASCONF-ACK.

    D8) If a request is received to delete an IP address which is also
    the source address of the IP packet which contained the ASCONF
    chunk, the receiver MUST reject this request.  To reject the request
    the receiver MUST send an Error Cause TLV set to the new error code
    'Request to Delete Source IP Address' (unless Rule D5 has also been
    violated, in which case the error code 'Request to Delete Last
    Remaining IP Address' is sent).

    D9) If an endpoint receives an ADD IP address request and does not
    have the local resources to add this new address to the association,
    it MUST return an Error Cause TLV set to the new error code
    'Operation Refused Due to Resource Shortage'.

    D10) If an endpoint receives an 'Out of Resource' error in response
    to its request to ADD an IP address to an association, it must
    either ABORT the association or not consider the address part of the
    association. In other words if the endpoint does not ABORT the
    association, it must consider the add attempt failed and NOT use
    this address since its peer will  treat SCTP packets destined to
    the address as Out Of The Blue packets.

    D11) When an endpoint receiving an ASCONF to add an IP address sends
    an 'Out of Resource' in its response, it MUST also fail any
    subsequent add or delete requests bundled in the ASCONF.  The
    receiver MUST NOT reject an ADD and then accept a subsequent DELETE
    of an IP address in the same ASCONF Chunk. In other words, once a
    receiver begins failing any ADD or DELETE request, it must fail all
    subsequent ADD or DELETE requests contained in that single ASCONF.

    D12) When an endpoint receives a request to delete an IP address
    that is the current primary address, it is an implementation
    decision as to how that endpoint chooses the new primary address.

    D13) When an endpoint receives a valid request to DELETE an IP
    address the endpoint MUST consider the address no longer as part of
    the association. It MUST NOT send SCTP packets for the association
    to that address and it MUST treat subsequent packets received from
    that address as Out Of The Blue.

    During the time interval between sending out the ASCONF and
    receiving the ASCONF-ACK it MAY be possible to receive DATA chunks
    out of order. The following examples illustrate these problems:

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    Endpoint-A                                     Endpoint-Z
    ----------                                     ----------
    ASCONF[Add-IP:X]------------------------------>
                                            /--ASCONF-ACK
                                           /
                                 /--------/---New DATA:
                                /        /    Destination
           <-------------------/        /     IP:X
                                       /
           <--------------------------/

    In the above example we see a new IP address (X) being added to
    the Endpoint-A. However due to packet re-ordering in the network
    a new DATA chunk is sent and arrives at Endpoint-A before
    the ASCONF-ACK confirming the add of the address to the association.

    A similar problem exists with the deletion of an IP address as
    follows:

    Endpoint-A                                     Endpoint-Z
    ----------                                     ----------
                                 /------------New DATA:
                                /             Destination
                               /              IP:X
    ASCONF [DEL-IP:X]---------/---------------->
           <-----------------/------------------ASCONF-ACK
                            /
                           /
            <-------------/

    In this example we see a DATA chunk destined to the IP:X (which is
    about to be deleted) arriving after the deletion is complete.
    For the ADD case an endpoint SHOULD consider the newly adding IP
    address valid for the association to receive data from during the
    interval when awaiting the ASCONF-ACK. The endpoint MUST NOT source
    data from this new address until the ASCONF-ACK arrives but it may
    receive out of order data as illustrated and MUST NOT treat this
    data as an OOTB datagram (please see [RFC2960] section 8.4). It MAY
    drop the data silently or it MAY consider it part of the association
    but it MUST NOT respond with an ABORT.

    For the DELETE case, an endpoint MAY respond to the late arriving DATA
    packet as an OOTB datagram or it MAY hold the deleting IP address for a
    small period of time as still valid. If it treats the DATA packet as
    an OOTB the peer will silently discard the ABORT (since by the time
    the ABORT is sent the peer will have removed the IP address from this
    association). If the endpoint elects to hold the IP address valid for
    a period of time, it MUST NOT hold it valid longer than 2 RTO
    intervals for the destination being removed.

    4.3.1 A special case for OOTB ABORT chunks

    Another case worth mentioning is illustrated below:

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    Endpoint-A                                     Endpoint-Z
    ----------                                     ----------

    New DATA:------------\
    Source IP:X           \
                           \
    ASCONF-REQ[DEL-IP:X]----\------------------>
                             \        /---------ASCONF-ACK
                              \      /
                               \----/-----------> OOTB
    (Ignored <---------------------/-------------ABORT
     by rule D4)                  /
           <---------------------/

    For this case, during the deletion of an IP address, an
    Abort MUST be ignored if the destination address of the
    Abort message is that of a destination being deleted.

    4.3.2 A special case for changing an address.

    In some instances the sender may only have one IP address in an
    association that is being renumbered. When this occurs, the sender
    may not be able to send to the peer the appropriate ADD/DELETE pair
    and use the old address as a source in the IP header. For this
    reason the sender MUST fill in the Address Bytes field with an
    address that is part of the association (in this case the one being
    deleted). This will allow the receiver to locate the association
    without using the source address found in the IP header.

    The receiver of such a chunk MUST always first use the source address
    found in the IP header in looking up the association.  The
    receiver should attempt to use the address found in the Address
    Bytes field only if the lookup fails using the source address from
    the IP header.  The receiver MUST reply to the source address
    of the packet in this case which is the new address that
    was added by the ASCONF (since the old address is no longer a part
    of the association after processing).

    4.4 Setting of the primary address

    A sender of this option may elect to send this combined with
    a deletion or addition of an address. A sender SHOULD only send
    a set primary request to an address that is already considered
    part of the association. In other words if a sender combines
    a set primary with an add of a new IP address the set primary
    will be discarded unless the add request is to be processed
    BEFORE the set primary (i.e. it precedes the set primary).

    A request to set primary MAY also appear in an INIT or INIT-ACK
    chunk. This can give advice to the peer endpoint as to which
    of its addresses the sender of the INIT or INIT-ACK would prefer
    to be used as the primary address.


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    The request to set an address as the primary path is an option the
    receiver SHOULD perform. It is considered advice to the receiver of
    the best destination address to use in sending SCTP packets (in the
    requesters view). If a request arrives that asks the receiver to
    set an address as primary that does not exist, the receiver should
    NOT honor the request, leaving its existing primary address
    unchanged.

    5. Abstract description of SCTP addressing

    The following text provides a working definitions to discuss
    addIP. We need to distinguish a list of IP addresses and a wildcard
    address. This corresponds to binding a set of addresses or binding
    the wildcard INADDR_ANY in a sockets API. Using this notation we can
    thus state the rules for using add-ip.

    A host is a set of IP addresses H={IP1, ..., IPN}

    An sock-endpoint at a host H is a pair of a set of IP addresses and
    a port number:

    sE = ({IP1, ..., IPn}, Port) where either {IP1, ..., IPn} is a
    subset of H or n=1 and IP1 = Wildcard (we abbreviate wildcard as
    '*').

    Note: do not confuse sock-endpoint with RFC2960 endpoint definition.
    They are logically different. In order to make them equivalent
    no wildcards must be used and the subset selected must always
    be the whole set i.e.:

      If sE = ({IP1, ..., IPn}, Port} is a sock-endpoint and A is an
      association for which sE is an sock-endpoint, then
      Addr(sE, A) = {IP1, ..., IPn}.

    In this special case a sock-endpoint is an endpoint in the sense
    of RFC2960.

    The set of IP addresses of an sock-endpoint is defined as Addr(sE) =
    {IP1, ..., IPn}.

    The port number of sE is defined as Port(sE) = Port.

    Sock-Endpoint(H,Port) denotes the set of all sock-endpoints with
    port 'Port'.

    For two different sock-endpoints sE' and sE'' at the same host with
    the same port number Addr(sE') <> {Wildcard} <> Addr(sE'') holds and
    Addr(sE') and Addr(sE'') are disjoint.

    This means that exactly one of the following is true:
    Sock-Endpoint(H,Port) is

    - empty


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    - contains one Element sE with Addr(sE)={Wildcard}

    - contains more than one Element where Addr(sE) <> {Wildcard} and
      all Addr(sE) are disjoin


    While establishing an association A between endpoints sE' and sE''
    at host H' and H'' two subsets are defined: Addr(sE',A) and
    Addr(sE'',A).

    Addr(sE',A) is defined:

    If Addr(sE') is the {Wildcard} then
       Addr(sE',A) is a subset of H'
    else
       Addr(sE',A) is subset of Addr(sE')

    The subset may be defined by scoping of the addresses set for
    routeablility.

    Addr(sE,A) thus describes the set of IP addresses of E used for A
    (Note this definition is the canonical endpoint represented in
    [RFC2960]).

    This is because Addr(sE',A) is what sE' sends in its INIT/INIT-ACK
    to sE'' and Addr(sE'',A) is what sE'' sends in its INIT/INIT-ACK to
    sE'. This is consistent with RFC2960. When you perform either add-ip
    or delete-ip later on in the life of the association, you are simply
    modifying Addr(sE',A) and Addr(sE'',A).

    Association establishment between sE' and sE'' can be seen as:

    1. sE' and sE'' do exist before the association. The same is thus
       true for H' and H''. Therefore Addr(sE') and Addr(sE'') are known.
       This corresponds to sockets bound to some addresses or INADDR_ANY.

    Note: the binding function can be either specific or wildcarded.
    When it is specific we have, Addr(sE') <= H'; where "=" happens when
    we specifically bind every addresses of H' to sE'.  When it is
    wildcarded we have, Addr(sE') == H'; A wildcard is resolved at the
    point of time when an association is established.

    2. When an association is setup between a pair of endpoints the
       following is performed:

     A. Introduce a temporary Set S' and S'' where:
        If Addr(sE') is the wildcard
           S' = H'
        else
           S' = Addr(sE')

     B. Replace S' by a subset of S' by some limitation (address
        scoping for example). So  S' <= Addr(sE'); In some cases
        this may not reduce the set of addresses.

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        In other words S' is a subset (or full-set) of Addr(sE'),
        determined by applying some specific limitation/scoping rules
        to Addr(sE') at a specific point in time.

        The same is true for S''.

     C. S' and S'' are the addresses used by the association. So if sE' is
        the client (the one sending the INIT), you generate S' first and
        then, send the INIT using the generated address set S'.


    3. After the association has been established Addr(sE', A) = S' and
       Addr(sE'',A) = S'' for this association.

    Thus the correct definition is the following:

    An association is a pair of pairs A=((sE', S'), (sE'',S'')).  We
    define Addr(sE',A)=S' with the restriction that Addr(sE',A) is a
    subset of Addr(sE') if Addr(sE') is not the wildcard.  If Addr(sE')
    is the wildcard then Addr(sE',A) is a subset of H'.

    The following are the rules that can then be applied when using
    add-ip with these definition:

    R1) If Addr(sE) = {Wildcard} then when H gets a new element, it is
        automatically added to sE.

    R1.1) You MAY add that address to Addr(sE, A) for all associations
          where sE belongs to A using an ASCONF.

    R2) If Addr(sE) <> {Wildcard} you can explicitly add an Address of H
        (possibly a new one) to Addr(sE) if this address is not an Element
        of Addr(sE') for all sE <> sE' in Endpoint(H, Port(E)).

     R2.1) You MAY add that address to Addr(sE, A) for all associations
           where sE belongs to A using an ASCONF.

    R3) An address may be deleted from Addr(sE,A) reducing S' to a
        smaller sub-set.

    R4) An address may be deleted from endpoint E with the following
        considerations:

        If Addr(sE) = {*} then
          any address of Addr(sE,A) can be removed anytime.
        else
          An address can be removed from sE only after it has
          been removed form all associations sE belongs to.

        Note that during the removal of an address (before all
        associations have removed the address for Addr(sE,A)) an
        endpoint sE SHOULD NOT put the address being deleted in
        any new S' chosen for new associations.

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    R5) You can delete an address from H only after it has been removed
        from all socket-endpoints at host H.

        Note that R5) applies to the logical removal of the address
        from a host NOT the physical removal. When an address is
        physically removed, it stays logically a part of the host
        until it is removed from all socket-endpoints and associations.
        During this period the selection for S' MUST be modified NOT
        to include the address being removed.

    6. Security Considerations

    The ADD/DELETE of an IP address to an existing association does
    provide an additional mechanism by which existing associations can
    be hijacked.  Where the attacker is able to intercept and or alter
    the packets sent and received in an association, the use of this
    feature MAY increase the ease with which an association may be
    overtaken. This threat SHOULD be considered when deploying a version
    of SCTP that makes use of this feature. The IP Authentication Header
    [RFC2402] SHOULD be used when the threat environment requires
    stronger integrity protections, but does not require
    confidentiality. It should be noted that in the base SCTP
    specification [RFC2960], if an attacker is able to intercept and or
    alter packets, even without this feature it is possible to hijack an
    existing association; please refer to Section 11 of RFC2960.

    7. IANA considerations

    This document defines the following new SCTP parameters, chunks
    and errors:

     - Two new chunk types,
     - Six parameter types, and
     - Three new SCTP error causes.

    8.  Acknowledgments

    The authors wish to thank Jon Berger, Peter Lei, John Loughney, Ivan
    Arias Rodriguez, Renee Revis, Marshall Rose, and Chip Sharp for
    their invaluable comments.

    9. Authors' Addresses

    Randall R. Stewart                      Tel: +1-815-477-2127
    Cisco Systems, Inc.                     EMail: rrs@cisco.com
    8745 W. Higgins Road, Suite 200
    Chicago, Ill  60631
    USA

    Micheal A. Ramalho                      Tel: +1-732-809-0188
    Cisco Systems, Inc.                EMail: mramalho@cisco.com
    1802 Rue de la Porte
    Wall Township, NJ 0719-3784

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    Qiaobing Xie                            Tel: +1-847-632-3028
    Motorola, Inc.                    EMail: qxie1@email.mot.com
    1501 W. Shure Drive, #2309
    Arlington Heights, IL 60004
    USA

    Michael Tuexen                          Tel: +49-89-722-47210
    SIEMENS AG               EMail: Michael.Tuexen@icn.siemens.de
    Hofmannstr. 51
    81359 Munich
    Germany

    Ian Rytina                              Tel: +61-3-9301-6164
    Ericsson Australia             EMail:ian.rytina@ericsson.com
    37/360 Elizabeth Street
    Melbourne, Victoria 3000
    Australia

    Maria-Carmen Belinchon
                           EMail:emecbv@madrid.es.eu.ericsson.se


    Phil Conrad                            Tel: +1-215-204-7910
    Netlab Research Group                  Email conrad@acm.org
    Dept. Of Computer &
    Information Sciences
    Temple University
    1805 N Broad St.
    Philadelphia, PA 19122
    USA

    10. Normative References

    [RFC2960] R. R. Stewart, Q. Xie, K. Morneault, C. Sharp,
        H. J. Schwarzbauer, T. Taylor, I. Rytina, M. Kalla, L. Zhang,
        and, V. Paxson, "Stream Control Transmission Protocol," RFC
        2960, October 2000.

    [RFC2026] Bradner, S., "The Internet Standards Process -- Revision
        3", RFC 2026, October 1996.

    [RFC2119] Bradner, S. "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
        Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

    [RFC2402] S. Kent, R. Atkinson., "IP Authentication Header.", RFC
        2402, November 1998.

      This Internet Draft expires in 6 months from May, 2001






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