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Versions: (draft-fairhurst-tsvwg-datagram-plpmtud) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 21

Internet Engineering Task Force                             G. Fairhurst
Internet-Draft                                                  T. Jones
Updates: 4821, 4960, 6951, 8085, 8261 (if         University of Aberdeen
         approved)                                             M. Tuexen
Intended status: Standards Track                            I. Ruengeler
Expires: 13 November 2020                                     T. Voelker
                                 Muenster University of Applied Sciences
                                                             12 May 2020


     Packetization Layer Path MTU Discovery for Datagram Transports
                  draft-ietf-tsvwg-datagram-plpmtud-21

Abstract

   This document describes a robust method for Path MTU Discovery
   (PMTUD) for datagram Packetization Layers (PLs).  It describes an
   extension to RFC 1191 and RFC 8201, which specifies ICMP-based Path
   MTU Discovery for IPv4 and IPv6.  The method allows a PL, or a
   datagram application that uses a PL, to discover whether a network
   path can support the current size of datagram.  This can be used to
   detect and reduce the message size when a sender encounters a packet
   black hole (where packets are discarded).  The method can probe a
   network path with progressively larger packets to discover whether
   the maximum packet size can be increased.  This allows a sender to
   determine an appropriate packet size, providing functionality for
   datagram transports that is equivalent to the Packetization Layer
   PMTUD specification for TCP, specified in RFC 4821.

   This document updates RFC 4821 to specify the PLPMTUD method for
   datagram PLs.  It also updates RFC 8085 to refer to the method
   specified in this document instead of the method in RFC 4821 for use
   with UDP datagrams.  Section 7.3 of RFC 4960 recommends an endpoint
   apply the techniques in RFC 4821 on a per-destination-address basis.
   RFC 4960, RFC 6951, and RFC 8261 are updated to recommend that SCTP,
   SCTP encapsulated in UDP and SCTP encapsulated in DTLS use the method
   specified in this document instead of the method in RFC 4821.

   The document also provides implementation notes for incorporating
   Datagram PMTUD into IETF datagram transports or applications that use
   datagram transports.

   When published, this specification updates RFC 4960, RFC 4821, RFC
   8085 and RFC 8261.







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Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 13 November 2020.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2020 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components
   extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text
   as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
   provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     1.1.  Classical Path MTU Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     1.2.  Packetization Layer Path MTU Discovery  . . . . . . . . .   6
     1.3.  Path MTU Discovery for Datagram Services  . . . . . . . .   7
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   3.  Features Required to Provide Datagram PLPMTUD . . . . . . . .  11
   4.  DPLPMTUD Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     4.1.  PLPMTU Probe Packets  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     4.2.  Confirmation of Probed Packet Size  . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     4.3.  Black Hole Detection and Reducing the PLPMTU  . . . . . .  16
     4.4.  The Maximum Packet Size (MPS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     4.5.  Disabling the Effect of PMTUD . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     4.6.  Response to PTB Messages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
       4.6.1.  Validation of PTB Messages  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
       4.6.2.  Use of PTB Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19



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   5.  Datagram Packetization Layer PMTUD  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     5.1.  DPLPMTUD Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
       5.1.1.  Timers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
       5.1.2.  Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
       5.1.3.  Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
       5.1.4.  Overview of DPLPMTUD Phases . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     5.2.  State Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     5.3.  Search to Increase the PLPMTU . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
       5.3.1.  Probing for a larger PLPMTU . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
       5.3.2.  Selection of Probe Sizes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
       5.3.3.  Resilience to Inconsistent Path Information . . . . .  30
     5.4.  Robustness to Inconsistent Paths  . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
   6.  Specification of Protocol-Specific Methods  . . . . . . . . .  31
     6.1.  Application support for DPLPMTUD with UDP or UDP-Lite . .  31
       6.1.1.  Application Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
       6.1.2.  Application Response  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
       6.1.3.  Sending Application Probe Packets . . . . . . . . . .  32
       6.1.4.  Initial Connectivity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
       6.1.5.  Validating the Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
       6.1.6.  Handling of PTB Messages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     6.2.  DPLPMTUD for SCTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
       6.2.1.  SCTP/IPv4 and SCTP/IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
         6.2.1.1.  Initial Connectivity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
         6.2.1.2.  Sending SCTP Probe Packets  . . . . . . . . . . .  33
         6.2.1.3.  Validating the Path with SCTP . . . . . . . . . .  34
         6.2.1.4.  PTB Message Handling by SCTP  . . . . . . . . . .  34
       6.2.2.  DPLPMTUD for SCTP/UDP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
         6.2.2.1.  Initial Connectivity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
         6.2.2.2.  Sending SCTP/UDP Probe Packets  . . . . . . . . .  35
         6.2.2.3.  Validating the Path with SCTP/UDP . . . . . . . .  35
         6.2.2.4.  Handling of PTB Messages by SCTP/UDP  . . . . . .  35
       6.2.3.  DPLPMTUD for SCTP/DTLS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
         6.2.3.1.  Initial Connectivity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
         6.2.3.2.  Sending SCTP/DTLS Probe Packets . . . . . . . . .  36
         6.2.3.3.  Validating the Path with SCTP/DTLS  . . . . . . .  36
         6.2.3.4.  Handling of PTB Messages by SCTP/DTLS . . . . . .  36
     6.3.  DPLPMTUD for QUIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
       6.3.1.  Initial Connectivity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
       6.3.2.  Sending QUIC Probe Packets  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
       6.3.3.  Validating the Path with QUIC . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
       6.3.4.  Handling of PTB Messages by QUIC  . . . . . . . . . .  37
   7.  Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
   8.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
   9.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
   10. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
     10.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
     10.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  41
   Appendix A.  Revision Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42



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   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47

1.  Introduction

   The IETF has specified datagram transport using UDP, SCTP, and DCCP,
   as well as protocols layered on top of these transports (e.g., SCTP/
   UDP, DCCP/UDP, QUIC/UDP), and direct datagram transport over the IP
   network layer.  This document describes a robust method for Path MTU
   Discovery (PMTUD) that can be used with these transport protocols (or
   the applications that use their transport service) to discover an
   appropriate size of packet to use across an Internet path.

1.1.  Classical Path MTU Discovery

   Classical Path Maximum Transmission Unit Discovery (PMTUD) can be
   used with any transport that is able to process ICMP Packet Too Big
   (PTB) messages (e.g., [RFC1191] and [RFC8201]).  In this document,
   the term PTB message is applied to both IPv4 ICMP Unreachable
   messages (type 3) that carry the error Fragmentation Needed (Type 3,
   Code 4) [RFC0792] and ICMPv6 Packet Too Big messages (Type 2)
   [RFC4443].  When a sender receives a PTB message, it reduces the
   effective MTU to the value reported as the Link MTU in the PTB
   message.  A method from time-to-time increases the packet size in
   attempt to discover an increase in the supported PMTU.  The packets
   sent with a size larger than the current effective PMTU are known as
   probe packets.

   Packets not intended as probe packets are either fragmented to the
   current effective PMTU, or the attempt to send fails with an error
   code.  Applications can be provided with a primitive to let them read
   the Maximum Packet Size (MPS), derived from the current effective
   PMTU.

   Classical PMTUD is subject to protocol failures.  One failure arises
   when traffic using a packet size larger than the actual PMTU is
   black-holed (all datagrams larger than the actual PMTU, are
   discarded).  This could arise when the PTB messages are not delivered
   back to the sender for some reason (see for example [RFC2923]).

   Examples where PTB messages are not delivered include:

   *  The generation of ICMP messages is usually rate limited.  This
      could result in no PTB messages being generated to the sender (see
      section 2.4 of [RFC4443])

   *  ICMP messages can be filtered by middleboxes (including firewalls)
      [RFC4890].  A firewall could be configured with a policy to block




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      incoming ICMP messages, which would prevent reception of PTB
      messages to a sending endpoint behind this firewall.

   *  When the router issuing the ICMP message drops a tunneled packet,
      the resulting ICMP message will be directed to the tunnel ingress.
      This tunnel endpoint is responsible for forwarding the ICMP
      message and also processing the quoted packet within the payload
      field to remove the effect of the tunnel, and return a correctly
      formatted ICMP message to the sender [I-D.ietf-intarea-tunnels].
      Failure to do this prevents the PTB message reaching the original
      sender.

   *  Asymmetry in forwarding can result in there being no return route
      to the original sender, which would prevent an ICMP message being
      delivered to the sender.  This issue can also arise when policy-
      based routing is used, Equal Cost Multipath (ECMP) routing is
      used, or a middlebox acts as an application load balancer.  An
      example is where the path towards the server is chosen by ECMP
      routing depending on bytes in the IP payload.  In this case, when
      a packet sent by the server encounters a problem after the ECMP
      router, then any resulting ICMP message also needs to be directed
      by the ECMP router towards the original sender.

   *  There are additional cases where the next hop destination fails to
      receive a packet because of its size.  This could be due to
      misconfiguration of the layer 2 path between nodes, for instance
      the MTU configured in a layer 2 switch, or misconfiguration of the
      Maximum Receive Unit (MRU).  If a packet is dropped by the link,
      this will not cause a PTB message to be sent to the original
      sender.

   Another failure could result if a node that is not on the network
   path sends a PTB message that attempts to force a sender to change
   the effective PMTU [RFC8201].  A sender can protect itself from
   reacting to such messages by utilizing the quoted packet within a PTB
   message payload to validate that the received PTB message was
   generated in response to a packet that had actually originated from
   the sender.  However, there are situations where a sender would be
   unable to provide this validation.  Examples where validation of the
   PTB message is not possible include:

   *  When a router issuing the ICMP message implements RFC792
      [RFC0792], it is only required to include the first 64 bits of the
      IP payload of the packet within the quoted payload.  There could
      be insufficient bytes remaining for the sender to interpret the
      quoted transport information.





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      Note: The recommendation in RFC1812 [RFC1812] is that IPv4 routers
      return a quoted packet with as much of the original datagram as
      possible without the length of the ICMP datagram exceeding 576
      bytes.  IPv6 routers include as much of the invoking packet as
      possible without the ICMPv6 packet exceeding 1280 bytes [RFC4443].

   *  The use of tunnels/encryption can reduce the size of the quoted
      packet returned to the original source address, increasing the
      risk that there could be insufficient bytes remaining for the
      sender to interpret the quoted transport information.

   *  Even when the PTB message includes sufficient bytes of the quoted
      packet, the network layer could lack sufficient context to
      validate the message, because validation depends on information
      about the active transport flows at an endpoint node (e.g., the
      socket/address pairs being used, and other protocol header
      information).

   *  When a packet is encapsulated/tunneled over an encrypted
      transport, the tunnel/encapsulation ingress might have
      insufficient context, or computational power, to reconstruct the
      transport header that would be needed to perform validation.

   *  When an ICMP message is generated by a router in a network segment
      that has inserted a header into a packet, the quoted packet could
      contain additional protocol header information that was not
      included in the original sent packet, and which the PL sender does
      not process or may not know how to process.  This could disrupt
      the ability of the sender to validate this PTB message.

   *  A Network Address Translation (NAT) device that translates a
      packet header, ought to also translate ICMP messages and update
      the ICMP quoted packet [RFC5508] in that message.  If this is not
      correctly translated then the sender would not be able to
      associate the message with the PL that originated the packet, and
      hence this ICMP message cannot be validated.

1.2.  Packetization Layer Path MTU Discovery

   The term Packetization Layer (PL) has been introduced to describe the
   layer that is responsible for placing data blocks into the payload of
   IP packets and selecting an appropriate MPS.  This function is often
   performed by a transport protocol (e.g., DCCP, RTP, SCTP, QUIC), but
   can also be performed by other encapsulation methods working above
   the transport layer.

   In contrast to PMTUD, Packetization Layer Path MTU Discovery
   (PLPMTUD) [RFC4821] introduced a method that does not rely upon



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   reception and validation of PTB messages.  It is therefore more
   robust than Classical PMTUD.  This has become the recommended
   approach for implementing discovery of the PMTU [BCP145].

   It uses a general strategy where the PL sends probe packets to search
   for the largest size of unfragmented datagram that can be sent over a
   network path.  Probe packets are sent to explore using a larger
   packet size.  If a probe packet is successfully delivered (as
   determined by the PL), then the PLPMTU is raised to the size of the
   successful probe.  If a black hole is detected (e.g., where packets
   of size PLPMTU are consistently not received), the method reduces the
   PLPMTU.

   Datagram PLPMTUD introduces flexibility in implementation.  At one
   extreme, it can be configured to only perform Black Hole Detection
   and recovery with increased robustness compared to Classical PMTUD.
   At the other extreme, all PTB processing can be disabled, and PLPMTUD
   replaces Classical PMTUD.

   PLPMTUD can also include additional consistency checks without
   increasing the risk that data is lost when probing to discover the
   Path MTU.  For example, information available at the PL, or higher
   layers, enables received PTB messages to be validated before being
   utilized.

1.3.  Path MTU Discovery for Datagram Services

   Section 5 of this document presents a set of algorithms for datagram
   protocols to discover the largest size of unfragmented datagram that
   can be sent over a network path.  The method relies upon features of
   the PL described in Section 3 and applies to transport protocols
   operating over IPv4 and IPv6.  It does not require cooperation from
   the lower layers, although it can utilize PTB messages when these
   received messages are made available to the PL.

   The message size guidelines in section 3.2 of the UDP Usage
   Guidelines [BCP145] state "an application SHOULD either use the Path
   MTU information provided by the IP layer or implement Path MTU
   Discovery (PMTUD)", but does not provide a mechanism for discovering
   the largest size of unfragmented datagram that can be used on a
   network path.  The present document updates RFC 8085 to specify this
   method in place of PLPMTUD [RFC4821] and provides a mechanism for
   sharing the discovered largest size as the MPS (see Section 4.4).

   Section 10.2 of [RFC4821] recommended a PLPMTUD probing method for
   the Stream Control Transport Protocol (SCTP).  SCTP utilizes probe
   packets consisting of a minimal sized HEARTBEAT chunk bundled with a
   PAD chunk as defined in [RFC4820].  However, RFC 4821 did not provide



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   a complete specification.  The present document replaces that
   description by providing a complete specification.

   The Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) [RFC4340] requires
   implementations to support Classical PMTUD and states that a DCCP
   sender "MUST maintain the MPS allowed for each active DCCP session".
   It also defines the current congestion control MPS (CCMPS) supported
   by a network path.  This recommends use of PMTUD, and suggests use of
   control packets (DCCP-Sync) as path probe packets, because they do
   not risk application data loss.  The method defined in this
   specification can be used with DCCP.

   Section 4 and Section 5 define the protocol mechanisms and
   specification for Datagram Packetization Layer Path MTU Discovery
   (DPLPMTUD).

   Section 6 specifies the method for datagram transports and provides
   information to enable the implementation of PLPMTUD with other
   datagram transports and applications that use datagram transports.

   Section 6 also provides updated recommendations for [RFC6951] and
   [RFC8261].

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

   The following terminology is defined.  Relevant terms are directly
   copied from [RFC4821], and the definitions in [RFC1122].

   Acknowledged PL:  A PL that includes a mechanism that can confirm
      successful delivery of datagrams to the remote PL endpoint (e.g.,
      SCTP).  Typically, the PL receiver returns acknowledgments
      corresponding to the received datagrams, which can be utilised to
      detect black-holing of packets (c.f., Unacknowledged PL).

   Actual PMTU:  The Actual PMTU is the PMTU of a network path between a
      sender PL and a destination PL, which the DPLPMTUD algorithm seeks
      to determine.

   Black Hole:  A Black Hole is encountered when a sender is unaware
      that packets are not being delivered to the destination end point.
      Two types of Black Hole are relevant to DPLPMTUD:




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      *  Packets encounter a packet Black Hole when packets are not
         delivered to the destination endpoint (e.g., when the sender
         transmits packets of a particular size with a previously known
         effective PMTU and they are discarded by the network).

      *  An ICMP Black Hole is encountered when the sender is unaware
         that packets are not delivered to the destination endpoint
         because PTB messages are not received by the originating PL
         sender.

   Classical Path MTU Discovery:  Classical PMTUD is a process described
      in [RFC1191] and [RFC8201], in which nodes rely on PTB messages to
      learn the largest size of unfragmented packet that can be used
      across a network path.

   Datagram:  A datagram is a transport-layer protocol data unit,
      transmitted in the payload of an IP packet.

   Effective PMTU:  The Effective PMTU is the current estimated value
      for PMTU that is used by a PMTUD.  This is equivalent to the
      PLPMTU derived by PLPMTUD plus the size of any headers added below
      the PL, including the IP layer headers.

   EMTU_S:  The Effective MTU for sending (EMTU_S) is defined in
      [RFC1122] as "the maximum IP datagram size that may be sent, for a
      particular combination of IP source and destination addresses...".

   EMTU_R:  The Effective MTU for receiving (EMTU_R) is designated in
      [RFC1122] as "the largest datagram size that can be reassembled".

   Link:  A Link is a communication facility or medium over which nodes
      can communicate at the link layer, i.e., a layer below the IP
      layer.  Examples are Ethernet LANs and Internet (or higher) layer
      tunnels.

   Link MTU:  The Link Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) is the size in
      bytes of the largest IP packet, including the IP header and
      payload, that can be transmitted over a link.  Note that this
      could more properly be called the IP MTU, to be consistent with
      how other standards organizations use the acronym.  This includes
      the IP header, but excludes link layer headers and other framing
      that is not part of IP or the IP payload.  Other standards
      organizations generally define the link MTU to include the link
      layer headers.  This specification continues the requirement in
      [RFC4821], that states "All links MUST enforce their MTU: links
      that might non- deterministically deliver packets that are larger
      than their rated MTU MUST consistently discard such packets."




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   MAX_PLPMTU:  The MAX_PLPMTU is the largest size of PLPMTU that
      DPLPMTUD will attempt to use (see the constants defined in
      Section 5.1.2).

   MIN_PLPMTU:  The MIN_PLPMTU is the smallest size of PLPMTU that
      DPLPMTUD will attempt to use (see the constants defined in
      Section 5.1.2).

   MPS:  The Maximum Packet Size (MPS) is the largest size of
      application data block that can be sent across a network path by a
      PL using a single Datagram.

   MSL:  Maximum Segment Lifetime (MSL) The maximum delay a packet is
      expected to experience across a path, taken as 2 minutes [BCP145].

   Packet:  A Packet is the IP header(s) and any extension headers/
      options plus the IP payload.

   Packetization Layer (PL):  The PL is a layer of the network stack
      that places data into packets and performs transport protocol
      functions.  Examples of a PL include: TCP, SCTP, SCTP over UDP,
      SCTP over DTLS, or QUIC.

   Path:  The Path is the set of links and routers traversed by a packet
      between a source node and a destination node by a particular flow.

   Path MTU (PMTU):  The Path MTU (PMTU) is the minimum of the Link MTU
      of all the links forming a network path between a source node and
      a destination node, as used by PMTUD.

   PTB:  In this document, the term PTB message is applied to both IPv4
      ICMP Unreachable messages (type 3) that carry the error
      Fragmentation Needed (Type 3, Code 4) [RFC0792] and ICMPv6 Packet
      Too Big messages (Type 2) [RFC4443].

   PTB_SIZE:  The PTB_SIZE is a value reported in a validated PTB
      message that indicates next hop link MTU of a router along the
      path.

   PL_PTB_SIZE:  The size reported in a validated PTB message, reduced
      by the size of all headers added by layers below the PL.

   PLPMTU:  The Packetization Layer PMTU is an estimate of the largest
      size of PL datagram that can be sent by a path, controled by
      PLPMTUD.

   PLPMTUD:  Packetization Layer Path MTU Discovery (PLPMTUD), the




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      method described in this document for datagram PLs, which is an
      extension to Classical PMTU Discovery.

   Probe packet:  A probe packet is a datagram sent with a purposely
      chosen size (typically the current PLPMTU or larger) to detect if
      packets of this size can be successfully sent end-to-end across
      the network path.

   Unacknowledged PL:  A PL that does not itself provide a mechanism to
      confirm delivery of datagrams to the remote PL endpoint (e.g.,
      UDP), and therefore requires DPLPMTUD to provide a mechanism to
      detect black-holing of packets (c.f., Acknowledged PL).

3.  Features Required to Provide Datagram PLPMTUD

   The principles expressed in [RFC4821] apply to the use of the
   technique with any PL.  TCP PLPMTUD has been defined using standard
   TCP protocol mechanisms.  Unlike TCP, a datagram PL requires
   additional mechanisms and considerations to implement PLPMTUD.

   The requirements for datagram PLPMTUD are:

   1.  Managing the PLPMTU: For datagram PLs, the PLPMTU is managed by
       DPLPMTUD.  A PL MUST NOT send a datagram (other than a probe
       packet) with a size at the PL that is larger than the current
       PLPMTU.

   2.  Probe packets: The network interface below PL is REQUIRED to
       provide a way to transmit a probe packet that is larger than the
       PLPMTU.  In IPv4, a probe packet MUST be sent with the Don't
       Fragment (DF) bit set in the IP header, and without network layer
       endpoint fragmentation.  In IPv6, a probe packet is always sent
       without source fragmentation (as specified in section 5.4 of
       [RFC8201]).

   3.  Reception feedback: The destination PL endpoint is REQUIRED to
       provide a feedback method that indicates to the DPLPMTUD sender
       when a probe packet has been received by the destination PL
       endpoint.  Section 6 provides examples of how a PL can provide
       this acknowledgment of received probe packets.

   4.  Probe loss recovery: It is RECOMMENDED to use probe packets that
       do not carry any user data that would require retransmission if
       lost.  Most datagram transports permit this.  If a probe packet
       contains user data requiring retransmission in case of loss, the
       PL (or layers above) are REQUIRED to arrange any retransmission/
       repair of any resulting loss.  The PL is REQUIRED to be robust in




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       the case where probe packets are lost due to other reasons
       (including link transmission error, congestion).

   5.  PMTU parameters: A DPLPMTUD sender is RECOMMENDED to utilize
       information about the maximum size of packet that can be
       transmitted by the sender on the local link (e.g., the local Link
       MTU).  A PL sender MAY utilize similar information about the
       maximum size of network layer packet that a receiver can accept
       when this is supplied (note this could be less than EMTU_R).
       This avoids implementations trying to send probe packets that can
       not be transferred by the local link.  Too high of a value could
       reduce the efficiency of the search algorithm.  Some applications
       also have a maximum transport protocol data unit (PDU) size, in
       which case there is no benefit from probing for a size larger
       than this (unless a transport allows multiplexing multiple
       applications PDUs into the same datagram).

   6.  Processing PTB messages: A DPLPMTUD sender MAY optionally utilize
       PTB messages received from the network layer to help identify
       when a network path does not support the current size of probe
       packet.  Any received PTB message MUST be validated before it is
       used to update the PLPMTU discovery information [RFC8201].  This
       validation confirms that the PTB message was sent in response to
       a packet originating by the sender, and needs to be performed
       before the PLPMTU discovery method reacts to the PTB message.  A
       PTB message MUST NOT be used to increase the PLPMTU [RFC8201],
       but could trigger a probe to test for a larger PLPMTU.  A valid
       PTB_SIZE is converted to a PL_PTB_SIZE before it is to be used in
       the DPLPMTUD state machine.  A PL_PTB_SIZE that is greater than
       that currently probed SHOULD be ignored.  (This PTB message ought
       to be discarded without further processing, but could be utilized
       as an input that enables a resilience mode).

   7.  Probing and congestion control: A PL MAY use a congestion
       controller to decide when to send a probe packet.  If
       transmission of probe packets is limited by the congestion
       controller, this could result in transmission of probe packets
       being delayed or suspended during congestion.  When the
       transmission of probe packets is not controlled by the congestion
       controller, the interval between probe packets MUST be at least
       one RTT.  Loss of a probe packet SHOULD NOT be treated as an
       indication of congestion and SHOULD NOT trigger a congestion
       control reaction [RFC4821], because this could result in
       unnecessary reduction of the sending rate.  An update to the
       PLPMTU (or MPS) MUST NOT increase the congestion window measured
       in bytes [RFC4821].  Therefore, an increase in the packet size
       does not cause an increase in the data rate in bytes per second.
       A PL that maintains the congestion window in terms of a limit to



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       the number of outstanding fixed size packets SHOULD adapt this
       limit to compensate for the size of the actual packets.  The
       transmission of probe packets can interact with the operation of
       a PL that performs burst mitigation or pacing and could need
       transmission of probe packets to be regulated by these methods.

   8.  Probing and flow control: Flow control at the PL concerns the
       end-to-end flow of data using the PL service.  Flow control
       SHOULD NOT apply to DPLPMTU when probe packets use a design that
       does not carry user data to the remote application.

   9.  Shared PLPMTU state: The PMTU value calculated from the PLPMTU
       MAY also be stored with the corresponding entry associated with
       the destination in the IP layer cache, and used by other PL
       instances.  The specification of PLPMTUD [RFC4821] states: "If
       PLPMTUD updates the MTU for a particular path, all Packetization
       Layer sessions that share the path representation (as described
       in Section 5.2 of [RFC4821]) SHOULD be notified to make use of
       the new MTU".  Such methods MUST be robust to the wide variety of
       underlying network forwarding behaviors.  Section 5.2 of
       [RFC8201] provides guidance on the caching of PMTU information
       and also the relation to IPv6 flow labels.

   In addition, the following principles are stated for design of a
   DPLPMTUD method:

   *  A PL MAY be designed to segment data blocks larger than the MPS
      into multiple datagrams.  However, not all datagram PLs support
      segmentation of data blocks.  It is RECOMMENDED that methods avoid
      forcing an application to use an arbitrary small MPS for
      transmission while the method is searching for the currently
      supported PLPMTU.  A reduced MPS can adversely impact the
      performance of an application.

   *  To assist applications in choosing a suitable data block size, the
      PL is RECOMMENDED to provide a primitive that returns the MPS
      derived from the PLPMTU to the higher layer using the PL.  The
      value of the MPS can change following a change in the path, or
      loss of probe packets.

   *  Path validation: It is RECOMMENDED that methods are robust to path
      changes that could have occurred since the path characteristics
      were last confirmed, and to the possibility of inconsistent path
      information being received.

   *  Datagram reordering: A method is REQUIRED to be robust to the
      possibility that a flow encounters reordering, or the traffic




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      (including probe packets) is divided over more than one network
      path.

   *  Datagram delay and duplication: The feedback mechanism is REQUIRED
      to be robust to the possibility that packets could be
      significantly delayed or duplicated along a network path.

   *  When to probe: It is RECOMMENDED that methods determine whether
      the path has changed since it last measured the path.  This can
      help determine when to probe the path again.

4.  DPLPMTUD Mechanisms

   This section lists the protocol mechanisms used in this
   specification.

4.1.  PLPMTU Probe Packets

   The DPLPMTUD method relies upon the PL sender being able to generate
   probe packets with a specific size.  TCP is able to generate these
   probe packets by choosing to appropriately segment data being sent
   [RFC4821].  In contrast, a datagram PL that constructs a probe packet
   has to either request an application to send a data block that is
   larger than that generated by an application, or to utilize padding
   functions to extend a datagram beyond the size of the application
   data block.  Protocols that permit exchange of control messages
   (without an application data block) can generate a probe packet by
   extending a control message with padding data.  The total size of a
   probe packet includes all headers and padding added to the payload
   data being sent (e.g., including protocol option fields, security-
   related fields such as an Authenticated Encryption with Associated
   Data (AEAD) tag and TLS record layer padding).

   A receiver is REQUIRED to be able to distinguish an in-band data
   block from any added padding.  This is needed to ensure that any
   added padding is not passed on to an application at the receiver.

   This results in three possible ways that a sender can create a probe
   packet:

   Probing using padding data:  A probe packet that contains only
      control information together with any padding, which is needed to
      be inflated to the size of the probe packet.  Since these probe
      packets do not carry an application-supplied data block, they do
      not typically require retransmission, although they do still
      consume network capacity and incur endpoint processing.





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   Probing using application data and padding data:  A probe packet that
      contains a data block supplied by an application that is combined
      with padding to inflate the length of the datagram to the size of
      the probe packet.

   Probing using application data:  A probe packet that contains a data
      block supplied by an application that matches the size of the
      probe packet.  This method requests the application to issue a
      data block of the desired probe size.

   A PL that uses a probe packet carrying application data and needs
   protection from the loss of this probe packet could perform
   transport-layer retransmission/repair of the data block (e.g., by
   retransmission after loss is detected or by duplicating the data
   block in a datagram without the padding data).  This retransmitted
   data block might possibly need to be sent using a smaller PLPMTU,
   which could force the PL to to use a smaller packet size to traverse
   the end-to-end path.  (This could utilize endpoint network-layer
   fragmentation or a PL that can re-segment the data block into
   multiple datagrams).

   DPLPMTUD MAY choose to use only one of these methods to simplify the
   implementation.

   Probe messages sent by a PL MUST contain enough information to
   uniquely identify the probe within Maximum Segment Lifetime (e.g.,
   including a unique identifier from the PL or the DPLPMTUD
   implementation), while being robust to reordering and replay of probe
   response and PTB messages.

4.2.  Confirmation of Probed Packet Size

   The PL needs a method to determine (confirm) when probe packets have
   been successfully received end-to-end across a network path.

   Transport protocols can include end-to-end methods that detect and
   report reception of specific datagrams that they send (e.g., DCCP,
   SCTP, and QUIC provide keep-alive/heartbeat features).  When
   supported, this mechanism MAY also be used by DPLPMTUD to acknowledge
   reception of a probe packet.

   A PL that does not acknowledge data reception (e.g., UDP and UDP-
   Lite) is unable itself to detect when the packets that it sends are
   discarded because their size is greater than the actual PMTU.  These
   PLs need to rely on an application protocol to detect this loss.

   Section 6 specifies this function for a set of IETF-specified
   protocols.



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4.3.  Black Hole Detection and Reducing the PLPMTU

   The description that follows uses the set of constants defined in
   Section 5.1.2 and variables defined in Section 5.1.3.

   Black Hole Detection is triggered by an indication that the network
   path could be unable to support the current PLPMTU size.

   There are three indicators that can detect black holes:

   *  A validated PTB message can be received that indicates a
      PL_PTB_SIZE less than the current PLPMTU.  A DPLPMTUD method MUST
      NOT rely solely on this method.

   *  A PL can use the DPLPMTUD probing mechanism to periodically
      generate probe packets of the size of the current PLPMTU (e.g.,
      using the confirmation timer Section 5.1.1).  A timer tracks
      whether acknowledgments are received.  Successive loss of probes
      is an indication that the current path no longer supports the
      PLPMTU (e.g., when the number of probe packets sent without
      receiving an acknowledgment, PROBE_COUNT, becomes greater than
      MAX_PROBES).

   *  A PL can utilize an event that indicates the network path no
      longer sustains the sender's PLPMTU size.  This could use a
      mechanism implemented within the PL to detect excessive loss of
      data sent with a specific packet size and then conclude that this
      excessive loss could be a result of an invalid PLPMTU (as in
      PLPMTUD for TCP [RFC4821]).

   The three methods can result in different transmission patterns for
   packet probes and are expected to result in different responsiveness
   following a change in the actual PMTU.

   A PL MAY inhibit sending probe packets when no application data has
   been sent since the previous probe packet.  A PL that resumes sending
   user data MAY continue PLPMTU discovery for each path.  This allows
   it to use an up-to-date PLPMTU.  However, this could result in
   additional packets being sent.

   When the method detects the current PLPMTU is not supported, DPLPMTUD
   sets a lower PLPMTU, and sets a lower MPS.  The PL then confirms that
   the new PLPMTU can be successfully used across the path.  A probe
   packet could need to have a size less than the size of the data block
   generated by the application.






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4.4.  The Maximum Packet Size (MPS)

   The result of probing determines a usable PLPMTU, which is used to
   set the MPS used by the application.  The MPS is smaller than the
   PLPMTU because it is reduced by the size of PL headers (including the
   overhead of security-related fields such as an AEAD tag and TLS
   record layer padding).  The relationship between the MPS and the
   PLPMTUD is illustrated in Figure 1.

   any additional
     headers         .--- MPS -----.
            |        |             |
            v        v             v
     +------------------------------+
     | IP | ** | PL | protocol data |
     +------------------------------+

                <----- PLPMTU ----->
     <---------- PMTU -------------->

               Figure 1: Relationship between MPS and PLPMTU

   A PL is unable to send a packet (other than a probe packet) with a
   size larger than the current PLPMTU at the network layer.  To avoid
   this, a PL MAY be designed to segment data blocks larger than the MPS
   into multiple datagrams.

   DPLPMTUD seeks to avoid IP fragmentation.  An attempt to send a data
   block larger than the MPS will therefore fail if a PL is unable to
   segment data.  To determine the largest data block that can be sent,
   a PL SHOULD provide applications with a primitive that returns the
   MPS, derived from the current PLPMTU.

   If DPLPMTUD results in a change to the MPS, the application needs to
   adapt to the new MPS.  A particular case can arise when packets have
   been sent with a size less than the MPS and the PLPMTU was
   subsequently reduced.  If these packets are lost, the PL MAY segment
   the data using the new MPS.  If a PL is unable to re-segment a
   previously sent datagram (e.g., [RFC4960]), then the sender either
   discards the datagram or could perform retransmission using network-
   layer fragmentation to form multiple IP packets not larger than the
   PLPMTU.  For IPv4, the use of endpoint fragmentation by the sender is
   preferred over clearing the DF bit in the IPv4 header.  Operational
   experience reveals that IP fragmentation can reduce the reliability
   of Internet communication [I-D.ietf-intarea-frag-fragile], which may
   reduce the probability of successful retransmission.





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4.5.  Disabling the Effect of PMTUD

   A PL implementing this specification MUST suspend network layer
   processing of outgoing packets that enforces a PMTU
   [RFC1191][RFC8201] for each flow utilizing DPLPMTUD, and instead use
   DPLPMTUD to control the size of packets that are sent by a flow.
   This removes the need for the network layer to drop or fragment sent
   packets that have a size greater than the PMTU.

4.6.  Response to PTB Messages

   This method requires the DPLPMTUD sender to validate any received PTB
   message before using the PTB information.  The response to a PTB
   message depends on the PL_PTB_SIZE calculated from the PTB_SIZE in
   the PTB message, the state of the PLPMTUD state machine, and the IP
   protocol being used.

   Section 4.6.1 first describes validation for both IPv4 ICMP
   Unreachable messages (type 3) and ICMPv6 Packet Too Big messages,
   both of which are referred to as PTB messages in this document.

4.6.1.  Validation of PTB Messages

   This section specifies utilization and validation of PTB messages.

   *  A simple implementation MAY ignore received PTB messages and in
      this case the PLPMTU is not updated when a PTB message is
      received.

   *  A PL that supports PTB messages MUST validate these messages
      before they are further processed.

   A PL that receives a PTB message from a router or middlebox performs
   ICMP validation (see Section 4 of [RFC8201] and Section 5.2 of
   [BCP145]).  Because DPLPMTUD operates at the PL, the PL needs to
   check that each received PTB message is received in response to a
   packet transmitted by the endpoint PL performing DPLPMTUD.

   The PL MUST check the protocol information in the quoted packet
   carried in an ICMP PTB message payload to validate the message
   originated from the sending node.  This validation includes
   determining that the combination of the IP addresses, the protocol,
   the source port and destination port match those returned in the
   quoted packet - this is also necessary for the PTB message to be
   passed to the corresponding PL.

   The validation SHOULD utilize information that it is not simple for
   an off-path attacker to determine [BCP145].  For example, it could



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   check the value of a protocol header field known only to the two PL
   endpoints.  A datagram application that uses well-known source and
   destination ports ought to also rely on other information to complete
   this validation.

   These checks are intended to provide protection from packets that
   originate from a node that is not on the network path.  A PTB message
   that does not complete the validation MUST NOT be further utilized by
   the DPLPMTUD method, as discussed in the Security Considerations
   section.

   Section 4.6.2 describes this processing of PTB messages.

4.6.2.  Use of PTB Messages

   PTB messages that have been validated MAY be utilized by the DPLPMTUD
   algorithm, but MUST NOT be used directly to set the PLPMTU.

   Before using the size reported in the PTB message it must first be
   converted to a PL_PTB_SIZE.  The PL_PTB_SIZE is smaller than the
   PTB_SIZE because it is reduced by headers below the PL including any
   IP options or extensions added to the PL packet.

   A method that utilizes these PTB messages can improve the speed at
   which the algorithm detects an appropriate PLPMTU by triggering an
   immediate probe for the PL_PTB_SIZE (resulting in a network-layer
   packet of size PTB_SIZE), compared to one that relies solely on
   probing using a timer-based search algorithm.

   A set of checks are intended to provide protection from a router that
   reports an unexpected PTB_SIZE.  The PL also needs to check that the
   indicated PL_PTB_SIZE is less than the size used by probe packets and
   at least the minimum size accepted.

   This section provides a summary of how PTB messages can be utilized.
   (This uses the set of constants defined in Section 5.1.2).  This
   processing depends on the PL_PTB_SIZE and the current value of a set
   of variables:

   PL_PTB_SIZE < MIN_PLPMTU
      *  Invalid PL_PTB_SIZE see Section 4.6.1.

      *  PTB message ought to be discarded without further processing
         (i.e., PLPMTU is not modified).

      *  The information could be utilized as an input that triggers
         enabling a resilience mode (see Section 5.3.3).




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   MIN_PLPMTU < PL_PTB_SIZE < BASE_PLPMTU
      *  A robust PL MAY enter an error state (see Section 5.2) for an
         IPv4 path when the PL_PTB_SIZE reported in the PTB message is
         larger than or equal to 68 bytes [RFC0791] and when this is
         less than the BASE_PLPMTU.

      *  A robust PL MAY enter an error state (see Section 5.2) for an
         IPv6 path when the PL_PTB_SIZE reported in the PTB message is
         larger than or equal to 1280 bytes [RFC8200] and when this is
         less than the BASE_PLPMTU.

   BASE_PLPMTU <= PL_PTB_SIZE < PLPMTU
      *  This could be an indication of a black hole.  The PLPMTU SHOULD
         be set to BASE_PLPMTU (the PLPMTU is reduced to the BASE_PLPMTU
         to avoid unnecessary packet loss when a black hole is
         encountered).

      *  The PL ought to start a search to quickly discover the new
         PLPMTU.  The PL_PTB_SIZE reported in the PTB message can be
         used to initialize a search algorithm.

   PLPMTU < PL_PTB_SIZE < PROBED_SIZE
      *  The PLPMTU continues to be valid, but the size of a packet used
         to search (PROBED_SIZE) was larger than the actual PMTU.

      *  The PLPMTU is not updated.

      *  The PL can use the reported PL_PTB_SIZE from the PTB message as
         the next search point when it resumes the search algorithm.

   PL_PTB_SIZE >= PROBED_SIZE
      *  Inconsistent network signal.

      *  PTB message ought to be discarded without further processing
         (i.e., PLPMTU is not modified).

      *  The information could be utilized as an input to trigger
         enabling a resilience mode.

5.  Datagram Packetization Layer PMTUD

   This section specifies Datagram PLPMTUD (DPLPMTUD).  The method can
   be introduced at various points (as indicated with * in the figure
   below) in the IP protocol stack to discover the PLPMTU so that an
   application can utilize an appropriate MPS for the current network
   path.





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   DPLPMTUD SHOULD only be performed at one layer between a pair of
   endpoints.  Therefore, an upper PL or application should avoid using
   DPLPMTUD when this is already enabled in a lower layer.  A PL MUST
   adjust the MPS indicated by DPLPMTUD to account for any additional
   overhead introduced by the PL.

   +----------------------+
   |     Application*     |
   +-----+------------+---+
         |            |
     +---+--+      +--+--+
     | QUIC*|      |SCTP*|
     +---+--+      +-+-+-+
         |           | |
         +---+  +----+ |
             |  |      |
           +-+--+-+    |
           | UDP  |    |
           +---+--+    |
               |       |
   +-----------+-------+--+
   |  Network Interface   |
   +----------------------+

            Figure 2: Examples where DPLPMTUD can be implemented

   The central idea of DPLPMTUD is probing by a sender.  Probe packets
   are sent to find the maximum size of user message that can be
   completely transferred across the network path from the sender to the
   destination.

   The following sections identify the components needed for
   implementation, provides an overview of the phases of operation, and
   specifies the state machine and search algorithm.

5.1.  DPLPMTUD Components

   This section describes the timers, constants, and variables of
   DPLPMTUD.

5.1.1.  Timers

   The method utilizes up to three timers:

   PROBE_TIMER:  The PROBE_TIMER is configured to expire after a period
      longer than the maximum time to receive an acknowledgment to a
      probe packet.  This value MUST NOT be smaller than 1 second, and
      SHOULD be larger than 15 seconds.  Guidance on selection of the



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      timer value are provided in Section 3.1.1 of the UDP Usage
      Guidelines [BCP145].

   PMTU_RAISE_TIMER:  The PMTU_RAISE_TIMER is configured to the period a
      sender will continue to use the current PLPMTU, after which it re-
      enters the Search phase.  This timer has a period of 600 seconds,
      as recommended by PLPMTUD [RFC4821].

      DPLPMTUD MAY inhibit sending probe packets when no application
      data has been sent since the previous probe packet.  A PL
      preferring to use an up-to-date PMTU once user data is sent again,
      can choose to continue PMTU discovery for each path.  However,
      this will result in sending additional packets.

   CONFIRMATION_TIMER:  When an acknowledged PL is used, this timer MUST
      NOT be used.  For other PLs, the CONFIRMATION_TIMER is configured
      to the period a PL sender waits before confirming the current
      PLPMTU is still supported.  This is less than the PMTU_RAISE_TIMER
      and used to decrease the PLPMTU (e.g., when a black hole is
      encountered).  Confirmation needs to be frequent enough when data
      is flowing that the sending PL does not black hole extensive
      amounts of traffic.  Guidance on selection of the timer value are
      provided in Section 3.1.1 of the UDP Usage Guidelines [BCP145].

      DPLPMTUD MAY inhibit sending probe packets when no application
      data has been sent since the previous probe packet.  A PL
      preferring to use an up-to-date PMTU once user data is sent again,
      can choose to continue PMTU discovery for each path.  However,
      this could result in sending additional packets.

   DPLPMTD specifies various timers, however an implementation could
   choose to realise these timer functions using a single timer.

5.1.2.  Constants

   The following constants are defined:

   MAX_PROBES:  The MAX_PROBES is the maximum value of the PROBE_COUNT
      counter (see Section 5.1.3).  MAX_PROBES represents the limit for
      the number of consecutive probe attempts of any size.  Search
      algorithms benefit from a MAX_PROBES value greater than 1 because
      this can provide robustness to isolated packet loss.  The default
      value of MAX_PROBES is 3.

   MIN_PLPMTU:  The MIN_PLPMTU is the smallest size of PLPMTU that
      DPLPMTUD will attempt to use.  For IPv6, this size is greater than
      or equal to the size at the PL that results in an 1280 byte IPv6
      packet, as specified in [RFC8200].  For IPv4, this size is greater



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      than or equal to the size at the PL that results in an 68 byte
      IPv4 packet.  Note: An IPv4 router is required to be able to
      forward a datagram of 68 bytes without further fragmentation.
      This is the combined size of an IPv4 header and the minimum
      fragment size of 8 bytes.  In addition, receivers are required to
      be able to reassemble fragmented datagrams at least up to 576
      bytes, as stated in section 3.3.3 of [RFC1122].

   MAX_PLPMTU:  The MAX_PLPMTU is the largest size of PLPMTU.  This has
      to be less than or equal to the maximum size of the PL packet that
      can be sent on the outgoing interface (constrained by the local
      interface MTU).  When known, this also ought to be less than the
      maximum size of PL packet that can be received by the remote
      endpoint (constrained by EMTU_R).  It can be limited by the design
      or configuration of the PL being used.  An application, or PL, MAY
      choose a smaller MAX_PLPMTU when there is no need to send packets
      larger than a specific size.

   BASE_PLPMTU:  The BASE_PLPMTU is a configured size expected to work
      for most paths.  The size is equal to or larger than the
      MIN_PLPMTU and smaller than the MAX_PLPMTU.  For most PLs a
      suitable BASE_PLPMTU will be larger than 1200 bytes.  When using
      IPv4, there is no currently equivalent size specified and a
      default BASE_PLPMTU of 1200 bytes is RECOMMENDED.

5.1.3.  Variables

   This method utilizes a set of variables:

   PROBED_SIZE:  The PROBED_SIZE is the size of the current probe packet
      as determined at the PL.  This is a tentative value for the
      PLPMTU, which is awaiting confirmation by an acknowledgment.

   PROBE_COUNT:  The PROBE_COUNT is a count of the number of successive
      unsuccessful probe packets that have been sent.  Each time a probe
      packet is acknowledged, the value is set to zero.  (Some probe
      loss is expected while searching, therefore loss of a single probe
      is not an indication of a PMTU problem.)

   The figure below illustrates the relationship between the packet size
   constants and variables at a point of time when the DPLPMTUD
   algorithm performs path probing to increase the size of the PLPMTU.
   A probe packet has been sent of size PROBED_SIZE.  Once this is
   acknowledged, the PLPMTU will raise to PROBED_SIZE allowing the
   DPLPMTUD algorithm to further increase PROBED_SIZE toward sending a
   probe with the size of the actual PMTU.





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        MIN_PLPMTU                                MAX_PLPMTU
          <------------------------------------------->
                         |        |     |
                         v        |     |
                   BASE_PLPMTU    |     v
                                  |  PROBED_SIZE
                                  v
                                PLPMTU

    Figure 3: Relationships between packet size constants and variables

5.1.4.  Overview of DPLPMTUD Phases

   This section provides a high-level informative view of the DPLPMTUD
   method, by describing the movement of the method through several
   phases of operation.  More detail is available in the state machine
   Section 5.2.

                       +------+
              +------->| Base |-----------------+ Connectivity
              |        +------+                 | or BASE_PLPMTU
              |           |                     | confirmation failed
              |           |                     v
              |           | Connectivity    +-------+
              |           | and BASE_PLPMTU | Error |
              |           | confirmed       +-------+
              |           |                     | Consistent
              |           v                     | connectivity
   Black Hole |       +--------+                | and BASE_PLPMTU
    detected  |       | Search |<---------------+ confirmed
              |       +--------+
              |          ^  |
              |          |  |
              |    Raise |  | Search
              |    timer |  | algorithm
              |  expired |  | completed
              |          |  |
              |          |  v
              |   +-----------------+
              +---| Search Complete |
                  +-----------------+

                         Figure 4: DPLPMTUD Phases

   Base:  The Base Phase confirms connectivity to the remote peer using
      packets of the BASE_PLPMTU.  The confirmation of connectivity is
      implicit for a connection-oriented PL (where it can be performed
      in a PL connection handshake).  A connectionless PL sends a probe



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      packet and uses acknowledgment of this probe packet to confirm
      that the remote peer is reachable.

      The sender also confirms that BASE_PLPMTU is supported across the
      network path.  This may be achieved using a PL mechanism (e.g.,
      using a handshake packet of size BASE_PLPMTU), or by sending a
      probe packet of size BASE_PLPMTU and confirming that this is
      received.

      A probe packet of size BASE_PLPMTU can be sent immediately on the
      initial entry to the Base Phase (following a connectivity check).
      A PL that does not wish to support a path with a PLPMTU less than
      BASE_PLPMTU can simplify the phase into a single step by
      performing the connectivity checks with a probe of the BASE_PLPMTU
      size.

      Once confirmed, DPLPMTUD enters the Search Phase.  If the Base
      Phase fails to confirm the BASE_PLPMTU, DPLPMTUD enters the Error
      Phase.

   Search:  The Search Phase utilizes a search algorithm to send probe
      packets to seek to increase the PLPMTU.  The algorithm concludes
      when it has found a suitable PLPMTU, by entering the Search
      Complete Phase.

      A PL could respond to PTB messages using the PTB to advance or
      terminate the search, see Section 4.6.

   Search Complete:  The Search Complete Phase is entered when the
      PLPMTU is supported across the network path.  A PL can use a
      CONFIRMATION_TIMER to periodically repeat a probe packet for the
      current PLPMTU size.  If the sender is unable to confirm
      reachability (e.g., if the CONFIRMATION_TIMER expires) or the PL
      signals a lack of reachability, a black hole has been detected and
      DPLPMTUD enters the Base phase.

      The PMTU_RAISE_TIMER is used to periodically resume the search
      phase to discover if the PLPMTU can be raised.  Black Hole
      Detection causes the sender to enter the Base Phase.

   Error:  The Error Phase is entered when there is conflicting or
      invalid PLPMTU information for the path (e.g., a failure to
      support the BASE_PLPMTU) that cause DPLPMTUD to be unable to
      progress and the PLPMTU is lowered.

      DPLPMTUD remains in the Error Phase until a consistent view of the
      path can be discovered and it has also been confirmed that the
      path supports the BASE_PLPMTU (or DPLPMTUD is suspended).



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   A method that only reduces the PLPMTU to a suitable size would be
   sufficient to ensure reliable operation, but can be very inefficient
   when the actual PMTU changes or when the method (for whatever reason)
   makes a suboptimal choice for the PLPMTU.

   A full implementation of DPLPMTUD provides an algorithm enabling the
   DPLPMTUD sender to increase the PLPMTU following a change in the
   characteristics of the path, such as when a link is reconfigured with
   a larger MTU, or when there is a change in the set of links traversed
   by an end-to-end flow (e.g., after a routing or path fail-over
   decision).

5.2.  State Machine

   A state machine for DPLPMTUD is depicted in Figure 5.  If multipath
   or multihoming is supported, a state machine is needed for each path.

   Note: Not all changes are shown to simplify the diagram.

































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      |         |
      | Start   | PL indicates loss
      |         |  of connectivity
      v         v
   +---------------+                                   +---------------+
   |    DISABLED   |                                   |     ERROR     |
   +---------------+               PROBE_TIMER expiry: +---------------+
           | PL indicates     PROBE_COUNT = MAX_PROBES or ^         |
           | connectivity  PTB: PL_PTB_SIZE < BASE_PLPMTU |         |
           +--------------------+         +---------------+         |
                                |         |                         |
                                v         |       BASE_PLPMTU Probe |
                             +---------------+          acked       |
                             |      BASE     |--------------------->+
                             +---------------+                      |
                                ^ |    ^  ^                         |
            Black hole detected | |    |  | Black hole detected     |
           +--------------------+ |    |  +--------------------+    |
           |                      +----+                       |    |
           |                PROBE_TIMER expiry:                |    |
           |             PROBE_COUNT < MAX_PROBES              |    |
           |                                                   |    |
           |               PMTU_RAISE_TIMER expiry             |    |
           |    +-----------------------------------------+    |    |
           |    |                                         |    |    |
           |    |                                         v    |    v
   +---------------+                                   +---------------+
   |SEARCH_COMPLETE|                                   |   SEARCHING   |
   +---------------+                                   +---------------+
      |    ^    ^                                         |    |    ^
      |    |    |                                         |    |    |
      |    |    +-----------------------------------------+    |    |
      |    |            MAX_PLPMTU Probe acked or              |    |
      |    |  PROBE_TIMER expiry: PROBE_COUNT = MAX_PROBES or  |    |
      +----+            PTB: PL_PTB_SIZE = PLPMTU              +----+
   CONFIRMATION_TIMER expiry:                        PROBE_TIMER expiry:
   PROBE_COUNT < MAX_PROBES or               PROBE_COUNT < MAX_PROBES or
        PLPMTU Probe acked                           Probe acked or PTB:
                                      PLPMTU < PL_PTB_SIZE < PROBED_SIZE

                Figure 5: State machine for Datagram PLPMTUD


   The following states are defined:

   DISABLED:  The DISABLED state is the initial state before probing has
      started.  It is also entered from any other state, when the PL
      indicates loss of connectivity.  This state is left once the PL



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      indicates connectivity to the remote PL.  When transitioning to
      the BASE state, a probe packet of size BASE_PLPMTU can be sent
      immediately.

   BASE:  The BASE state is used to confirm that the BASE_PLPMTU size is
      supported by the network path and is designed to allow an
      application to continue working when there are transient
      reductions in the actual PMTU.  It also seeks to avoid long
      periods when a sender searching for a larger PLPMTU is unaware
      that packets are not being delivered due to a packet or ICMP Black
      Hole.

      On entry, the PROBED_SIZE is set to the BASE_PLPMTU size and the
      PROBE_COUNT is set to zero.

      Each time a probe packet is sent, the PROBE_TIMER is started.  The
      state is exited when the probe packet is acknowledged, and the PL
      sender enters the SEARCHING state.

      The state is also left when the PROBE_COUNT reaches MAX_PROBES or
      a received PTB message is validated.  This causes the PL sender to
      enter the ERROR state.

   SEARCHING:  The SEARCHING state is the main probing state.  This
      state is entered when probing for the BASE_PLPMTU completes.

      Each time a probe packet is acknowledged, the PROBE_COUNT is set
      to zero, the PLPMTU is set to the PROBED_SIZE and then the
      PROBED_SIZE is increased using the search algorithm (as described
      in Section 5.3.

      When a probe packet is sent and not acknowledged within the period
      of the PROBE_TIMER, the PROBE_COUNT is incremented and a new probe
      packet is transmitted.

      The state is exited to enter SEARCH_COMPLETE when the PROBE_COUNT
      reaches MAX_PROBES, a validated PTB is received that corresponds
      to the last successfully probed size (PL_PTB_SIZE = PLPMTU), or a
      probe of size MAX_PLPMTU is acknowledged (PLPMTU = MAX_PLPMTU).

      When a black hole is detected in the SEARCHING state, this causes
      the PL sender to enter the BASE state.

   SEARCH_COMPLETE:  The SEARCH_COMPLETE state indicates that a search
      has completed.  This is the normal maintenance state, where the PL
      is not probing to update the PLPMTU.  DPLPMTUD remains in this
      state until either the PMTU_RAISE_TIMER expires or a black hole is
      detected.



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      When DPLPMTUD uses an unacknowledged PL and is in the
      SEARCH_COMPLETE state, a CONFIRMATION_TIMER periodically resets
      the PROBE_COUNT and schedules a probe packet with the size of the
      PLPMTU.  If MAX_PROBES successive PLPMTUD sized probes fail to be
      acknowledged the method enters the BASE state.  When used with an
      acknowledged PL (e.g., SCTP), DPLPMTUD SHOULD NOT continue to
      generate PLPMTU probes in this state.

   ERROR:  The ERROR state represents the case where either the network
      path is not known to support a PLPMTU of at least the BASE_PLPMTU
      size or when there is contradictory information about the network
      path that would otherwise result in excessive variation in the MPS
      signaled to the higher layer.  The state implements a method to
      mitigate oscillation in the state-event engine.  It signals a
      conservative value of the MPS to the higher layer by the PL.  The
      state is exited when packet probes no longer detect the error.
      The PL sender then enters the SEARCHING state.

      Implementations are permitted to enable endpoint fragmentation if
      the DPLPMTUD is unable to validate MIN_PLPMTU within PROBE_COUNT
      probes.  If DPLPMTUD is unable to validate MIN_PLPMTU the
      implementation will transition to the DISABLED state.

      Note: MIN_PLPMTU could be identical to BASE_PLPMTU, simplifying
      the actions in this state.

5.3.  Search to Increase the PLPMTU

   This section describes the algorithms used by DPLPMTUD to search for
   a larger PLPMTU.

5.3.1.  Probing for a larger PLPMTU

   Implementations use a search algorithm across the search range to
   determine whether a larger PLPMTU can be supported across a network
   path.

   The method discovers the search range by confirming the minimum
   PLPMTU and then using the probe method to select a PROBED_SIZE less
   than or equal to MAX_PLPMTU.  MAX_PLPMTU is the minimum of the local
   MTU and EMTU_R (when this is learned from the remote endpoint).  The
   MAX_PLPMTU MAY be reduced by an application that sets a maximum to
   the size of datagrams it will send.

   The PROBE_COUNT is initialized to zero when the first probe with a
   size greater than or equal to PLPMTUD is sent.  Each probe packet
   successfully sent to the remote peer is confirmed by acknowledgment
   at the PL, see Section 4.1.



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   Each time a probe packet is sent to the destination, the PROBE_TIMER
   is started.  The timer is canceled when the PL receives
   acknowledgment that the probe packet has been successfully sent
   across the path Section 4.1.  This confirms that the PROBED_SIZE is
   supported, and the PROBED_SIZE value is then assigned to the PLPMTU.
   The search algorithm can continue to send subsequent probe packets of
   an increasing size.

   If the timer expires before a probe packet is acknowledged, the probe
   has failed to confirm the PROBED_SIZE.  Each time the PROBE_TIMER
   expires, the PROBE_COUNT is incremented, the PROBE_TIMER is
   reinitialized, and a new probe of the same size or any other size
   (determined by the search algorithm) can be sent.  The maximum number
   of consecutive failed probes is configured (MAX_PROBES).  If the
   value of the PROBE_COUNT reaches MAX_PROBES, probing will stop, and
   the PL sender enters the SEARCH_COMPLETE state.

5.3.2.  Selection of Probe Sizes

   The search algorithm determines a minimum useful gain in PLPMTU.  It
   would not be constructive for a PL sender to attempt to probe for all
   sizes.  This would incur unnecessary load on the path.
   Implementations SHOULD select the set of probe packet sizes to
   maximize the gain in PLPMTU from each search step.

   Implementations could optimize the search procedure by selecting step
   sizes from a table of common PMTU sizes.  When selecting the
   appropriate next size to search, an implementer ought to also
   consider that there can be common sizes of MPS that applications seek
   to use, and their could be common sizes of MTU used within the
   network.

5.3.3.  Resilience to Inconsistent Path Information

   A decision to increase the PLPMTU needs to be resilient to the
   possibility that information learned about the network path is
   inconsistent.  A path is inconsistent when, for example, probe
   packets are lost due to other reasons (i.e., not packet size) or due
   to frequent path changes.  Frequent path changes could occur by
   unexpected "flapping" - where some packets from a flow pass along one
   path, but other packets follow a different path with different
   properties.

   A PL sender is able to detect inconsistency from the sequence of
   PLPMTU probes that are acknowledged or the sequence of PTB messages
   that it receives.  When inconsistent path information is detected, a
   PL sender could use an alternate search mode that clamps the offered




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   MPS to a smaller value for a period of time.  This avoids unnecessary
   loss of packets.

5.4.  Robustness to Inconsistent Paths

   Some paths could be unable to sustain packets of the BASE_PLPMTU
   size.  The Error State could be implemented to provide rubustness to
   such paths.  This allows fallback to a smaller than desired PLPMTU,
   rather than suffer connectivity failure.  This could utilize methods
   such as endpoint IP fragmentation to enable the PL sender to
   communicate using packets smaller than the BASE_PLPMTU.

6.  Specification of Protocol-Specific Methods

   DPLPMTUD requires protocol-specific details to be specified for each
   PL that is used.

   The first subsection provides guidance on how to implement the
   DPLPMTUD method as a part of an application using UDP or UDP-Lite.
   The guidance also applies to other datagram services that do not
   include a specific transport protocol (such as a tunnel
   encapsulation).  The following subsections describe how DPLPMTUD can
   be implemented as a part of the transport service, allowing
   applications using the service to benefit from discovery of the
   PLPMTU without themselves needing to implement this method when using
   SCTP and QUIC.

6.1.  Application support for DPLPMTUD with UDP or UDP-Lite

   The current specifications of UDP [RFC0768] and UDP-Lite [RFC3828] do
   not define a method in the RFC-series that supports PLPMTUD.  In
   particular, the UDP transport does not provide the transport features
   needed to implement datagram PLPMTUD.

   The DPLPMTUD method can be implemented as a part of an application
   built directly or indirectly on UDP or UDP-Lite, but relies on
   higher-layer protocol features to implement the method [BCP145].

   Some primitives used by DPLPMTUD might not be available via the
   Datagram API (e.g., the ability to access the PLPMTU from the IP
   layer cache, or interpret received PTB messages).

   In addition, it is recommended that PMTU discovery is not performed
   by multiple protocol layers.  An application SHOULD avoid using
   DPLPMTUD when the underlying transport system provides this
   capability.  A common method for managing the PLPMTU has benefits,
   both in the ability to share state between different processes and
   opportunities to coordinate probing for different PL instances.



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6.1.1.  Application Request

   An application needs an application-layer protocol mechanism (such as
   a message acknowledgment method) that solicits a response from a
   destination endpoint.  The method SHOULD allow the sender to check
   the value returned in the response to provide additional protection
   from off-path insertion of data [BCP145].  Suitable methods include a
   parameter known only to the two endpoints, such as a session ID or
   initialized sequence number.

6.1.2.  Application Response

   An application needs an application-layer protocol mechanism to
   communicate the response from the destination endpoint.  This
   response could indicate successful reception of the probe across the
   path, but could also indicate that some (or all packets) have failed
   to reach the destination.

6.1.3.  Sending Application Probe Packets

   A probe packet can carry an application data block, but the
   successful transmission of this data is at risk when used for
   probing.  Some applications might prefer to use a probe packet that
   does not carry an application data block to avoid disruption to data
   transfer.

6.1.4.  Initial Connectivity

   An application that does not have other higher-layer information
   confirming connectivity with the remote peer SHOULD implement a
   connectivity mechanism using acknowledged probe packets before
   entering the BASE state.

6.1.5.  Validating the Path

   An application that does not have other higher-layer information
   confirming correct delivery of datagrams SHOULD implement the
   CONFIRMATION_TIMER to periodically send probe packets while in the
   SEARCH_COMPLETE state.

6.1.6.  Handling of PTB Messages

   An application that is able and wishes to receive PTB messages MUST
   perform ICMP validation as specified in Section 5.2 of [BCP145].
   This requires that the application checks each received PTB message
   to validate that it was is received in response to transmitted
   traffic and that the reported PL_PTB_SIZE is less than the current
   probed size (see Section 4.6.2).  A validated PTB message MAY be used



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   as input to the DPLPMTUD algorithm, but MUST NOT be used directly to
   set the PLPMTU.

6.2.  DPLPMTUD for SCTP

   Section 10.2 of [RFC4821] specified a recommended PLPMTUD probing
   method for SCTP and Section 7.3 of [RFC4960] recommended an endpoint
   apply the techniques in RFC4821 on a per-destination-address basis.
   The specification for DPLPMTUD continues the practice of using the PL
   to discover the PMTU, but updates, RFC4960 with a recommendation to
   use the method specified in this document: The RECOMMENDED method for
   generating probes is to add a chunk consisting only of padding to an
   SCTP message.  The PAD chunk defined in [RFC4820] SHOULD be attached
   to a minimum length HEARTBEAT (HB) chunk to build a probe packet.
   This enables probing without affecting the transfer of user messages
   and without being limited by congestion control or flow control.
   This is preferred to using DATA chunks (with padding as required) as
   path probes.

   Section 6.9 of [RFC4960] describes dividing the user messages into
   data chunks sent by the PL when using SCTP.  This notes that once an
   SCTP message has been sent, it cannot be re-segmented.  [RFC4960]
   describes the method to retransmit data chunks when the MPS has
   reduced, and the use of IP fragmentation for this case.  This is
   unchanged by this document.

6.2.1.  SCTP/IPv4 and SCTP/IPv6

6.2.1.1.  Initial Connectivity

   The base protocol is specified in [RFC4960].  This provides an
   acknowledged PL.  A sender can therefore enter the BASE state as soon
   as connectivity has been confirmed.

6.2.1.2.  Sending SCTP Probe Packets

   Probe packets consist of an SCTP common header followed by a
   HEARTBEAT chunk and a PAD chunk.  The PAD chunk is used to control
   the length of the probe packet.  The HEARTBEAT chunk is used to
   trigger the sending of a HEARTBEAT ACK chunk.  The reception of the
   HEARTBEAT ACK chunk acknowledges reception of a successful probe.  A
   successful probe updates the association and path counters, but an
   unsuccessful probe is discounted (assumed to be a result of choosing
   too large a PLPMTU).

   The SCTP sender needs to be able to determine the total size of a
   probe packet.  The HEARTBEAT chunk could carry a Heartbeat
   Information parameter that includes, besides the information



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   suggested in [RFC4960], the probe size to help an implementation
   associate a HEARTBEAT-ACK with the size of probe that was sent.  The
   sender could also use other methods, such as sending a nonce and
   verifying the information returned also contains the corresponding
   nonce.  The length of the PAD chunk is computed by reducing the
   probing size by the size of the SCTP common header and the HEARTBEAT
   chunk.  The payload of the PAD chunk contains arbitrary data.  When
   transmitted at the IP layer, the PMTU size also includes the IPv4 or
   IPv6 header(s).

   Probing can start directly after the PL handshake, this can be done
   before data is sent.  Assuming this behavior (i.e., the PMTU is
   smaller than or equal to the interface MTU), this process will take
   several round trip time periods, dependent on the number of DPLPMTUD
   probes sent.  The Heartbeat timer can be used to implement the
   PROBE_TIMER.

6.2.1.3.  Validating the Path with SCTP

   Since SCTP provides an acknowledged PL, a sender MUST NOT implement
   the CONFIRMATION_TIMER while in the SEARCH_COMPLETE state.

6.2.1.4.  PTB Message Handling by SCTP

   Normal ICMP validation MUST be performed as specified in Appendix C
   of [RFC4960].  This requires that the first 8 bytes of the SCTP
   common header are quoted in the payload of the PTB message, which can
   be the case for ICMPv4 and is normally the case for ICMPv6.

   When a PTB message has been validated, the PL_PTB_SIZE calculated
   from the PTB_SIZE reported in the PTB message SHOULD be used with the
   DPLPMTUD algorithm, providing that the reported PL_PTB_SIZE is less
   than the current probe size (see Section 4.6).

6.2.2.  DPLPMTUD for SCTP/UDP

   The UDP encapsulation of SCTP is specified in [RFC6951].

   This specification updates the reference to RFC 4821 in section 5.6
   of RFC 6951 to refer to XXXTHISRFCXXX.  RFC 6951 is updated by
   addition of the following sentence at the end of section 5.6: "The
   RECOMMENDED method for determining the MTU of the path is specified
   in XXXTHISRFCXXX".

   XXX RFC EDITOR - please replace XXXTHISRFCXXX when published XXX






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6.2.2.1.  Initial Connectivity

   A sender can enter the BASE state as soon as SCTP connectivity has
   been confirmed.

6.2.2.2.  Sending SCTP/UDP Probe Packets

   Packet probing can be performed as specified in Section 6.2.1.2.  The
   size of the probe packet includes the 8 bytes of UDP Header.  This
   has to be considered when filling the probe packet with the PAD
   chunk.

6.2.2.3.  Validating the Path with SCTP/UDP

   SCTP provides an acknowledged PL, therefore a sender does not
   implement the CONFIRMATION_TIMER while in the SEARCH_COMPLETE state.

6.2.2.4.  Handling of PTB Messages by SCTP/UDP

   ICMP validation MUST be performed for PTB messages as specified in
   Appendix C of [RFC4960].  This requires that the first 8 bytes of the
   SCTP common header are contained in the PTB message, which can be the
   case for ICMPv4 (but note the UDP header also consumes a part of the
   quoted packet header) and is normally the case for ICMPv6.  When the
   validation is completed, the PL_PTB_SIZE calculated from the PTB_SIZE
   in the PTB message SHOULD be used with the DPLPMTUD providing that
   the reported PL_PTB_SIZE is less than the current probe size.

6.2.3.  DPLPMTUD for SCTP/DTLS

   The Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) encapsulation of SCTP is
   specified in [RFC8261].  This is used for data channels in WebRTC
   implementations.  This specification updates the reference to RFC
   4821 in section 5 of RFC 8261 to refer to XXXTHISRFCXXX.

   XXX RFC EDITOR - please replace XXXTHISRFCXXX when published XXX

6.2.3.1.  Initial Connectivity

   A sender can enter the BASE state as soon as SCTP connectivity has
   been confirmed.










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6.2.3.2.  Sending SCTP/DTLS Probe Packets

   Packet probing can be done, as specified in Section 6.2.1.2.  The
   maximum payload is reduced by the size of the DTLS headers, which has
   to be considered when filling the PAD chunk.  The size of the probe
   packet includes the DTLS PL headers.  This has to be considered when
   filling the probe packet with the PAD chunk.

6.2.3.3.  Validating the Path with SCTP/DTLS

   Since SCTP provides an acknowledged PL, a sender MUST NOT implement
   the CONFIRMATION_TIMER while in the SEARCH_COMPLETE state.

6.2.3.4.  Handling of PTB Messages by SCTP/DTLS

   [RFC4960] does not specify a way to validate SCTP/DTLS ICMP message
   payload and neither does this document.  This can prevent processing
   of PTB messages at the PL.

6.3.  DPLPMTUD for QUIC

   QUIC [I-D.ietf-quic-transport] is a UDP-based transport that provides
   reception feedback.  The UDP payload includes the QUIC packet header,
   protected payload, and any authentication fields.  QUIC depends on a
   PMTU of at least 1280 bytes.

   Section 14 of [I-D.ietf-quic-transport] describes the path
   considerations when sending QUIC packets.  It recommends the use of
   PADDING frames to build the probe packet.  Pure probe-only packets
   are constructed with PADDING frames and PING frames to create a
   padding only packet that will elicit an acknowledgment.  Such padding
   only packets enable probing without affecting the transfer of other
   QUIC frames.

   The recommendation for QUIC endpoints implementing DPLPMTUD is that a
   MPS is maintained for each combination of local and remote IP
   addresses [I-D.ietf-quic-transport].  If a QUIC endpoint determines
   that the PMTU between any pair of local and remote IP addresses has
   fallen below the size required for an acceptable MPS, it immediately
   ceases to send QUIC packets on the affected path.  This could result
   in termination of the connection if an alternative path cannot be
   found [I-D.ietf-quic-transport].

6.3.1.  Initial Connectivity

   The base protocol is specified in [I-D.ietf-quic-transport].  This
   provides an acknowledged PL.  A sender can therefore enter the BASE
   state as soon as connectivity has been confirmed.



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   QUIC provides an acknowledged PL, a sender can therefore enter the
   BASE state as soon as the connection handshake has been completed and
   the endpoint has an 1-RTT key established.

6.3.2.  Sending QUIC Probe Packets

   Probe packets consist of a QUIC Header and a payload containing a
   PING Frame and multiple PADDING Frames.  A PADDING Frame is
   represented by a single octet (0x00).  Several PADDING Frames are
   used together to control the length of the probe packet.  The PING
   Frame is used to trigger generation of an acknowledgement.

   The current specification of QUIC sets the following:

   *  BASE_PLPMTU: A QUIC sender pads initial packets to confirm the
      path can support packets of the required size, which sets the
      BASE_PLPMTU and MIN_PLPMTU.

   *  MIN_PLPMTU: A QUIC sender that determines the MIN_PLPMTU has
      fallen MUST immediately stop sending on the affected path.

6.3.3.  Validating the Path with QUIC

   QUIC provides an acknowledged PL, therefore a sender does not
   implement the CONFIRMATION_TIMER while in the SEARCH_COMPLETE state.

6.3.4.  Handling of PTB Messages by QUIC

   QUIC validates ICMP PTB messages.  In addition to UDP Port
   validation, QUIC can validate an ICMP message by using other PL
   information (e.g., validation of connection identifiers (CIDs) in the
   quoted packet of any received ICMP message).

7.  Acknowledgments

   This work was partially funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020
   research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 644334
   (NEAT).  The views expressed are solely those of the author(s).

   Thanks to all that have commented or contributed, the TSVWG and QUIC
   working groups, and Mathew Calder and Julius Flohr for providing
   early implementations.

8.  IANA Considerations

   This memo includes no request to IANA.





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   If there are no requirements for IANA, the section will be removed
   during conversion into an RFC by the RFC Editor.

9.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations for the use of UDP and SCTP are provided
   in the referenced RFCs.

   To avoid excessive load, the interval between individual probe
   packets MUST be at least one RTT, and the interval between rounds of
   probing is determined by the PMTU_RAISE_TIMER.

   A PL sender needs to ensure that the method used to confirm reception
   of probe packets protects from off-path attackers injecting packets
   into the path.  This protection is provided in IETF-defined protocols
   (e.g., TCP, SCTP) using a randomly-initialized sequence number.  A
   description of one way to do this when using UDP is provided in
   section 5.1 of [BCP145]).

   There are cases where ICMP Packet Too Big (PTB) messages are not
   delivered due to policy, configuration or equipment design (see
   Section 1.1).  This method therefore does not rely upon PTB messages
   being received, but is able to utilize these when they are received
   by the sender.  PTB messages could potentially be used to cause a
   node to inappropriately reduce the PLPMTU.  A node supporting
   DPLPMTUD MUST therefore appropriately validate the payload of PTB
   messages to ensure these are received in response to transmitted
   traffic (i.e., a reported error condition that corresponds to a
   datagram actually sent by the path layer, see Section 4.6.1).

   An on-path attacker able to create a PTB message could forge PTB
   messages that include a valid quoted IP packet.  Such an attack could
   be used to drive down the PLPMTU.  An on-path device could similarly
   force a reduction of the PLPMTU by implementing a policy that drops
   packets larger than a configured size.  There are two ways this
   method can be mitigated against such attacks: First, by ensuring that
   a PL sender never reduces the PLPMTU below the base size, solely in
   response to receiving a PTB message.  This is achieved by first
   entering the BASE state when such a message is received.  Second, the
   design does not require processing of PTB messages, a PL sender could
   therefore suspend processing of PTB messages (e.g., in a robustness
   mode after detecting that subsequent probes actually confirm that a
   size larger than the PTB_SIZE is supported by a path).

   Parsing the quoted packet inside a PTB message can introduce addional
   per-packet processing at the PL sender.  This processing SHOULD be
   limited to avoid a denial of service attack when arbitrary headers
   are included.  Rate-limiting the processing could result in PTB



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   messages not being received by a PL, however the DPLPMTUD method is
   robust to such loss.

   The successful processing of an ICMP message can trigger a probe when
   the reported PTB size is valid, but this does not directly update the
   PLPMTU for the path.  This prevents a message attempting to black
   hole data by indicating a size larger than supported by the path.

   It is possible that the information about a path is not stable.  This
   could be a result of forwarding across more than one path that has a
   different actual PMTU or a single path presents a varying PMTU.  The
   design of a PLPMTUD implementation SHOULD consider how to mitigate
   the effects of varying path information.  One possible mitigation is
   to provide robustness (see Section 5.4) in the method that avoids
   oscillation in the MPS.

   DPLPMTUD methods can introduce padding data to inflate the length of
   the datagram to the total size required for a probe packet.  The
   total size of a probe packet includes all headers and padding added
   to the payload data being sent (e.g., including security-related
   fields such as an AEAD tag and TLS record layer padding).  The value
   of the padding data does not influence the DPLPMTUD search algorithm,
   and therefore needs to be set consistent with the policy of the PL.

   If a PL can make use of cryptographic confidentiality or data-
   integrity mechanisms, then the design ought to avoid adding anything
   (e.g., padding) to DPLPMTUD probe packets that is not also protected
   by those cryptographic mechanisms.

10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [BCP145]   Eggert, L., Fairhurst, G., and G. Shepherd, "UDP Usage
              Guidelines", BCP 145, RFC 8085, March 2017.

              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/bcp145>

   [I-D.ietf-quic-transport]
              Iyengar, J. and M. Thomson, "QUIC: A UDP-Based Multiplexed
              and Secure Transport", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft,
              draft-ietf-quic-transport-27, 21 February 2020,
              <http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-quic-
              transport-27.txt>.

   [RFC0768]  Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC0768, August 1980,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc768>.



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   [RFC0791]  Postel, J., "Internet Protocol", STD 5, RFC 791,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC0791, September 1981,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc791>.

   [RFC1191]  Mogul, J.C. and S.E. Deering, "Path MTU discovery",
              RFC 1191, DOI 10.17487/RFC1191, November 1990,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1191>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC3828]  Larzon, L-A., Degermark, M., Pink, S., Jonsson, L-E., Ed.,
              and G. Fairhurst, Ed., "The Lightweight User Datagram
              Protocol (UDP-Lite)", RFC 3828, DOI 10.17487/RFC3828, July
              2004, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3828>.

   [RFC4820]  Tuexen, M., Stewart, R., and P. Lei, "Padding Chunk and
              Parameter for the Stream Control Transmission Protocol
              (SCTP)", RFC 4820, DOI 10.17487/RFC4820, March 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4820>.

   [RFC4960]  Stewart, R., Ed., "Stream Control Transmission Protocol",
              RFC 4960, DOI 10.17487/RFC4960, September 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4960>.

   [RFC6951]  Tuexen, M. and R. Stewart, "UDP Encapsulation of Stream
              Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) Packets for End-Host
              to End-Host Communication", RFC 6951,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6951, May 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6951>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8200]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", STD 86, RFC 8200,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8200, July 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8200>.

   [RFC8201]  McCann, J., Deering, S., Mogul, J., and R. Hinden, Ed.,
              "Path MTU Discovery for IP version 6", STD 87, RFC 8201,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8201, July 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8201>.





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   [RFC8261]  Tuexen, M., Stewart, R., Jesup, R., and S. Loreto,
              "Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) Encapsulation of
              SCTP Packets", RFC 8261, DOI 10.17487/RFC8261, November
              2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8261>.

10.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-intarea-frag-fragile]
              Bonica, R., Baker, F., Huston, G., Hinden, R., Troan, O.,
              and F. Gont, "IP Fragmentation Considered Fragile", Work
              in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-intarea-frag-
              fragile-17, 30 September 2019, <http://www.ietf.org/
              internet-drafts/draft-ietf-intarea-frag-fragile-17.txt>.

   [I-D.ietf-intarea-tunnels]
              Touch, J. and M. Townsley, "IP Tunnels in the Internet
              Architecture", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-
              ietf-intarea-tunnels-10, 12 September 2019,
              <http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-intarea-
              tunnels-10.txt>.

   [RFC0792]  Postel, J., "Internet Control Message Protocol", STD 5,
              RFC 792, DOI 10.17487/RFC0792, September 1981,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc792>.

   [RFC1122]  Braden, R., Ed., "Requirements for Internet Hosts -
              Communication Layers", STD 3, RFC 1122,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC1122, October 1989,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1122>.

   [RFC1812]  Baker, F., Ed., "Requirements for IP Version 4 Routers",
              RFC 1812, DOI 10.17487/RFC1812, June 1995,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1812>.

   [RFC2923]  Lahey, K., "TCP Problems with Path MTU Discovery",
              RFC 2923, DOI 10.17487/RFC2923, September 2000,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2923>.

   [RFC4340]  Kohler, E., Handley, M., and S. Floyd, "Datagram
              Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP)", RFC 4340,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4340, March 2006,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4340>.

   [RFC4443]  Conta, A., Deering, S., and M. Gupta, Ed., "Internet
              Control Message Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet
              Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Specification", STD 89,
              RFC 4443, DOI 10.17487/RFC4443, March 2006,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4443>.



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   [RFC4821]  Mathis, M. and J. Heffner, "Packetization Layer Path MTU
              Discovery", RFC 4821, DOI 10.17487/RFC4821, March 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4821>.

   [RFC4890]  Davies, E. and J. Mohacsi, "Recommendations for Filtering
              ICMPv6 Messages in Firewalls", RFC 4890,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4890, May 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4890>.

   [RFC5508]  Srisuresh, P., Ford, B., Sivakumar, S., and S. Guha, "NAT
              Behavioral Requirements for ICMP", BCP 148, RFC 5508,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5508, April 2009,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5508>.

Appendix A.  Revision Notes

   Note to RFC-Editor: please remove this entire section prior to
   publication.

   Individual draft -00:

   *  Comments and corrections are welcome directly to the authors or
      via the IETF TSVWG working group mailing list.

   *  This update is proposed for WG comments.

   Individual draft -01:

   *  Contains the first representation of the algorithm, showing the
      states and timers

   *  This update is proposed for WG comments.

   Individual draft -02:

   *  Contains updated representation of the algorithm, and textual
      corrections.

   *  The text describing when to set the effective PMTU has not yet
      been validated by the authors

   *  To determine security to off-path-attacks: We need to decide
      whether a received PTB message SHOULD/MUST be validated?  The text
      on how to handle a PTB message indicating a link MTU larger than
      the probe has yet not been validated by the authors

   *  No text currently describes how to handle inconsistent results
      from arbitrary re-routing along different parallel paths



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   *  This update is proposed for WG comments.

   Working Group draft -00:

   *  This draft follows a successful adoption call for TSVWG

   *  There is still work to complete, please comment on this draft.

   Working Group draft -01:

   *  This draft includes improved introduction.

   *  The draft is updated to require ICMP validation prior to accepting
      PTB messages - this to be confirmed by WG

   *  Section added to discuss Selection of Probe Size - methods to be
      evaluated and recommendations to be considered

   *  Section added to align with work proposed in the QUIC WG.

   Working Group draft -02:

   *  The draft was updated based on feedback from the WG, and a
      detailed review by Magnus Westerlund.

   *  The document updates RFC 4821.

   *  Requirements list updated.

   *  Added more explicit discussion of a simpler black-hole detection
      mode.

   *  This draft includes reorganisation of the section on IETF
      protocols.

   *  Added more discussion of implementation within an application.

   *  Added text on flapping paths.

   *  Replaced 'effective MTU' with new term PLPMTU.

   Working Group draft -03:

   *  Updated figures

   *  Added more discussion on blackhole detection

   *  Added figure describing just blackhole detection



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   *  Added figure relating MPS sizes

   Working Group draft -04:

   *  Described phases and named these consistently.

   *  Corrected transition from confirmation directly to the search
      phase (Base has been checked).

   *  Redrawn state diagrams.

   *  Renamed BASE_MTU to BASE_PMTU (because it is a base for the PMTU).

   *  Clarified Error state.

   *  Clarified suspending DPLPMTUD.

   *  Verified normative text in requirements section.

   *  Removed duplicate text.

   *  Changed all text to refer to /packet probe/probe packet/
      /validation/verification/ added term /Probe Confirmation/ and
      clarified BlackHole detection.

   Working Group draft -05:

   *  Updated security considerations.

   *  Feedback after speaking with Joe Touch helped improve UDP-Options
      description.

   Working Group draft -06:

   *  Updated description of ICMP issues in section 1.1

   *  Update to description of QUIC.

   Working group draft -07:

   *  Moved description of the PTB processing method from the PTB
      requirements section.

   *  Clarified what is performed in the PTB validation check.

   *  Updated security consideration to explain PTB security without
      needing to read the rest of the document.




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   *  Reformatted state machine diagram

   Working group draft -08:

   *  Moved to rfcxml v3+

   *  Rendered diagrams to svg in html version.

   *  Removed Appendix A.  Event-driven state changes.

   *  Removed section on DPLPMTUD with UDP Options.

   *  Shortened the description of phases.

   Working group draft -09:

   *  Remove final mention of UDP Options

   *  Add Initial Connectivity sections to each PL

   *  Add to disable outgoing pmtu enforcement of packets

   Working group draft -10:

   *  Address comments from Lars Eggert

   *  Reinforce that PROBE_COUNT is successive attempts to probe for any
      size

   *  Redefine MAX_PROBES to 3

   *  Address PTB_SIZE of 0 or less that MIN_PLPMTU

   Working group draft -11:

   *  Restore a sentence removed in previous rev

   *  De-acronymise QUIC

   *  Address some nits

   Working group draft -12:

   *  Add TSVWG, QUIC and implementers to acknowledgments

   *  Shorten a diagram line.

   *  Address nits from Julius and Wes.



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   *  Be clearer when talking about IP layer caches

   Working group draft -13, -14:

   *  Updated after WGLC.

   Working group draft -15:

   *  Updated after AD evaluation and prepared for IETF-LC.

   Working group draft -16:

   *  Updated text after SECDIR review.

   Working group draft -17:

   *  Updated text after GENART and IETF-LC.

   *  Renamed BASE_MTU to BASE_PLPMTU, and MIN and MAX PMTU to PLPMTU
      (because these are about a base for the PLPMTU), and ensured
      consistent separation of PMTU and PLPMTU.

   *  Adopted US-style English throughout.

   Working group draft -18:

   *  Updated text and address nits from OPSDIR, ART and IESG reviews.

   *  Order PTB processing based on PL_PTB_SIZE

   Working group draft -19:

   *  Updated text and address nits based on comments from Tim Chown and
      Murray S.  Kucherawy.

   Working group draft -20:

   *  Address nits and comments from IESG

   *  Refer to BCP 145 rather than RFC 8085 in most places.

   *  Update probing method text for SCTP and QUIC.

   Working group draft -21:

   *  Update QUIC text for skipping into BASE state.





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Authors' Addresses

   Godred Fairhurst
   University of Aberdeen
   School of Engineering
   Fraser Noble Building
   Aberdeen
   AB24 3UE
   United Kingdom

   Email: gorry@erg.abdn.ac.uk


   Tom Jones
   University of Aberdeen
   School of Engineering
   Fraser Noble Building
   Aberdeen
   AB24 3UE
   United Kingdom

   Email: tom@erg.abdn.ac.uk


   Michael Tuexen
   Muenster University of Applied Sciences
   Stegerwaldstrasse 39
   48565 Steinfurt
   Germany

   Email: tuexen@fh-muenster.de


   Irene Ruengeler
   Muenster University of Applied Sciences
   Stegerwaldstrasse 39
   48565 Steinfurt
   Germany

   Email: i.ruengeler@fh-muenster.de


   Timo Voelker
   Muenster University of Applied Sciences
   Stegerwaldstrasse 39
   48565 Steinfurt
   Germany




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   Email: timo.voelker@fh-muenster.de


















































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