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Versions: (draft-briscoe-tsvwg-rfc6040update-shim) 00 01 02 03 04

Transport Area Working Group                                  B. Briscoe
Internet-Draft                                Simula Research Laboratory
Updates: 6040, 2661, 2784, 3931, 4380                      June 16, 2017
         (if approved)
Intended status: Standards Track
Expires: December 18, 2017


 Propagating Explicit Congestion Notification Across IP Tunnel Headers
                          Separated by a Shim
                 draft-ietf-tsvwg-rfc6040update-shim-02

Abstract

   RFC 6040 on "Tunnelling of Explicit Congestion Notification" made the
   rules for propagation of ECN consistent for all forms of IP in IP
   tunnel.  This specification extends the scope of RFC 6040 to include
   tunnels where two IP headers are separated by at least one shim
   header that is not sufficient on its own for packet forwarding.  It
   surveys widely deployed IP tunnelling protocols separated by a shim
   and updates the specifications of those that do not mention ECN
   propagation (L2TPv2, L2TPv3, GRE and Teredo).  The specification also
   updates RFC 6040 with configuration requirements needed to make any
   legacy tunnel ingress safe.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on December 18, 2017.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.





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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  IP-in-IP Tunnels with Tightly Coupled Shim Headers  . . . . .   3
     3.1.  Scope of RFC 6040 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     3.2.  Making a non-ECN Tunnel Ingress Safe by Configuration . .   4
     3.3.  Specific Updates to Protocols under IETF Change Control .   6
       3.3.1.  L2TP (v2 and v3) ECN Extension  . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       3.3.2.  GRE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       3.3.3.  Teredo  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   4.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   5.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   6.  Comments Solicited  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   7.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   8.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     8.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     8.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15

1.  Introduction

   RFC 6040 on "Tunnelling of Explicit Congestion Notification"
   [RFC6040] made the rules for propagation of Explicit Congestion
   Notification (ECN [RFC3168]) consistent for all forms of IP in IP
   tunnel.

   A common pattern for many tunnelling protocols is to encapsulate an
   inner IP header (v4 or v6) with shim header(s) then an outer IP
   header (v4 or v6).  Some of these shim headers are designed as
   generic encapsulations, so they do not necessarily directly
   encapsulate an inner IP header.  Instead they can encapsulate headers
   such as link-layer (L2) protocols that in turn often encapsulate IP.

   To clear up confusion, this specification clarifies that the scope of
   RFC 6040 includes any IP-in-IP tunnel, including those with shim
   header(s) and other encapsulations between the IP headers.  Where
   necessary, it updates the specifications of the relevant



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   encapsulation protocols with the specific text necessary to comply
   with RFC 6040.

   This specification also updates RFC 6040 to state how operators ought
   to configure a legacy tunnel ingress to avoid unsafe system
   configurations.

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]
   when, and only when, they appear in all capitals, as shown here.

   This specification uses the terminology defined in RFC 6040
   [RFC6040].

3.  IP-in-IP Tunnels with Tightly Coupled Shim Headers

3.1.  Scope of RFC 6040

   In many cases the shim header(s) and the outer IP header are always
   added (or removed) as part of the same process.  We call this a
   tightly coupled shim header.  Processing the shim and outer together
   is often necessary because the shim(s) are not sufficient for packet
   forwarding in their own right; not unless complemented by an outer
   header.

   In some cases a tunnel adds an outer IP header and a tightly coupled
   shim header to an inner header that is not an IP header, but that in
   turn encapsulates an IP header (or might encapsulate an IP header).
   For instance an inner Ethernet (or other link layer) header might
   encapsulate an inner IP header as its payload.  We call this a
   tightly coupled shim over an encapsulating header.

   In section 1.1 of RFC 6040 its scope was defined as:

      "...ECN field processing at encapsulation and decapsulation for
      any IP-in-IP tunnelling, whether IPsec or non-IPsec tunnels.  It
      applies irrespective of whether IPv4 or IPv6 is used for either
      the inner or outer headers. ..."

   This specification updates RFC 6040 by adding the following scoping
   text after the sentences quoted above:

      It applies in cases where an outer IP header encapsulates an inner
      IP header either directly or indirectly by encapsulating other




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      headers that in turn encapsulate (or might encapsulate) an inner
      IP header.

   Digging to arbitrary depths to find an inner IP header within an
   encapsulation is strictly a layering violation so it cannot be a
   required behaviour.  Nonetheless, some tunnel endpoints already look
   within a L2 header for an IP header, for instance to map the Diffserv
   codepoint between an encapsulated IP header and an outer IP header
   [RFC2983].  In such cases at least, it should be feasible to also
   (independently) propagate the ECN field between the same IP headers.
   Thus, as long as the guidelines in section 6 of
   [I-D.ietf-tsvwg-ecn-encap-guidelines] are followed, access to the ECN
   field within an encapsulating header can be a useful and benign
   optimization.  On the other hand, if a tunnel ingress is not willing
   to find an inner IP header, Section 3.2 below specifies that it has
   to disable the ECN capability in the outer header by zeroing the ECN
   field.

3.2.  Making a non-ECN Tunnel Ingress Safe by Configuration

   Even when ECN propagation is not implemented or is not being used, it
   ought to be possible to render a tunnel ingress safe by
   configuration.  The main safety concern is to disable the ECN
   capability in the outer IP header if the egress of the tunnel does
   not implement ECN logic to propagate any ECN markings into the packet
   forwarded beyond the tunnel.  Otherwise the non-ECN egress could
   discard any ECN marking introduced within the tunnel, which would
   break all the ECN-based control loops that regulate the traffic load
   over the tunnel.

   Therefore this specification updates RFC 6040 by inserting the
   following text just before the last paragraph of section 4.3:

      When the implementation of a tunnel ingress does not support
      [RFC6040] or one of its compatible predecessors ([RFC4301] or the
      full functionality mode of [RFC3168]) and when the outer tunnel
      header is IP (v4 or v6), if possible, the operator MUST configure
      the ingress to zero the outer ECN field in any of the following
      cases:

      *  if it is known that the tunnel egress does not support
         propagation of the ECN field (RFC 6040, RFC 4301 or the full
         functionality mode of RFC 3168)

      *  or if the behaviour of the egress is not known or an egress
         with unknown behaviour might be dynamically paired with the
         ingress.




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      *  or if an IP header might be encapsulated within a non-IP header
         that the tunnel ingress is encapsulating, but the ingress does
         not inspect within the encapsulation.

   In order that the network operator can comply with the above safety
   rules, even if a tunnel ingress does not support RFC 6040, RFC 4301
   or the full functionality mode of RFC 3168, the implementation of the
   tunnel ingress:

   o  MUST make propagation of the ECN field between inner and outer IP
      headers independent of any configuration of Diffserv codepoint
      propagation;

   o  SHOULD zero the outer ECN field in its default configuration.

   There might be concern that the above "MUST" makes compliant
   equipment non-compliant at a stroke.  However, any equipment that is
   still treating the ToS octet (IPv4) or the Traffic Class octet (IPv6)
   as a single 8-bit field is already non-compliant, and has been since
   1998 when the upper 6 bits were separated off for the Diffserv
   codepoint (DSCP) [RFC2474].  For instance, copying the ECN field as a
   side-effect of copying the DSCP is a seriously unsafe bug that risks
   breaking the feedback loops that regulate load on a tunnel.

   Permanently zeroing the outer ECN field is safe, but it is not
   sufficient to claim compliance with RFC 6040 because it does not meet
   the aim of introducing ECN support to tunnels (see Section 4.3 of
   [RFC6040]).  Developers and network operators are encouraged to
   implement and deploy tunnel endpoints compliant with RFC 6040 (as
   updated by the present specification) in order to provide the
   benefits of wider ECN deployment [RFC8087].  Nonetheless, propagation
   of ECN between IP headers, whether separated by shim headers or not,
   has to be OPTIONAL to implement and to use, because:

   o  Legacy implementations of tunnels without any ECN support already
      exist

   o  A network might be designed so that there is usually no bottleneck
      within the tunnel

   o  If the tunnel endpoints would have to search within an L2 header
      to find an encapsulated IP header, it might not be worth the
      potential performance hit








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3.3.  Specific Updates to Protocols under IETF Change Control

   There follows a list of specifications of encapsulations with tightly
   coupled shim header(s).  The list is not necessarily exhaustive so,
   for the avoidance of doubt, RFC 6040 applies to all tightly coupled
   shim headers whether or not they are listed here and whether or not
   the shim encapsulates an IP header or a different header that
   encapsulates (or might encapsulate) an IP header.  The list is
   confined to standards track or widely deployed protocols.

   o  PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) [RFC2637];

   o  L2TP (Layer 2 Tunnelling Protocol), specifically L2TPv2 [RFC2661]
      and L2TPv3 [RFC3931], which not only includes all the L2-specific
      specializations of L2TP, but also derivatives such as the Keyed
      IPv6 Tunnel [RFC8159];

   o  GRE (Generic Routing Encapsulation) [RFC2784] and NVGRE (Network
      Virtualization using GRE) [RFC7637];

   o  GTP (GPRS Tunnelling Protocol), specifically GTPv1 [GTPv1], GTP v1
      User Plane [GTPv1-U], GTP v2 Control Plane [GTPv2-C];

   o  Teredo [RFC4380];

   o  CAPWAP (Control And Provisioning of Wireless Access Points)
      [RFC5415];

   o  LISP (Locator/Identifier Separation Protocol) [RFC6830];

   o  VXLAN (Virtual eXtensible Local Area Network) [RFC7348] and VXLAN-
      GPE [I-D.ietf-nvo3-vxlan-gpe];

   o  Geneve [I-D.ietf-nvo3-geneve];

   o  GUE (Generic UDP Encapsulation) [I-D.ietf-intarea-gue].

   Some of the listed protocols enable encapsulation of a variety of
   network layer protocols as inner and/or outer.  This specification
   applies in the cases where there is an inner and outer IP header as
   described in Section 3.1.  Otherwise
   [I-D.ietf-tsvwg-ecn-encap-guidelines] gives guidance on how to design
   propagation of ECN into other protocols that might encapsulate IP.

   Where protocols in the above list are under IETF change control and
   they need to be updated to specify ECN propagation, update text is
   given in the following subsections.  For those not under IETF
   control, it is RECOMMENDED that implementations of encapsulation and



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   decapsulation comply with RFC 6040.  It is also RECOMMENDED that
   their specifications are updated to add a requirement to comply with
   RFC 6040 (as updated by the present document).

   PPTP is not under the change control of the IETF, but it has been
   documented in an informational RFC [RFC2637].  However, there is no
   need for the present specification to update PPTP because L2TP has
   been developed as a standardized replacement.

   NVGRE is not under the change control of the IETF, but it has been
   documented in an informational RFC [RFC7637].  NVGRE is a specific
   use-case of GRE (it re-purposes the key field from the initial
   specification of GRE [RFC1701] as a Virtual Subnet ID).  Therefore
   the text that updates GRE in Section 3.3.2 below is also intended to
   update NVGRE.

   Although the definition of the various GTP shim headers is under the
   control of the 3GPP, it is hard to determine whether the 3GPP or the
   IETF controls standardization of the _process_ of adding both a GTP
   and an IP header to an inner IP header.  Nonetheless, the present
   specification is provided so that the 3GPP can refer to it from any
   of its own specifications of GTP and IP header processing.

   The specification of CAPWAP already specifies RFC 3168 ECN
   propagation and ECN capability negotiation.  Without modification the
   CAPWAP specification already interworks with the backward compatible
   updates to RFC 3168 in RFC 6040.

   LISP made the ECN propagation procedures in RFC 3168 mandatory from
   the start.  RFC 3168 has since been updated by RFC 6040, but the
   changes are backwards compatible so there is still no need for LISP
   tunnel endpoints to negotiate their ECN capabilities.

   VXLAN is not under the change control of the IETF but it has been
   documented in an informational RFC.  It is RECOMMENDED that VXLAN
   implementations comply with RFC 6040 when the VXLAN header is
   inserted between (or removed from between) IP headers.  And the
   authors of any future update to these specifications are encouraged
   to add a requirement to comply with RFC 6040 as updated by the
   present specification.

   VXLAN-GPE (Generic Protocol Extension) is on the IETF standards
   track.  It is expected that it will specify ECN propagation before it
   is published as an RFC. {ToDo: Update this text once the VXLAN-GPE
   text has been updated.}

   The specifications of Geneve and GUE already refer to RFC 6040 for
   ECN encapsulation.



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3.3.1.  L2TP (v2 and v3) ECN Extension

   The L2TP terminology used here is defined in [RFC2661] and [RFC3931].

   L2TPv3 [RFC3931] is used as a shim header between any packet-switched
   network (PSN) header (e.g.  IPv4, IPv6, MPLS) and many types of layer
   2 (L2) header.  The L2TPv3 shim header encapsulates an L2-specific
   sub-layer then an L2 header that is likely to contain an inner IP
   header (v4 or v6).  Then this whole stack of headers can be
   encapsulated optionally within an outer UDP header then an outer PSN
   header that is typically IP (v4 or v6).

   L2TPv2 is used as a shim header between any PSN header and a PPP
   header, which is in turn likely to encapsulate an IP header.

   Even though these shims are rather fat (particularly in the case of
   L2TPv3), they still fit the definition of a tightly coupled shim
   header over an encapsulating header (Section 3.1), because all the
   headers encapsulating the L2 header are added (or removed) together.
   L2TPv2 and L2TPv3 are therefore within the scope of RFC 6040, as
   updated by Section 3.1 above.

   L2TP maintainers are RECOMMENDED to implement the ECN extension to
   L2TPv2 and L2TPv3 defined in Section 3.3.1.2 below, in order to
   provide the benefits of ECN [RFC8087], whenever a node within an L2TP
   tunnel becomes the bottleneck for an end-to-end traffic flow.

3.3.1.1.  Safe Configuration of a 'Non-ECN' Ingress LCCE

   The following text is appended to both Section 5.3 of [RFC2661] and
   Section 4.5 of [RFC3931] as an update to the base L2TPv2 and L2TPv3
   specifications:

      An LCCE that does not support the ECN Extension in Section 3.3.1.2
      of RFCXXXX MUST follow the configuration requirements in
      Section 3.2 of RFCXXXX for when the outer PSN header is IP (v4 or
      v6). {RFCXXXX refers to the present document so it will need to be
      inserted by the RFC Editor}

   In particular this means that an LCCE implementation that does not
   support the ECN Extension MUST propagate the ECN field between inner
   and outer IP headers independently of any configuration of the
   Diffserv extension of L2TP [RFC3308].








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3.3.1.2.  ECN Extension for L2TP (v2 or v3)

   When the outer PSN header and the payload inside the L2 header are
   both IP (v4 or v6), to comply with RFC 6040, an LCCE will follow the
   rules for propagation of the ECN field at ingress and egress in
   Section 4 of RFC 6040 [RFC6040].

   Before encapsulating any data packets, RFC 6040 requires an ingress
   LCCE to check that the egress LCCE supports ECN propagation.  If the
   egress supports ECN, the ingress LCCE can use the normal mode of
   encapsulation.  Otherwise, the ingress LCCE has to use compatibility
   mode [RFC6040].  An LCCE can determine the remote LCCE's support for
   ECN either statically (by configuration) or by dynamic discovery
   during setup of each control connection between the LCCEs, using the
   Capability AVP defined in Section 3.3.1.2.1 below.

   Where the outer PSN header is some protocol other than IP that
   supports ECN, the appropriate ECN propagation specification will need
   to be followed, e.g.  "Explicit Congestion Marking in MPLS"
   [RFC5129].  Where no specification exists for ECN propagation by a
   particular PSN, [I-D.ietf-tsvwg-ecn-encap-guidelines] gives general
   guidance on how to design ECN propagation into a protocol that
   encapsulates IP.

3.3.1.2.1.  LCCE Capability AVP for ECN Capability Negotiation

   The LCCE Capability Attribute Value Pair (AVP) defined here has
   Attribute Type ZZ.  The Attribute Value field for this AVP is a bit-
   mask with the following 16-bit format:

          0                   1
          0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
         |X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X E|
         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   This AVP MAY be present in the following message types: SCCRQ and
   SCCRP (Start-Control-Connection-Request and Start-Control-Connection-
   Reply).  This AVP MAY be hidden (the H-bit set to 0 or 1) and is
   optional (M-bit not set).  The length (before hiding) of this AVP
   MUST be 8 octets.  The Vendor ID is the IETF Vendor ID of 0.

   Bit 15 of the Value field of the LCCE Capability AVP is defined as
   the ECN Capability flag (E).  When the ECN Capability flag is set to
   1, it indicates that the sender supports ECN propagation.  When the
   ECN Capability flag is cleared to zero, or when no LCCE Capabiliy AVP
   is present, it indicates that the sender does not support ECN




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   propagation.  All the other bits are reserved.  They MUST be cleared
   to zero when sent and ignored when received or forwarded.

   An LCCE initiating a control connection will send a Start-Control-
   Connection-Request (SCCRQ) containing an LCCE Capability AVP with the
   ECN Capability flag set to 1.  If the tunnel terminator supports ECN,
   it will return a Start-Control-Connection-Reply (SCCRP) that also
   includes an LCCE Capability AVP with the ECN Capability flag set to
   1.  Then, for any sessions created by that control connection, both
   ends of the tunnel can use the normal mode of RFC 6040 to propagate
   the ECN field when encapsulating data packets.

   If, on the other hand, the tunnel terminator does not support ECN it
   will ignore the ECN flag in the LCCE Capability AVP and send an SCCRP
   to the tunnel initiator without a Capability AVP (or with a
   Capability AVP but with the ECN Capability flag cleared to zero).
   The tunnel initiator interprets the absence of the ECN Capability
   flag in the SCCRP as an indication that the tunnel terminator is
   incapable of supporting ECN.  When encapsulating data packets for any
   sessions created by that control connection, the tunnel initiator
   will then use the compatibility mode of RFC 6040 to clear the ECN
   field of the outer IP header to 0b00.

   If the tunnel terminator does not support this ECN extension, the
   network operator is still expected to configure it to comply with the
   safety provisions set out in Section 3.3.1.1 above, when it acts as
   an ingress LCCE.

3.3.2.  GRE

   The GRE terminology used here is defined in [RFC2784].  GRE is often
   used as a tightly coupled shim header between IP headers.  Sometimes
   the GRE shim header encapsulates an L2 header, which might in turn
   encapsulate an IP header.  Therefore GRE is within the scope of RFC
   6040 as updated by Section 3.1 above.

   GRE tunnel endpoint maintainers are RECOMMENDED to support [RFC6040]
   as updated by the present specification, in order to provide the
   benefits of ECN [RFC8087] whenever a node within a GRE tunnel becomes
   the bottleneck for an end-to-end IP traffic flow tunnelled over GRE
   using IP as the delivery protocol (outer header).

   GRE tunnels do not support dynamic configuration based on capability
   negotiation, so the ECN capability has to be manually configured,
   which is specified in Section 4.3 of RFC 6040.

   Where the delivery protocol is some protocol other than IP that
   supports ECN, the appropriate ECN propagation specification will need



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   to be followed, e.g Explicit Congestion Marking in MPLS [RFC5129].
   Where no specification exists for ECN propagation by a particular
   PSN, [I-D.ietf-tsvwg-ecn-encap-guidelines] gives more general
   guidance on how to propagate ECN to and from protocols that
   encapsulate IP.

3.3.2.1.  Safe Configuration of a 'Non-ECN' GRE Ingress

   The following text is appended to Section 3 of [RFC2784] as an update
   to the base GRE specification:

      A GRE tunnel ingress that does not support RFC 6040 or one of its
      compatible predecessors (RFC 4301 or the full functionality mode
      of RFC 3168) MUST follow the configuration requirements in
      Section 3.2 of RFCXXXX for when the outer delivery protocol is IP
      (v4 or v6).  {RFCXXXX refers to the present document so it will
      need to be inserted by the RFC Editor}

3.3.3.  Teredo

   {ToDo}

4.  IANA Considerations

   IANA is requested to assign the following L2TP Control Message
   Attribute Value Pair:

              +----------------+----------------+-----------+
              | Attribute Type | Description    | Reference |
              +----------------+----------------+-----------+
              | ZZ             | ECN Capability | RFCXXXX   |
              +----------------+----------------+-----------+

   [TO BE REMOVED: This registration should take place at the following
   location: https://www.iana.org/assignments/l2tp-parameters/l2tp-
   parameters.xhtml ]

5.  Security Considerations

   The Security Considerations in [RFC6040] and
   [I-D.ietf-tsvwg-ecn-encap-guidelines] apply equally to the scope
   defined for the present specification.

6.  Comments Solicited

   Comments and questions are encouraged and very welcome.  They can be
   addressed to the IETF Transport Area working group mailing list
   <tsvwg@ietf.org>, and/or to the authors.



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7.  Acknowledgements

   Thanks to Ing-jyh (Inton) Tsang for initial discussions on the need
   for ECN propagation in L2TP and its applicability.  Thanks also to
   Carlos Pignataro, Tom Herbert and Ignacio Goyret for helpful advice
   and comments.

8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-tsvwg-ecn-encap-guidelines]
              Briscoe, B., Kaippallimalil, J., and P. Thaler,
              "Guidelines for Adding Congestion Notification to
              Protocols that Encapsulate IP", draft-ietf-tsvwg-ecn-
              encap-guidelines-08 (work in progress), March 2017.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC2474]  Nichols, K., Blake, S., Baker, F., and D. Black,
              "Definition of the Differentiated Services Field (DS
              Field) in the IPv4 and IPv6 Headers", RFC 2474,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2474, December 1998,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2474>.

   [RFC2661]  Townsley, W., Valencia, A., Rubens, A., Pall, G., Zorn,
              G., and B. Palter, "Layer Two Tunneling Protocol "L2TP"",
              RFC 2661, DOI 10.17487/RFC2661, August 1999,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2661>.

   [RFC2784]  Farinacci, D., Li, T., Hanks, S., Meyer, D., and P.
              Traina, "Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE)", RFC 2784,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2784, March 2000,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2784>.

   [RFC3168]  Ramakrishnan, K., Floyd, S., and D. Black, "The Addition
              of Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) to IP",
              RFC 3168, DOI 10.17487/RFC3168, September 2001,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3168>.

   [RFC3931]  Lau, J., Ed., Townsley, M., Ed., and I. Goyret, Ed.,
              "Layer Two Tunneling Protocol - Version 3 (L2TPv3)",
              RFC 3931, DOI 10.17487/RFC3931, March 2005,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3931>.




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   [RFC4301]  Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the
              Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, DOI 10.17487/RFC4301,
              December 2005, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4301>.

   [RFC4380]  Huitema, C., "Teredo: Tunneling IPv6 over UDP through
              Network Address Translations (NATs)", RFC 4380,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4380, February 2006,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4380>.

   [RFC5129]  Davie, B., Briscoe, B., and J. Tay, "Explicit Congestion
              Marking in MPLS", RFC 5129, DOI 10.17487/RFC5129, January
              2008, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5129>.

   [RFC6040]  Briscoe, B., "Tunnelling of Explicit Congestion
              Notification", RFC 6040, DOI 10.17487/RFC6040, November
              2010, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6040>.

8.2.  Informative References

   [GTPv1]    3GPP, "GPRS Tunnelling Protocol (GTP) across the Gn and Gp
              interface", Technical Specification TS 29.060.

   [GTPv1-U]  3GPP, "General Packet Radio System (GPRS) Tunnelling
              Protocol User Plane (GTPv1-U)", Technical Specification TS
              29.281.

   [GTPv2-C]  3GPP, "Evolved General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
              Tunnelling Protocol for Control plane (GTPv2-C)",
              Technical Specification TS 29.274.

   [I-D.ietf-intarea-gue]
              Herbert, T., Yong, L., and O. Zia, "Generic UDP
              Encapsulation", draft-ietf-intarea-gue-04 (work in
              progress), May 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-nvo3-geneve]
              Gross, J., Ganga, I., and T. Sridhar, "Geneve: Generic
              Network Virtualization Encapsulation", draft-ietf-
              nvo3-geneve-04 (work in progress), March 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-nvo3-vxlan-gpe]
              Maino, F., Kreeger, L., and U. Elzur, "Generic Protocol
              Extension for VXLAN", draft-ietf-nvo3-vxlan-gpe-04 (work
              in progress), April 2017.







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   [RFC1701]  Hanks, S., Li, T., Farinacci, D., and P. Traina, "Generic
              Routing Encapsulation (GRE)", RFC 1701,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC1701, October 1994,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1701>.

   [RFC2637]  Hamzeh, K., Pall, G., Verthein, W., Taarud, J., Little,
              W., and G. Zorn, "Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol
              (PPTP)", RFC 2637, DOI 10.17487/RFC2637, July 1999,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2637>.

   [RFC2983]  Black, D., "Differentiated Services and Tunnels",
              RFC 2983, DOI 10.17487/RFC2983, October 2000,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2983>.

   [RFC3308]  Calhoun, P., Luo, W., McPherson, D., and K. Peirce, "Layer
              Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) Differentiated Services
              Extension", RFC 3308, DOI 10.17487/RFC3308, November 2002,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3308>.

   [RFC5415]  Calhoun, P., Ed., Montemurro, M., Ed., and D. Stanley,
              Ed., "Control And Provisioning of Wireless Access Points
              (CAPWAP) Protocol Specification", RFC 5415,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5415, March 2009,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5415>.

   [RFC6830]  Farinacci, D., Fuller, V., Meyer, D., and D. Lewis, "The
              Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP)", RFC 6830,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6830, January 2013,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6830>.

   [RFC7348]  Mahalingam, M., Dutt, D., Duda, K., Agarwal, P., Kreeger,
              L., Sridhar, T., Bursell, M., and C. Wright, "Virtual
              eXtensible Local Area Network (VXLAN): A Framework for
              Overlaying Virtualized Layer 2 Networks over Layer 3
              Networks", RFC 7348, DOI 10.17487/RFC7348, August 2014,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7348>.

   [RFC7637]  Garg, P., Ed. and Y. Wang, Ed., "NVGRE: Network
              Virtualization Using Generic Routing Encapsulation",
              RFC 7637, DOI 10.17487/RFC7637, September 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7637>.

   [RFC8087]  Fairhurst, G. and M. Welzl, "The Benefits of Using
              Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN)", RFC 8087,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8087, March 2017,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8087>.





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   [RFC8159]  Konstantynowicz, M., Ed., Heron, G., Ed., Schatzmayr, R.,
              and W. Henderickx, "Keyed IPv6 Tunnel", RFC 8159,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8159, May 2017,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8159>.

Author's Address

   Bob Briscoe
   Simula Research Laboratory
   UK

   EMail: ietf@bobbriscoe.net
   URI:   http://bobbriscoe.net/






































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