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Versions: 00 01 RFC 1768

INTERNET-DRAFT                                               Dave Marlow
May 13, 1994                                                    NSWC-DD



              Host Group Extensions for CLNP Multicasting

               draft-ietf-tuba-host-clnp-multicas-01.txt

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft.  Internet-Drafts are working
   documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas,
   and its working groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
   months.  Internet-Drafts may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by
   other documents at any time.  It is not appropriate to use Internet-
   Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as a
   ``working draft'' or ``work in progress.''

   To learn the current status of any Internet-Draft, please check the
   1id-abstracts.txt listing contained in the Internet-Drafts Shadow
   Directories on ds.internic.net, nic.nordu.net, venera.isi.edu, or
   munnari.oz.au.

Abstract

   This draft provides a specification for multicast extensions to the
   CLNP protocol similar to those provided to IP by RFC1112.  These
   extensions are intended to provide the mechanisms needed by a host
   for multicasting in a CLNP based Internet.  This draft covers
   addressing extensions to the CLNP addressing structure, extensions to
   the CLNP protocol and extensions to the ES-IS protocol.  An appendix
   discusses the differences between IP multicast and the CLNP multicast
   approach provided in this draft.

   The multicast extensions to the CLNP addressing structure defines
   group Network addresses which identify host groups.  The multicast
   extensions to CLNP provides a means for identifying a CLNP packet and
   provides scope control mechanisms for CLNP multicast packets. The
   multicast extensions to the ES-IS protocol provide the mechanisms
   needed for a host to exchange control information with multicast
   capable routers.  These extensions to the ES-IS protocol provide for
   a host to "announce" which multicast packets are of interest and for
   a multicast capable router to dynamically "map" group Network
   addresses to subnetwork addresses.

   The primary change in this updated Internet Draft is the
   incorporation of "direct origination of multicast packets" as
   discussed at the March TUBA meeting and over the email.  This change
   to the behavior of hosts originating multicast packets enables hosts
   announcing an interest in particular group Network addresses to



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   directly receive such multicast packets originated on a subnetwork to
   which they are connected.  This replaces the previous method which in
   some cases required a multicast capable router to resend such
   packets.





           Contents

             Status of this Memo

             Abstract

             1.  Introduction

             2.  Levels of Conformance

             3.  Group Network Addresses

             4.  Model of a CLNP End System Multicast Implementation

             5.  Extensions to the CLNP Protocol

             6.  Extensions to the ES-IS Routeing Protocol

             Appendix A.  Differences with RFC 1112

             Appendix B.  Issues Under Study

             References

             Author's Address























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1.      Introduction

   This draft provides a specification for multicast extensions for CLNP
   in order to provide a CLNP based Internet the capabilities provided
   for IP by RFC 1112 (Host Extensions for IP Multicasting) [RFC1112].
   This draft uses an outline similar to that of RFC 1112.

   Paraphrasing RFC 1112, "CLNP multicasting is the transmission of a
   CLNP datagram to a "host group", a set of zero or more End Systems
   identified by a single group Network address (GNA). A multicast
   datagram is delivered to all members of its destination host group
   with the same "best-efforts" reliability as regular unicast CLNP
   datagrams, i.e., the datagram is not guaranteed to arrive intact at
   all members of the destination group or in the same order relative to
   other datagrams.

   "The membership of a host group is dynamic; that is End Systems may
   join and leave groups at any time. There is no restrictions on the
   location or number of members in a host group. An End System may be a
   member of more than one group at a time. An End System need not be a
   member of a group to send datagrams to it.

   "A host group may be permanent or transient. A permanent group has an
   administratively assigned GNA. It is the address, not the membership
   of the group, that is permanent; at any time a permanent group may
   have any number of members, even zero.

   "Internetwork forwarding of CLNP multicast datagrams is handled by
   "multicast capable" Intermediate Systems which may be co-resident
   with unicast capable Intermediate Systems.

   This draft specifies the extensions required by an End System to make
   use of CLNP multicast. In addition the requirements placed upon
   multicast capable Intermediate Systems to exchange information with
   multicast capable End Systems is specified. No specifications are
   provided related to the information exchanges between Intermediate
   Systems to support multicast route selection or multicast Protocol
   Data Unit (PDU) forwarding. A discussion of multicast route selection
   and PDU forwarding has been written by Steve Deering [Deering91].
   Note that for these multicast extensions to work there must exist an
   uninterrupted path of multicast capable routers between the End
   Systems comprising a host group (such paths may utilize tunneling
   (i.e. unicast CLNP encapsulated paths between multicast capable CLNP
   routers)).   In order to support multicast route selection and
   forwarding for a CLNP based internet additional specifications are
   needed. Specifications of this type could come in the form of new
   protocols, extensions to the current CLNP based routing protocols or
   use of a technique out of the IETF`s Inter-Domain Multicast Routing
   (IDMR) group. The IDMR group is currently investigating multicast
   protocols for routers which utilize a router's unicast routing
   protocols, this approach may extend directly to CLNP routers.

   While many of the techniques and assumptions of IP multicasting (as
   discussed in RFC 1112) are used in CLNP multicasting, there are



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   number of differences. Appendix A describes the differences between
   CLNP multicasting and IP multicasting. This draft describes
   techniques brought in directly from projects within ISO to
   incorporate multicast transmission capabilities into CLNP [MULT-
   AMDS].  Coordination is being made to keep this draft consistent with
   the specifications of these ISO projects. Key contributions to the
   techniques described in this draft have been made by a number of
   individuals within the TUBA, ANSI X3S3.3 and ISO SC6 Working Group 2
   committees.

2.      Levels of Conformance

   There are three levels of conformance for End Systems to this
   specification:

   Level 0: no support for CLNP multicasting.

   There is no requirement for a CLNP End System (or Intermediate
   System) to support CLNP multicasting. Level 0 hosts should be
   unaffected by the presence of multicast activity. The destination
   addresses used in support of multicast transfers, the GNA, should not
   be enabled by a non-multicast capable End System and the PDUs
   themselves are marked differently than unicast PDUs and thus should
   be quietly discarded.

   Level 1: support for sending but not receiving CLNP multicast PDUs.

   An End System originating multicast PDUs is required to know whether
   a multicast capable Intermediate System is attached to the
   subnetwork(s) that it originates multicast PDUs (i.e. to determine
   the destination SNPA (subnet) address). An End System with Level 1
   conformance is required to implement all parts of this specification
   except for those supporting only Multicast Announcement.  An End
   System is not required to know the current Multicast Address Mapping
   to start originating multicast PDUs.

   Note: It is possible for End System not implementing Multicast
   Address Mapping to successfully originate multicast PDUs (but with
   the End System knowing of the existence of a multicast capable
   Intermediate System). Such operation may lead to inefficient
   subnetworks use.  Thus when an End System continues (or may continue)
   to originate multicast PDUs destined for the same group,
   implementations are to provide Multicast Address Mapping support.

   Level 2: full support for CLNP multicasting.

   Level 2 allows a host to join and leave host groups as well as send
   CLNP PDUs to host groups. It requires implementation by the End
   System of all parts of this specification.

3.      Group Network Addresses

   Individual Network addresses used by CLNP for End System addressing
   are called Network Service Access Points (NSAPs). RFC 1237 defines



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   the NSAP address for use in the Internet. In order to provide an
   address for a group of End Systems, this specification does not
   change the definition of the NSAP address, but adds a new type of
   identifier - the group Network address - that supports a multicast
   Network service (i.e., between a single source NSAP, identified by an
   individual Network address, and a group of destination NSAPs,
   identified by a group Network address). Host groups are identified by
   group Network addresses.

   In the development of multicast address extensions to CLNP,
   requirements were identified for: (1)"easily distinguishing" group
   addresses at the Network layer from NSAP addresses; (2)leaving the
   currently allocated address families unaffected and (3)ensuring that
   the approach taken would not require the establishment of new
   addressing authorities. In addition, it was agreed that providing
   multicast options for all OSI Network layer users was desirable and
   thus the group Network addressing solution should support options for
   all address formats covered by ISO/IEC 8348 | Recommendation X.213.
   The only viable means identified for meeting all requirements was via
   creating a new set of AFI values with a fixed one-to-one mapping
   between each of the existing AFI values and a corresponding group AFI
   value.

   Group Network addresses are defined by creating a new set of AFI
   values, one for each existing AFI value, and a fixed one-to-one
   mapping between each of the existing AFI values and a corresponding
   group AFI value. The syntax of a group Network address is identical
   to the syntax of an individual Network address, except that the value
   of the AFI in an individual Network address may be only one of the
   values already allocated for individual Network addresses, whereas
   the value of the AFI in a group Network address may be only one of
   the values allocated here for group Network addresses. The AFI values
   allocated for group Network addresses have been chosen in such a way
   that they do not overlap, in the preferred encoding defined by
   ISO/IEC 8348 | CCITT Recommendation X.213, with any of the AFI values
   that have already been allocated for individual Network addresses.

3.1     Definitions

   group Network address: an address that identifies a set of zero or
   more Network service access points; these may belong to multiple
   Network entities, in different End Systems.

   individual Network address: an address that identifies a single NSAP.

3.2     CLNP Addresses

   A discussion of the CLNP address format is contained in RFC 1237. The
   structure of all CLNP addresses is divided into two parts the Initial
   Domain Part (IDP) and the Domain Specific Part (DSP). The first two
   octets of the IDP are the Authority and Format Identifier (AFI)
   field. The AFI has an abstract syntax of two hexadecimal digits with
   a value in the range of 00 to FF. In addition to identifying the
   address authority responsible for allocating a particular address and



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   the format of the address, the AFI also identifies whether an address
   is an individual Network address or a group Network address. There
   are 90 possible AFI values to support individual Network address
   allocations. In addition, when the AFI value starts with the value
   "0" this identifies that the field contains an incomplete individual
   Network address (i.e. identifies an escape code).

   Table 1 allocates 90 possible AFI values to support group Network
   address allocations. In addition if the first two digits of the IDP
   are hexadecimal FF, this indicates the presence of an incomplete
   group Network address. The allocation of group addresses is
   restricted to be only from the AFI values allocated for the
   assignment of group addresses in Table 1. An addressing authority in
   allocating either Network addresses or authorizing one or more
   authorities to allocate addresses, allocates both individual and the
   corresponding group addresses. Thus each block of addresses allocated
   by an addressing authority (or its sub-authority) contains a block of
   individual Network addresses and group Network addresses.  The
   individual and group address block allocated are differentiated by
   the AFI values used which are related as shown in Table 1.

   Group Network addresses are only used as the destination address
   parameter of a CLNP PDU. Source Address parameters are never
   permitted to be group Network addresses.

   Table 2 lists the AFI values which have not been assigned, at this
   time, for the support of neither individual nor group address
   allocation. Future assignment of these AFI values is possible.
   Additional information concerning individual Network addresses (i.e.
   NSAP and NET (Network Entity Titles)) is contained in RFC 1237.



























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         TABLE 1 - Relationship of AFI Individual and Group Values
        -----------------------------------------------------------
        |Individual  Group | Individual  Group | Individual Group |
        -----------------------------------------------------------
        | 0x           FF  |                   |                  |
        | 10           A0  |     40        BE  |     70       DC  |
        | 11           A1  |     41        BF  |     71       DD  |
        | 12           A2  |     42        C0  |     72       DE  |
        | 13           A3  |     43        C1  |     73       DF  |
        | 14           A4  |     44        C2  |     74       E0  |
        | 15           A5  |     45        C3  |     75       E1  |
        | 16           A6  |     46        C4  |     76       E2  |
        | 17           A7  |     47        C5  |     77       E3  |
        | 18           A8  |     48        C6  |     78       E4  |
        | 19           A9  |     49        C7  |     79       E5  |
        | 20           AA  |     50        C8  |     80       E6  |
        | 21           AB  |     51        C9  |     81       E7  |
        | 22           AC  |     52        CA  |     82       E8  |
        | 23           AD  |     53        CB  |     83       E9  |
        | 24           AE  |     54        CC  |     84       EA  |
        | 25           AF  |     55        CD  |     85       EB  |
        | 26           B0  |     56        CE  |     86       EC  |
        | 27           B1  |     57        CF  |     87       ED  |
        | 28           B2  |     58        D0  |     88       EE  |
        | 29           B3  |     59        D1  |     89       EF  |
        | 30           B4  |     60        D2  |     90       F0  |
        | 31           B5  |     61        D3  |     91       F1  |
        | 32           B6  |     62        D4  |     92       F2  |
        | 33           B7  |     63        D5  |     93       F3  |
        | 34           B8  |     64        D6  |     94       F4  |
        | 35           B9  |     65        D7  |     95       F5  |
        | 36           BA  |     66        D8  |     96       F6  |
        | 37           BB  |     67        D9  |     97       F7  |
        | 38           BC  |     68        DA  |     98       F8  |
        | 39           BD  |     69        DB  |     99       F9  |
        -----------------------------------------------------------


            TABLE 2 - AFI values reserved for future allocation
                              --------------
                              |    1A-1F   |
                              |    2A-2F   |
                              |    3A-3F   |
                              |    4A-4F   |
                              |    5A-5F   |
                              |    6A-6F   |
                              |    7A-7F   |
                              |    8A-8F   |
                              |    9A-9F   |
                              |    FA-FE   |
                              --------------






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4.      Model of a CLNP End System Multicast Implementation

   The use of multicast transmission by a CLNP End System involves
   extensions to two protocols: CLNP and the ES-IS Routeing Protocol. To
   provide level 0 service (no support for CLNP multicast), no
   extensions to the two present protocols are required. To provide
   level 1 service (support for sending but not receiving CLNP multicast
   PDUs) all extensions contained in the following sections are required
   except for those supporting only Multicast Announcement.  In order to
   support level 2 service (full support for CLNP multicasting), the
   extensions contained in the following sections are required.
   Extensions identified for Intermediate Systems are not required (or
   appropriate) for End Systems. Multicast transmission also requires
   the use of a group Network address (as previously described) as the
   destination address parameter.

5.      Extensions to the CLNP protocol

   This section provides extensions to the CLNP Protocol [CLNP] ISO
   8473-1, to support multicast transmission. These additions provide
   procedures for the connectionless transmission of data and control
   information from one network-entity to one or more peer network-
   entities.

   In developing the multicast extensions for CLNP a decision was needed
   on how to "mark" a packet as multicast (versus the current unicast
   packets).  Such marking is necessary since the forwarding behavior
   for multicast packets is different (e.g. multiple copies of a packet
   may need to be forwarded).  The two alternatives considered were to
   mark the packet (via a particular field) or to mark the destination
   address, in the end both were done.  The destination address for a
   multicast PDU identifies a host group which is of a very different
   nature  than the unicast NSAP address.  Rather than changing the
   nature of NSAP addresses, a new set of addresses were created named
   group Network addresses which are marked within the first octet (i.e.
   the AFI field) with values reserved for group Network addresses.

   Consideration was given to no further marking of the PDU; however, a
   problem was identified with only using the group Network address to
   identify multicast packets.  Currently routers implementing the IS-IS
   Intra-Domain protocol as Level 1 routers when receiving a packet with
   an unknown destination address are permitted to either discard the
   packet or send it to a Level 2 router.  Such actions by non-multicast
   capable routers to multicast packets can lead to non-deterministic
   behavior.  Level 1 routers upon receiving a packet containing a group
   Network address might pass the packet up to a Level 2 router (which
   may or may not be multicast capable) or it might discard it.
   Depending upon the circumstances this might lead to whole regions
   missing packets or packet duplication (possibly even explosion).  The
   result was to seek deterministic behavior by non-multicast capable
   routers by creating a new PDU type (Multicast Data PDU) and inserting
   into the CLNP reasons for discard: receiving a PDU of unknown type.
   Note this reason for discard is mandatory on multicast capable and
   non-multicast capable CLNP implementations.



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5.1     Definitions

   multicast: Data transmission to one or more destinations in a
   selected group in a single service invocation.

   multicast capable Intermediate System: An Intermediate System which
   incorporates the multicast features of the Network layer.

5.2     Addresses

   The destination address parameter of a multicast PDU shall contain a
   group Network address. The source address parameter shall be an
   individual Network address.

5.3     Extensions to the current protocol functions

   In order to support multicast transmissions the following optional
   CLNP protocol functions will be implemented:

5.3.1   Header Format Analysis function

   The header format analysis function optionally provides capabilities
   to Network entities which support multicast transfer to supply
   applicable PDUs directly to End Systems served by such a Network
   entity as well as to forward such PDUs on to other Network entities.
   This optional functionality is realized through a Network entity with
   multicast capability identifying a PDU as using multicast transfer
   via the PDU type and the PDU's destination address field.

   If a Network entity supports multicast transmission, then the header
   format analysis function shall provide checking to ensure that a PDU
   does not contain a group Network address in the source address field.
   Any PDU header analyzed to have a group address in the source address
   field shall be discarded.

5.3.2   Route PDU function

   The route PDU function optionally provides capabilities to Network
   entities which support multicast transfer for determining multiple
   Network entities to which a single PDU shall be forwarded to. This
   may result in multiple invocations of the forward PDU function and
   hence the need to make multiple copies of the PDU. For PDUs that are
   received from a different Network entity, the optional functionality
   for the route PDU function is realized as a result of the header
   format analysis function's recognition of the PDU as being a
   multicast PDU. A Network entity attached to more than one subnetwork
   when originating a multicast PDU is permitted to originate the PDU on
   more than one subnetwork.

   Note: The ES-IS function "Extensions to the ISO CLNP Route Function
   by End Systems" discussed in section 6.10 identifies on which
   subnetworks an End System attached to more than one subnetwork must
   originate multicast PDUs on.




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   Note: The purpose in allowing an originating Network entity to
   originate a multicast PDU on multiple subnetworks is to support the
   development of multicast IS-IS protocols which will need to determine
   on which subnetworks a multicast PDU has visited.  This behavior is
   predicated on the assumption that the Intermediate Systems in the OSI
   environment performing multicast forwarding form a connected set.


5.3.3   Forward PDU function

   This function issues an SN-UNITDATA request primitive, supplying the
   subnetwork or Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Function (SNDCF)
   identified by the route PDU function with the protocol data unit as
   user data to be transmitted, the address information required by that
   subnetwork or SNDCF to identify the "next" system or systems within
   the subnetwork-specific addressing domain (this may be one or more
   Intermediate Systems and/or one or more destination End Systems), and
   quality of service constraints (if any) to be considered in the
   processing of the user data.

5.3.4   Discard PDU function

   Add an additional reason for discard - a PDU is received with an
   unknown type code.

5.3.5   Error reporting function

   It is important to carefully control the use of the error reporting
   capability in the case of multicast transfers.  The primary concern
   is to avoid the occurrence of broadcast storms and thus a multicast
   PDU may not cause the origination of another multicast PDU. This is
   the primary reason that the source address is not permitted to be a
   group address. In addition, a multicast PDU with error reporting
   permitted can result in flooding the source network-entity (as well
   as the networks used) with Error Report PDUs.

   While error reports are permitted on multicast PDUs, a PDU with a
   group Network address in the source address field shall not be
   responded to with an Error Report. This is to ensure that a multicast
   PDU does not generate another multicast PDU. If the source address is
   identified as a group address then an error report PDU shall not be
   generated and the original PDU shall be discarded.

5.3.6   Source routing functions

   No source routing capability is provided for multicast PDU transfer.
   The NS provider shall not accept a multicast PDU with source route
   parameters.









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5.4     Scope control function

5.4.1   Overview

   The scope control function is an option for multicast PDU forwarding
   only. The scope control function allows the originator to limit the
   forwarding of the multicast PDU. The scope control function provides
   the capability to limit the relaying of a particular PDU based on the
   individual Network addressing hierarchy and/or limit the amount of
   multicast expansion which can take place. In cases where both forms
   of scope control are applied to the same PDU, forwarding will cease
   once either has reached its scope control limit.

5.4.2   Prefix Based Scope Control

   The prefix based scope control function allows the originator to
   specify a specific set of address prefixes where the multicast
   forwarding of a PDU by an Intermediate System occurs only if one of
   the prefixes matches the Network Entity Title (NET) of the
   Intermediate System. Prefix based scope control may be selected only
   by the originator of a PDU. Prefix based scope control is
   accomplished using one or more address prefixes held in a parameter
   within the options part of the PDU header. The length of this
   parameter is determined by the originating network entity, and does
   not change during the lifetime of a PDU.

   When an Intermediate System receives a multicast PDU containing a
   prefix based scope control parameter, forwarding is only performed if
   every octet of one of the prefixes contained in the prefix based
   scope control parameter matches that Intermediate System's NET,
   starting from the beginning of its NET. If no such prefix match
   exists, the Intermediate System discards the PDU. The error reporting
   function shall not be invoked upon PDU discard.

5.4.3   Radius Scope Control

   The radius scope control function allows the originator to specify a
   maximum logical distance where multicast expansion can occur. It is
   closely associated with the header format analysis function. Each IS
   receiving a multicast PDU which is capable of expanding and which
   contains a Radius Scope Control parameter, decrements the Radius
   Scope Control field in the PDU by an administratively set amount
   between 0 and the maximum value of the field. This function
   determines whether the PDU received may be forwarded or whether its
   Radius has been reached, in which case it shall be discarded. An
   Intermediate System shall not forward a multicast PDU containing a
   Radius Scope Control parameter with a value of 0. The error reporting
   function shall not be invoked upon PDU discard.

5.4.3.1 Radius Scope Control Example

   The Radius Scope Control parameter is useful where policies have been
   established across the potential forwarding path.  One possible
   policy for Internet use is for multicast capable routers to treat



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   this field as a hop count within a domain (decrement by one unit) and
   for inter-domain routers to either decrement this field to an even
   multiple of 256 when crossing domains where prior agreements have
   been made or decrement this field to 0 (i.e. discard the packet) for
   other domains.

5.5     Structure and Encoding of PDUs

   Multicast transmission is accomplished via the transfer of Multicast
   Data (MD) PDUs. The PDU type code for a MD PDU is "1 1 1 0 1". The
   format of the MD PDU is identical to that of the Data (DT) PDU.   The
   MD and DT PDU may contain the same optional parameters with the
   following exceptions: (1)The source routing parameter is permitted
   within DT PDUs but not MD PDUs; and (2)The scope control parameter is
   permitted within MD PDUs but not DT PDUs.

5.6     Optional parameters for multicast support

5.6.1   Prefix Based Scope Control (this section is extended beyond the
   ISO draft)

   The prefix based scope control parameter specifies one or more
   address prefixes for which Intermediate System forwarding requires a
   match of one of the contained prefixes with the beginning of the
   Intermediate System's NET.

   Parameter Code:         1100 0100

   Parameter Length:       variable

   Parameter Value:        a concatenation of address prefix entries

   The parameter value contains an address prefix list. The list
   consists of variable length address prefix entries. The first octet
   of each entry gives the length of the address prefix denominated in
   bits that comprises the remainder of the entry.  If the length field
   does not specify an integral number of octets then the prefix entry
   is followed by enough trailing zeroes to make the end of the entry
   fall on an octet boundary.  The list must contain at least one entry.

   The prefix shall end on a boundary that is legal in the abstract
   syntax of the address family from which it is derived.  For example,
   the encoding of a prefix whose DSP is expressed in decimal syntax
   must end on a semi-octet boundary, while the encoding of a prefix
   whose DSP is expressed in binary syntax can end on an arbitrary bit
   boundary. If the end of the prefix falls within the IDP, then the
   prefix must end on a semi-octet boundary and must not contain any
   padding characters.

            NOTE - The length of the prefix based scope control
   parameter is determined by the originator of the PDU and is not
   changed during the lifetime of the PDU.





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5.6.1.1 Prefix matching

   A prefix that extends into the DSP shall be compared directly against
   the encoded NET address, including any padding characters that may be
   present.  A prefix which does not extend into the DSP shall be
   compared against the derived quantity NET', which is obtained from
   the NET address by removing all padding characters (as defined by the
   binary encoding process of ISO 8348).

   The existence of a match shall be determined as follows:

   a)   If the encoded NET (or NET') contains fewer bits than the pre-
        fix, then there is no match.


   b)   If the encoded NET (or NET') contains at least as many bits as
        the prefix, and all bits of the prefix are identical to the
        corresponding leading bits of the encoded NET (or NET'), there
        is a match.  Otherwise, there is no match.

5.6.2   Radius Scope Control

   The radius scope control parameter specifies the logical distance
   that a multicast PDU can be forwarded.

   Parameter Code:         1100 0110 (THIS CODE MAY CHANGE)

   Parameter Length:       two octets

   Parameter Value:        two octets which represents the remaining
   distance, that the PDU can be forwarded, in administratively set
   units.

5.7     Provision of the Underlying Service

   For a subnetwork that provides an inherent multicast capability, it
   is the functionality of the SNDCF to provide the mapping between
   group Network addresses and the corresponding addressing capability
   of the subnetwork.

5.8      Conformance

   All of the extensions provided to the functions to support multicast
   capability are optional. For an End System or Intermediate System
   which is not multicast capable these extensions are not applicable.
   An implementation claiming conformance as a multicast capable End
   System shall meet all of the requirements for an End System which is
   not multicast capable and also provide all of the multicast exten-
   sions provided here. An implementation claiming conformance as a mul-
   ticast capable Intermediate System shall meet all of the requirements
   for an Intermediate System which is not multicast capable and also
   provide all of the multicast extensions provided here.





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6.      Extensions to the ES-IS Routeing Protocol

   This section provides optional extensions to the ES-IS Routeing Pro-
   tocol [ES-IS], ISO 9542 to support the transfer of multicast PDUs. It
   is an explicit goal of this specification that ESs and ISs, some of
   which will have multicast capabilities and some without, will be able
   to fully function on the same subnetworks. This specification does
   not change any aspect of a currently defined (i.e. non-multicast) ISO
   9542 implementation, it adds new optional functionality not modifying
   current functionality. Two basic functions are provided: multicast
   announcement and multicast address mapping.

6.1     Overview of the protocol

6.1.1   Operation of ESs receiving multicast PDUs

   ESs, upon initialization and periodically thereafter, will construct
   End System Group Hello (ESGH) PDUs identifying, by particular group
   Network addresses, the multicast PDUs it wishes to receive. The ES
   will periodically originate (announce) these ESGH PDUs on the subnet-
   work it wishes to receive these on. Reporting the same group Network
   address on multiple subnetworks may result in the reception of dupli-
   cate PDUs. ES-IS operations related to requesting the same group Net-
   work address on multiple subnetworks are handled totally indepen-
   dently (e.g. using different logical timers,...). It is permitted for
   an ES to report a number of group Network addresses in the same ESGH
   PDU.  The only restrictions placed on providing multiple group Net-
   work addresses within the same ESGH PDU are that all packets
   requested are to be received on the same subnet, with the same hold-
   ing time and that the ESGH PDU be of length equal to or less that its
   maximum packet size constraint.  Note each group Network address in
   the ESGH PDU is paired with its own SNPA (subnetwork point of attach-
   ment) address.

   An ES will always have an SNPA address associated with each of its
   active group Network addresses. An SNPA address is a subnetwork
   address, in the case of a subnetwork which uses IEEE 802 addresses
   the SNPA address is a 48 bit IEEE 802 MAC (media access control)
   address.  Of particular interest is the address used to mark the des-
   tination group.  For a subnetwork using IEEE 802 addressing a group
   SNPA address  uses a particular bit position to "mark" group SNPA
   addresses.

   Upon initialization the ES may have static SNPA address associations
   (Pre-configured SNPA addresses). For any group Network address
   without a Pre-configured SNPA address that the ES wishes to receive,
   the ES will associate the "All Multicast Capable End Systems" SNPA
   address. Upon receiving a Multicast Address Mapping (MAM) PDU con-
   taining a group Network address that the ES is announcing, the ES
   will use the SNPA address pairing contained in the MAM PDU for that
   group Network address. Upon the expiration of the Mapping Holding
   Timer, the ES shall revert back to associating either the Pre-
   configured SNPA address if one exists or the "All Multicast Capable
   End Systems" SNPA address for the specific group Network address.



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   While an ES is permitted to listen in on other ESs announcements
   (needed for the damping option), an ES is not permitted to change its
   group Network address to SNPA address mapping based on the announce-
   ment of other ESs.

   Optionally, the ES may perform damping (resetting a Multicast
   Announcement Timer corresponding to a particular group Network
   address) if the conditions necessary to withhold a particular
   announcement are met. In order to perform damping the following con-
   ditions must be met: (1)The ES must be processing other ES's
   announcements; (2)An ESGH PDU is received that identifies the exact
   same group Network address and SNPA address pairing on a particular
   subnetwork that this ES is announcing on; (3) The Multicast Holding
   Timer parameter value in the ESGH PDU received is equal to or greater
   than the Multicast Holding Timer value, for this subnetwork, that is
   being used by the ES processing this ESGH PDU.

   ESs will utilize a local default value for their Multicast Announce-
   ment Timer to control the period for sending out their ESGH PDUs. The
   Active Multicast IS, if one exists on a particular subnetwork, may
   suggest a value for ESs on the subnetwork to use for their Multicast
   Announcement Timer for a specific group Network address. In order to
   support the optional damping function, ESs are required to incor-
   porate a 25% jittering to the timer values that they are using.

6.1.2   Operation of ESs originating multicast PDUs

   The ES originating multicast packets identified by a specific group
   Network address is not required to be a receiver of such packets (and
   thus is not announcing that particular group Network address).  The
   origination of multicast PDUs involves two differences to the origi-
   nation of unicast PDUs.  The two differences are: (1)The mechanism
   for selecting a destination SNPA address and (2)For End Systems
   attached to more than one subnet, the decision on which subnet(s) to
   originate the PDUs.

   The destination SNPA address used for originating each multicast
   packet depends on whether there is a multicast capable IS attached to
   the subnetworks. When a multicast capabale IS is attached, the deci-
   sion depends on whether there is multicast address mapping informa-
   tion corresponding to the group Network address used as the destina-
   tion address parameter of the multicast packet available for that
   subnetwork.  When there is a multicast capable IS attached to a sub-
   network and there is multicast address mapping information available
   corresponding to the group Network address, then the SNPA address
   obtained from the multicast address mapping information is used. Ori-
   ginating multicast packets using the destination SNPA address used
   for receiving such multicast packets ensures that the multicast pack-
   ets will not require additional forwarding on the originating
   subnetwork(s). When there is a multicast capable IS attached to a
   subnetwork but for which there is no multicast address mapping infor-
   mation available corresponding to the the group Network address, then
   the SNPA address used is the "All Multicast Capable Intermediate Sys-
   tems" address.



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   When there is no multicast capable IS attached to a subnetwork then
   the ES originating a multicast PDU uses pre-configured information if
   it is available or the "All Multicast Capable End Systems" SNPA
   address when no pre-configured information is available.

   ES's attached to more than one subnetwork forward each multicast
   packet that they originate onto every attached subnetwork for which
   the NSAP address being used as the source address of the multicast
   packet is actively being reported through the unicast ES-IS Report
   Configuration function.

6.1.3   Operation of the Active Multicast IS

   The Active Multicast IS listens in on all ESGH PDUs originated on the
   subnetwork for which it is serving as the Active Multicast IS. All
   subnetworks are handled independently (even if multiple subnetworks
   have the same ESs attached and the IS is serving as the Active Multi-
   cast IS for these subnetworks).

   The Active Multicast IS originates MAM PDUs, for all group Network
   addresses for which it has received ESGH PDUs, on the subnetwork due
   to the following operational conditions:

   1)   The IS initializes either as the Active Multicast IS after an
        election with other multicast capable ISs or initializes believ-
        ing it is the only multicast capable IS;

   Note: The determination of such conditions is outside of the scope of
   this specification;

   2)   The IS receives an ESGH PDU with a group Network address paired
        to an incorrect SNPA address;

   3)   The expiration of the IS's Multicast Address Mapping Timer for
        that group Network address; or

   Note: This is to prevent the expiration of Mapping Holding Timers in
   ESs.

   4)   The IS receives a multicast PDU originated on the subnetwork
        which used an incorrect destination SNPA address.

   Note: Of particular concern are those multicast packets using the
   "All Multicast Capable Intermediate Systems" SNPA address when
   another SNPA address should have been used.  In addition the  multi-
   cast capable ISs are responsible for listening in on all multicast
   packets using destination SNPA addresses that are contained within
   the current multicast address mapping information.

   As a result of the event driven conditions (i.e. conditions 2 or 4
   above), the Active Multicast IS sends a MAM PDU with direct informa-
   tion (i.e. not needing analysis of the Mask parameters).  The Active
   Multicast IS limits the number of MAM PDUs that are sent out per unit
   of time.  Particular MAM PDUs with direct information will not be



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   sent more than once per second.  MAM PDU will be sent in response to
   continuing event driven conditions such that events occurring greater
   than 10 seconds after the issuance of such a MAM PDU will result in
   the issuance of another MAM PDU.  .

   The Active Multicast IS is responsible for forwarding a multicast
   packet back on the subnetwork it was originated when a multicast
   packet used the "All Multicast Capable Intermediate System" SNPA
   address when another SNPA address should have been used.  A packet
   forwarded back onto the subnetwork the multicast packet was ori-
   ginated on will be given a CLNP Lifetime of "1" to prevent the con-
   tinued relaying of duplicate packets by the multicast ISs.

   The further relaying of any multicast packet originated on a subnet-
   work is the responsibility of the multicast routing protocol used and
   is outside the scope of this specification.

6.2     Definitions

   Active Multicast IS: The one multicast capable IS selected (via means
   outside of this specification) to originate Multicast Address Mapping
   information on a particular subnetwork.

   Paired SNPA Address: The SNPA address associated with a particular
   group Network address on a specific subnetwork.

6.3     Routing information supporting multicast transmission

6.3.1   Multicast Announcement Information

   An IS should forward a multicast PDU containing a particular destina-
   tion group Network address onto a subnetwork to which it is attached
   if and only if one or more of the ESs attached to that subnetwork
   have declared an interest in receiving multicast PDUs destined for
   that group Network address. Multicast announcement information
   enables an IS that supports CLNP multicast to dynamically discover,
   for each subnetwork to which it is attached, the group Network
   addresses for which ESs attached to that subnetwork have declared an
   interest.

   On a point-to-point subnetwork the multicast announcement information
   informs the Network entity, in the case where it is attached to an
   End System, of the group Network addresses for which that End System
   expects to receive multicast PDUs.

   On a broadcast subnetwork the multicast announcement information
   informs the multicast capable Intermediate Systems, of the group Net-
   work addresses for which ESs attached to that subnetwork expect to
   receive multicast PDUs.

   Note: Intermediate Systems with the optional OSI multicast capabili-
   ties do receive information identifying the SNPA address of ESs on
   the broadcast network that want PDUs with particular group Network
   addresses as their destination address; however, the critical



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   information is which multicast PDUs are needed, not which ESs need
   them.

6.3.2   Multicast Address Mapping Information

   In order to receive multicast packets destined for a particular group
   Network address, an ES may need to associate with the group Network
   address a specific SNPA address.  Multicast address mapping informa-
   tion enables an IS to inform ESs that they can receive multicast
   packets destined for a particular group Network address on a
   corresponding specific SNPA address.  In addition, multicast address
   mapping information may provide the specific destination SNPA
   addresses needed by an ES for originating multicast packets.

   Multicast address mapping information is not employed on point-to-
   point subnetworks.

   Multicast address mapping information is employed on broadcast sub-
   networks to enable multicast capable Intermediate Systems to inform
   the multicast capable End Systems that they can receive, on a
   specific broadcast subnetwork, multicast packets destined for a par-
   ticular group Network address on a corresponding specific SNPA
   address.  In addition multicast address mapping information provides
   the specific destination SNPA address, that corresponds to a particu-
   lar group Network address, for each multicast packet that it ori-
   ginates on a specific broadcast subnetwork.

6.4     Addresses

   All exchanges using this protocol are accomplished over a single sub-
   network. While the control PDU's contain Network addresses (i.e.
   group Network addresses) actual control PDU transfer is accomplished
   via Subnetwork based group addresses (i.e. group SNPA addresses). The
   following group SNPA addresses are used: (1)All Multicast Capable End
   Systems; (2)All Multicast Announcements; (3)All Multicast Capable
   Intermediate Systems and (4)a group SNPA address corresponding to a
   group Network address

6.5     Timers

   Two additional timers are employed: (1)the Multicast Announcement
   Timer (MAT) and (2)Multicast Address Mapping Timer (MAMT). Old multi-
   cast announcement or multicast address mapping information shall be
   discarded after the Holding Timer expires to ensure the correct
   operation of the protocol.

6.5.1   Multicast Announcement Timer

   The Multicast Announcement Timer is a local timer (i.e. maintained
   independently by each End System, one timer per group Network
   address) which assists in performing the Report Multicast Announce-
   ment function. The timer determines how often an End System reports
   its desire to receive multicast PDUs with that group Network address
   as its destination address parameter. Considerations in setting this



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   timer are similar to those described for the Configuration timer in
   the ES-IS specification.

6.5.2   Multicast Address Mapping Timer

   The Multicast Address Mapping Timer is a local timer (i.e. maintained
   independently by an Intermediate System which is actively participat-
   ing with End Systems to transfer multicast PDUs) which assists in
   performing the Report Multicast Address Mapping function. The timer
   determines how often an Intermediate System, actively participating
   with End Systems for the transfer of multicast PDUs, reports the Mul-
   ticast Address Mapping for a particular group Network address. The
   shorter the Multicast Address Mapping Timer, the more quickly End
   Systems on the subnetwork will become aware of the correct address
   mapping which may change due to the Intermediate System becoming
   available or unavailable. There is a trade off between increased
   responsiveness and increased use of resources in the subnetwork and
   in the End Systems.

6.6     Extensions to the current protocol functions

   In order to support multicast transmissions the following optional
   ES-IS protocol functions will be implemented:

6.6.1   Report Configuration by Intermediate Systems

   All multicast capable Intermediate Systems on a subnetwork will use
   the Multicast Capable option in all ISH PDUs that they originate.
   This will provide multicast capable End Systems with a way to deter-
   mine that a multicast capable Intermediate System is operating on a
   particular subnetwork.

6.6.2   Query Configuration

   Note: The Query Configuration function cannot be performed to find
   the corresponding SNPA address of a group Network address since the
   addressing information needed is the corresponding group SNPA address
   and not the SNPA address of a particular End System responding. On a
   large broadcast subnetwork, many different Configuration Responses
   could result each incorporating a different End System Address. While
   it is possible to design a Query Configuration for use with multi-
   cast, this function does not appear to be required given the use of
   the "All Multicast Capable End Systems" address for supplying a SNPA
   address when the group SNPA address is not known.

6.7     Multicast Announcement

6.7.1   Report Multicast Announcement Function by End Systems

   An End System which needs to receive or continue to receive any mul-
   ticast PDUs (i.e. PDUs with group Network addresses as their destina-
   tion address), constructs and transmits ESGH PDUs to inform multicast
   capable Intermediate Systems of the set of group Network address des-
   tinations for which it wishes to receive PDUs. This may be done by



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   constructing ESGH PDUs for each group Network address. Alternatively,
   ESGH PDUs may be constructed which convey information about more than
   one group Network address at a time, up to the limits imposed by the
   permitted SNSDU size and the maximum header size of the ESGH PDU.
   Each ESGH PDU is transmitted by issuing an SN-UNITDATA.Request with
   the following parameters:

   SN_Userdata (SNSDU) <- ESGH PDU

   SN_Destination _Address <- multi-destination address that indicates
   "All Multicast Announcements"

   If an End System is attached to more than one subnetwork, the infor-
   mation about each group Network address desired for receiving on a
   particular subnetwork serving the End System shall be transmitted via
   that subnetwork. It is permissible for an End System to report group
   Network addresses on multiple subnetworks; however, duplicate multi-
   cast PDUs should be anticipated.

   The Group Address Pair parameter carries a list of Group Network
   Addresses, each paired with its associated SNPA address. This infor-
   mation is used by the Active Multicast IS to determine whether a Mul-
   ticast Address Mapping PDU should be emitted to update the associa-
   tion between Group Network Addresses and SNPA addresses.

   The Holding Time (HT) field is set to approximately twice the ES's
   Multicast Announcement Timer (MAT) parameter. The value shall be
   large enough so that even if every other ESGH PDU is discarded (due
   to lack of resources), or otherwise lost in the subnetwork, the mul-
   ticast announcement information will still be maintained. The value
   should be set small enough so that Intermediate Systems resources are
   not needlessly consumed when the ES no longer wishes to receive PDUs
   destined to a group Network address.

   Note: -- When combining multiple group Network addresses in a single
   ESGH PDU, it should be realized that there is a single Holding Time
   parameter associated with all of these addresses.

6.7.1.1  Generating Jitter on Multicast Announcement Timers

   The ES shall apply a 25% jitter to its Multicast Announcement Timer
   (MAT) parameter. When ESGH PDUs are transmitted as a result of timer
   expiration, there is a danger that the timers of individual systems
   may become synchronised. The result of this is that the traffic dis-
   tribution will contain peaks. Where there are a large number of syn-
   chronised systems, this can cause overloading of both the transmis-
   sion medium and the systems receiving the PDUs. In order to prevent
   this from occurring, all periodic timers, the expiration of which can
   cause the transmission of PDUs, shall have "jitter" introduced as
   defined in the following algorithm.







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           CONSTANT

           Jitter = 25;
           Resolution = 100;

           (* The timer resolution in ms *)
           PROCEDURE Random(max: Integer): Integer;

           (* This procedure delivers a Uniformly distributed random
           integer R such that 0 < R <max *)
                   PROCEDURE WaitUntil(time: Integer)

                   (* This procedure waits the specified number of
                   ms and then returns *)
                   PROCEDURE CurrentTime(): Integer

                   (* This procedure returns the current time in ms *)

           PROCEDURE

           DefineJitteredTimer(baseTimeValueInSeconds : Integer;
           expirationAction : Procedure);

           VAR

           baseTimeValue, maximumTimeModifier, waitTime : Integer;
           nextexpiration : Time;

           BEGIN

           baseTimeValue := baseTimeValueInSeconds * 1000 / Resolution;
           maximumTimeModifier := baseTimeValue * Jitter / 100;
           (* Compute maximum possible jitter *)

           WHILE running DO

                   BEGIN

                    (*First compute next expiration time *)
                   randomTimeModifier := Random(maximumTimeModifier);
                   waitTime:= baseTimeValue - randomTimeModifier;
                   nextexpiration := CurrentTime() + waitTime;

                    (* Then perform expiration Action *)
                   expirationAction;
                   WaitUntil(nextexpiration);

           END (* of Loop *)

           END (* of DefineJitteredTimer *)






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   Thus the call "DefineJitteredTimer(HelloTime, SendHelloPDU);" where
   "HelloTime" is 10 seconds, will cause the action "SendHelloPDU" to be
   performed at random intervals of between 7.5 and 10 seconds. The
   essential point of this algorithm is that the value of "randomTimeMo-
   difier" is randomised within the inner loop. Note that the new
   expiration time is set immediately on expiration of the last inter-
   val, rather than when the expiration action has been completed.

   The time resolution shall be less than or equal to 100 ms. It is
   recommended to be less than or equal to 10ms. The time resolution is
   the maximum interval than can elapse without there being any change
   in the value of the timer. The periodic transmission period shall be
   random or pseudo-random in the specified range. with uniform distri-
   bution across similar implementations.

   (Note: -- Applying jitter to the MAT parameter is required in order
   to support the optional Damping function. If no jitter is applied on
   a subnetwork where many ESs are requesting a particular multicast PDU
   it is likely that they will have the same value for their MAT and
   these timers may all become synchronised. Such synchronisation will
   result in peaks in the distribution of traffic as described above.
   The resulting overloading of the transmission medium and the systems
   receiving the PDUs will negate any beneficial use of the Damping
   function (since systems may be attempting to transmit their own ESGH
   PDUs at the time they receive ESGH PDUs originated by other ESs with
   the same group Network address).

6.7.2   Record Multicast Announcement Function

   The Record Multicast Announcement function receives ESGH PDUs,
   extracts the multicast announcement information and updates the
   information in its routing information base.

   The receiving system is not required to process any option fields in
   a received ESGH PDU.

   Note: -- When a system chooses to process these optional fields, the
   precise actions are not specified by this International Standard.

6.7.2.1  Record Multicast Announcement Function by Intermediate Systems

   On receipt of an ESGH PDU an IS with the optional multicast capabili-
   ties extracts the configuration information and stores the {group
   Network address, subnetwork} in its routing information base replac-
   ing any other information for the same entry.

   The Active Multicast IS upon receipt of an ESGH PDU also extracts the
   Paired SNPA Address parameter corresponding to each group Network
   address in the ESGH PDU. If the Active Multicast IS has a mapping for
   a group Network address carried in the ESGH for which the paired SNPA
   address does not match, the Report Multicast Address Mapping function
   is performed.





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6.7.2.2  Optional Damping Function

   An ES with the optional capabilities to support multicast transfer
   may decide to process ESGH PDUs multicast by other End Systems. There
   is potentially some reduction in network traffic by doing this. An ES
   requesting to receive multicast PDUs is permitted to reset its Multi-
   cast Announcement Timer corresponding to one group Network address on
   one subnetwork upon receiving an ESGH PDU from another ES under the
   following circumstances:


   a)   The {group Network address, paired SNPA address} received on a
        particular subnetwork matches that of the ES processing the ESGH
        PDU for that subnetwork.


   b)   The Holding Timer parameter value in the ESGH PDU received is
        equal to or greater than the Holding Timer value for the, group
        Network address, being used by the ES processing this PDU.


6.7.3 Flush Old Multicast Announcement Function

   The Flush Old Multicast Announcement function is executed to remove
   multicast announcement entries in its routing information base whose
   Holding Timer has expired. When the Holding Timer for a group Network
   address expires, this function removes the corresponding entry from
   the routing information base of the local IS for the corresponding
   subnetwork.

6.8     Multicast Address Mapping

6.8.1 Report Multicast Address Mapping Function by Intermediate Systems

   The Active Multicast Intermediate System constructs a MAM PDU,
   corresponding to a group Network address for which it received via
   the Record Multicast Announcement function, and issues these PDUs
   under the following circumstances:


   a)   The IS initializes either as the Active Multicast IS after an
        election with other multicast capable ISs or initializes after
        determining it is the only multicast capable IS (the determina-
        tion of such conditions are outside of the scope of this stan-
        dard), or


   b)   The IS receives an ESGH PDU with a group Network address paired
        to an SNPA address other than the SNPA address contained in the
        Active Multicast IS's multicast address mapping information for
        that group Network address, or


   Note: -- The Active Multicast IS determines which mappings are



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   correct. Pre-configured mappings which are used prior to the initial-
   ization of the Active Multicast IS may be determined to be incorrect
   by the Active Multicast IS.


   c)   The expiration of the IS's Multicast Address Mapping Timer for
        that group Network address.


   Note: -- This is to prevent the expiration of Holding Timers in ESs.


   d)   The IS receives a multicast PDU originated on the subnetwork
        which used an incorrect destination SNPA address.


   Note: Of particular concern are those multicast packets using the
   "All Multicast Capable Intermediate Systems" SNPA address when
   another SNPA address should have been used.  The Originating Subnet-
   work Forwarding function is performed if this event occurs (see sec-
   tion 6.11).

   Note: The multicast capable ISs need to receive multicast packets on
   all SNPA addresses that are contained in the current multicast
   address mapping information for the subnetwork.  The multicast capa-
   ble ISs are not required to receive multicast packets on any SNPA
   addresses other than those contained in the current multicast address
   mapping information and the "All Multicast Capable Intermediate Sys-
   tems" SNPA address.

   Circumstances b) and d) are the event driven conditions for the
   Active Multicast IS to construct and issue a MAM PDU.  The Active
   Multicast IS shall limit the number of MAM PDUs issued per unit of
   time.  MAM PDUs with identical information shall not be issued more
   than once per second.  Event conditions occurring 10 seconds after
   the last issue of an appropriate MAM PDU shall result in the issuance
   of another such MAM PDU.

   The IS serving as the Active Multicast Intermediate System may con-
   struct a MAM PDU for each group Network address. Alternatively, MAM
   PDUs may be constructed which convey information about more than one
   group Network address at a time, up to the limits imposed by the per-
   mitted SNSDU size and the maximum header size of the MAM PDU. The IS
   performs all multicast address mapping functions independently for
   each of its subnetworks even if this IS is the Active Multicast IS on
   multiple subnetworks. Each MAM PDU is transmitted by issuing an SN-
   UNITDATA.Request with the following parameters:

   SN_Userdata (SNSDU) <- MAM PDU

   SN_Destination _Address <- multi-destination address that indicates
   "All Multicast Capable End Systems"

   The Holding Time (HT) field is set to approximately twice the



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   Intermediate System's Multicast Address Mapping Timer (MAMT) parame-
   ter. This variable shall be set to a value large enough so that even
   if every other MAM PDU, for a particular group Network address, is
   discarded (due to lack of resources), or otherwise lost in the sub-
   network, the multicast address mapping information will still be
   maintained. The value should be set small enough so that End Systems
   will quickly cease to use the multicast address mappings supplied by
   ISs that have failed.

   Note: -- The Holding Timer parameter value applies to all group Net-
   work addresses called out in the MAM PDU.

   The Group Address Pair parameter is used to convey the association
   between Group Network Addresses and SNPA addresses.

   Optionally, the Active Multicast IS may include information in the
   MAM PDU indicating a larger population of group Network addresses to
   which the same multicast address mapping information applies. There
   are two optional fields for this purpose: the Group Network Address
   Mask option and the Paired SNPA Address Mask option.

   There are three permitted cases for including or excluding the masks.
   In the first case, both masks are absent. In this case the MAM PDU
   conveys information about one set of enumerated group Network
   addresses only.

   Note: -- Multiple group address pairs may be contained in a single
   MAM PDU.

   In the second case, the MAM PDU contains a Group Network Address Mask
   but no Paired SNPA Address Mask. In this case, the MAM PDU conveys
   information about an equivalence class of group Network addresses.
   The information reveals that multiple group Network addresses are
   mapped to the same SNPA address.

   In the third case, the MAM PDU contains both masks. As in the second
   case, the MAM PDU conveys information about an equivalence class of
   group Network addresses. But in this case, the information reveals
   that the SNPA addresses for the equivalence class of group Network
   address are embedded in the group Network address. In particular the
   Paired SNPA Address Mask indicates the location of the SNPA address
   in the group Network Address(es).

   The Active Multicast IS shall construct a MAM PDU with direct infor-
   mation, not needing analysis of the Mask parameters, in response to
   the occurrence of an event driven condition.  The Active Multicast IS
   may provide additional information in such a MAM PDU via the use of
   Mask parameters.

   An IS may suggest a value for End Systems on the local subnetwork to
   use as their Multicast Announcement Timers, for a specific group Net-
   work address, by including the Suggested ES Multicast Announcement
   Timer (ESMAT) parameter in the transmitted MAM PDU. Setting this
   parameter permits the Active Multicast IS to influence the frequency



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   with which ESs transmit ESGH PDUs.

   Note: -- If the ESMAT parameter is used, the one value permitted in
   the MAM PDU is suggested for all group Network addresses called out
   in the MAM PDU.

6.8.2   Record Multicast Address Mapping Function by End Systems

   The Record Multicast Address Mapping function receives MAM PDUs,
   extracts the multicast address mapping information and updates the
   information in its routing information base. The receiving system is
   not required to process any option fields in a received MAM PDU with
   the exception of the Suggested ES Multicast Announcement Timer
   (ESMAT) parameter.

   Note: -- When a system chooses to process these optional fields, the
   precise actions are not specified by this International Standard.

   On receipt of a MAM PDU an ES with the optional multicast capabili-
   ties extracts the multicast address mapping information and stores
   the {group Network address, paired SNPA address} for a particular
   subnetwork in its routing information base replacing any other infor-
   mation for the same group Network address and subnetwork.

   In addition, an ES shall set its Multicast Announcement Timer,
   corresponding to the group Network address for which it is performing
   the Record Multicast Address Mapping function, based on receipt of a
   MAM PDU, corresponding to that group Network address, containing an
   ESMAT parameter.

   Note: -- While an ES may process ESGH PDUs multicast by other ESs to
   support the optional Damping function, an ES is not permitted to
   change its own mapping due to the mapping found in other ES's ESGH
   PDUs.

6.8.3   Flush Old Multicast Address Mapping Function by End Systems

   The Flush Old Multicast Address Mapping function is executed to
   remove multicast address mapping entries in its routing information
   base whose corresponding Holding Timer has expired. When such a Hold-
   ing Timer for a multicast address mapping expires, this function
   removes the corresponding entry from its routing information base for
   the corresponding SNPA.

6.9     Paired SNPA Address Selection Function by End Systems

   An End System shall pair each group Network address with an associ-
   ated SNPA address to support receiving (e.g. performing the Report
   Multicast Announcement function) and originating multicast PDUs.

6.9.1  Paired SNPA Address Selection for Receiving Multicast PDUs

   An End System always has a paired SNPA address for every active group
   Network address on a particular subnetwork. This mapping is obtained



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   by:


   a)   recording a multicast address mapping which is maintaining an
        active holding timer, or if there has been no dynamic informa-
        tion received, by


   b)   having pre-configured multicast address mapping information, or
        if neither dynamic nor pre-configured information is available,
        by


   c)   mapping the "All Multicast Capable End Systems" multi-
        destination address to the group Network address.


6.9.2  Paired SNPA Address Selection for Originating Multicast PDUs

   An End System, originating a multicast PDU, pairs a SNPA address to
   the group Network address.  This mapping is obtained in the following
   manner:


   a)   If there is a multicast capable IS reachable on the subnetwork
        then the SNPA address used by an End System originating a multi-
        cast PDU is either the paired SNPA address obtained from the
        multicast address mapping information associated with the group
        Network address in the multicast PDU's Destination address
        parameter or if there is no valid entry for the group Network
        address by using the "All Multicast Capable Intermediate Sys-
        tems" multi-destination address, or if there is no multicast
        capable Intermediate System on the subnetwork, by


   Note: Multicast address mapping information is valid if the Holding
   Timer associated with it has not expired.

   Note: An ES can determine if a multicast capable IS is reachable on
   the subnetwork by having for that subnetwork either (1)multicast
   address mapping information or (2)routing information received via an
   ISH PDU containing a Multicast Capable optional parameter.  In either
   case the information must be valid (i.e. the Holding Timer for the
   information must not have expired).


   b)   having pre-configured multicast address mapping information, or
        if neither a multicast capable Intermediate System is present on
        the subnetwork nor pre-configured information is available, by


   c)   mapping the "All Multicast Capable End Systems" multi-
        destination address to the group Network address.




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6.10    Extensions to the ISO CLNP Route Function by End Systems

   An End System attached to more than one subnetwork shall determine
   when originating a multicast PDU whether to forward this multicast
   PDU to more than one subnetwork or not.  End Systems shall originate
   each multicast PDU on all subnetworks for which the ISO ES-IS Confi-
   guration function is actively reporting the NSAP address contained in
   the Source Address parameter of the multicast PDU.  As a result of
   this function multiple invocations of the ISO CLNP Forwarding func-
   tion may result when such an ES originates a multicast PDU.

6.11    Originating Subnetwork Forwarding Function by Intermediate Sys-
   tems

   The Active Multicast IS upon receiving a multicast PDU originated on
   a subnetwork which used the "All Multicast Capable Intermediate Sys-
   tems" SNPA address when another SNPA address should have been used,
   performs the Originating Subnetwork Forwarding function.  The multi-
   cast address mapping information defines the correct SNPA address
   pairings for a given subnetwork.  The Originating Subnetwork Forward-
   ing function forwards the multicast PDU back on subnetwork it was
   originated on.  In the case that the ES was attached to more than one
   subnetwork and originated the multicast PDU on more than one subnet-
   work, the Active Multicast IS for each subnetwork performs the Ori-
   ginating Subnetwork Forwarding function for the subnetwork that they
   are responsible for.

   The Active Multicast IS obtains the contents for the multicast PDU
   for the Originating Subnetwork Forwarding function by using the con-
   tents of the multicast PDU received with the incorrect destination
   SNPA address and replacing the original PDU Lifetime field with the
   value one (0000 0001).  The Active Multicast IS performs the ISO 8473
   PDU Composition function and forwards the PDU to the subnetwork that
   the PDU was originated on using the ISO 8473 Forwarding function with
   the correct destination SNPA address.

   Note:  The PDU Lifetime field is set to "one" to ensure that ISs
   attached to the originating subnetwork do not forward this PDU on.
   Such ISs should have received the PDU when it was originated since
   this function is only performed in the event of receiving a multicast
   PDU incorrectly addressed to the "All Multicast Capable Intermediate
   Systems" SNPA address.

6.12    Structure and Encoding of PDUs

   The ES-IS multicast control functions are supported via the exchange
   of ESGH and MAM PDUs.  The one exception to this is that a new
   optional parameter, the Multicast Capable parameter, is provided for
   use within the ISH PDU.

6.12.1  PDU Type Codes

   The Multicast Announcement is accomplished via the transfer of End
   System Group Hello (ESGH) PDUs. The PDU type code for an ESGH PDU is



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   "0 0 1 0 1". The Multicast Address Mapping (MAM) is accomplished via
   the transfer of Multicast Address Mapping PDUs. The PDU type code for
   a MAM PDU is "0 0 1 1 1".

6.12.2  Hold Time field

   The Holding Time field specifies the maximum time for the receiving
   Network entity to retain the multicast announcement or multicast
   address mapping information contained in the PDU.

6.12.3  Structure of Addressing Parameters

   The ESGH and MAM PDUs carry one or more group Network addresses
   (GNAs) each with their associated Paired SNPA Address (PSA).











































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6.12.4  Group Address Pair Parameter for ESGH and MAM PDUs

   The Group Address Pair parameter is a list of one or more group Net-
   work addresses each with their associated Paired SNPA address. The
   group Network address identifies specific multicast PDUs and the
   Paired SNPA address is the SNPA address on which the ES expects to
   receive such multicast PDUs on that subnetwork. It is encoded in the
   ESGH and MAM PDUs as shown in Figure 1.



                                                              Octet
        ,----------------------------------------------------,
        |        Number of Group Address Pairs               |  10
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |   Group Network Address Length Indicator (GNAL)    |  11
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |                                                    |  12
        :           Group Network Address (GNA)              :
        |                                                    |
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |   Paired SNPA Address Length Indicator (PSAL)      |
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |                                                    |
        :            Paired SNPA Address (PSA)               :
        |                                                    |
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |                       GNAL                         |
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |                                                    |
        :                       GNA                          :
        |                                                    |
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |                       PSAL                         |
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |                                                    |
        :                       PSA                          :
        |                                                    | m-1
        '----------------------------------------------------'

        Figure 1 - ESGH and MAM PDUs - - Group Address Pair Parameter



6.12.5  Extensions to the current Option Parameters

   The Security and Priority optional parameters may be carried in a
   ESGH PDU. There is no Security or Priority option for the MAM PDU.

6.12.6  Suggested ES Multicast Announcement Timer

   The ESMAT parameter may appear only in the MAM PDU

   The ESMAT parameter conveys the value that an IS requests the



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   receiving ESs to use as their local Multicast Announcement Timer.

   Parameter Code:         1100 0111

   Parameter Length:       two octets

   Parameter Value:        ESMAT in units of seconds.

6.12.7  Multicast Capable

   The Multicast Capable option may appear only in the ISH PDU

   The Multicast Capable options consists only of a one octet code and a
   one octet parameter length field, there is no parameter field.

   Parameter Code:         1100 1000

   Parameter Length:       zero octets

   Parameter Value:        none (parameter does not exist).

6.12.8  Group Network Address Mask

   The Group Network Address Mask option may only appear in the MAM PDU.

   The Group Network Address Mask parameter indicates that the multicast
   address mapping information applies to a larger population of group
   Network Addresses than the group Network address(es) contained in the
   MAM PDU indicates. When this option is provided in a MAM PDU, the
   masking relationship contained must be valid for all group Network
   addresses contained in this PDU. An End System may ignore this param-
   eter.

   The Group Network Address Mask establishes an equivalence class of
   group Network addresses to which the same multicast address mapping
   information applies. To determine whether or not a trial group Net-
   work address falls within the equivalence class, the ES aligns the
   trial group Network address with the Group Network Address Mask pad-
   ding the latter with trailing zero octets if necessary. If in all bit
   positions where the Group Network Address Mask is "1" the trial group
   Network address matches the Group Network Address field of the Group
   Address Pair parameter of the MAM PDU, then the trial group Network
   address belongs to the equivalence class described by the MAM PDU.

   The Group Network Address Mask parameter has additional semantics
   when considered with the Paired SNPA Address Mask parameter.

   Parameter Code: 1110 0011

   Parameter Length: variable, up to 20 octets

   Parameter Value: a comparison mask of octets to be aligned with the
   Group Network Address field of the Group Address Pair parameter of
   the MAM PDU.



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6.12.9 Paired SNPA Address Mask

   The Paired SNPA Address Mask option may only appear in the MAM PDU.

   When the Paired SNPA Address Mask is present, the equivalence class
   defined by the Group Network Address Mask also has common structure
   below the Group Network Address Mask; i.e. in the portion of the
   group Network address where the Group Network Address Mask is logi-
   cally "0". The Paired SNPA Address Mask supplies additional informa-
   tion about the structure, by indicating certain bit positions within
   the space "below" the Group Network Address Mask. Specifically, the
   Paired SNPA Address Mask indicates the location of the Paired SNPA
   address in the Group Network Address.

   This parameter may appear in a MAM PDU only if the Group Network
   Address Mask is also present. When this option is provided in a MAM
   PDU, the masking relationship contained must be valid for all group
   Network addresses contained in this PDU. An ES receiving such a MAM
   PDU may safely ignore both masks. However (since presence of both
   masks dictates different functional behavior than the presence of the
   Group Network Address Mask alone) an ES shall not ignore one of the
   masks while heeding the other.

   Parameter Code: 1110 0100

   Parameter Length: variable

   Parameter Value: a comparison mask of octets to be aligned with the
   Group Network Address field(s) of the Group Address Pair parameter of
   the MAM PDU.

6.12.9.1 Mask Parameters Example

   This section provides examples of using the Group Network Address
   Mask and the Paired SNPA Address Mask.  The examples given are for an
   Internet usage of CLNP Multicasting across subnetworks using IEEE 802
   addressing.  For these examples the Group Network address format is:


                    +-----+----------------------------------------+
                    | IDP | Upper DSP | Embedded SNPA address | SEL|
                    +-----+-----------+-----------------------+----+
           octets:  |  3  |    10     |           6           |  1 |
                    +-----+-----------+-----------------------+----+


   Thus the group Network address used is 20 octets.  For these exam-
   ples, the only field considered is the Embedded SNPA address field
   and its placement within the group Network address.

   In the first example it is the policy in "this part of the Internet"
   to map the Embedded SNPA address into the IEEE 802 address space
   reserved by IEEE 802 for group addressing using LOCAL assignment,
   this corresponds to all 48 bit values with the two low order bits of



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   the first octet set to "11".

   The Active Multicast Intermediate System on this subnetwork may con-
   struct a MAM PDU to map, for this example, a group Network address of
   {13 octets, 03-00-DA-DA-DA-DA, 1 octet} and a paired SNPA address of
   03-00-DA-DA-DA-DA.  In addition the Active Multicast Intermediate
   System can include in the MAM PDU a Group Network Address Mask of
   FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-03-00-00-00-00-00-00.

   With this parameter, all group Network addresses which share the
   identical first 13 octet and with "11" in the two low order bits of
   the 14th octet are put in an equivalence class and share the same
   mapping information. If this were the only option present then all of
   these group Network addresses would all have a paired SNPA address of
   03-00-DA-DA-DA-DA.

   In order to map the group Network addresses to the range of IEEE
   addresses of this example, the MAM PDU must also contain a Paired
   SNPA Address Mask.  The Paired SNPA Address Mask identifies where the
   SNPA Address is contained within the group Network addresses (defined
   by the equivalence class formed by the Group Network Address Mask
   within the same PDU).  For this example the Paired SNPA Address Mask
   is 00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-00.

   As a second example, all group Network addresses with a specific OUI
   (organizationally unique identifier) using the twenty octet group
   Network address format provided above are mapped to their embedded
   SNPA address.  An OUI is assigned by IEEE 802 and is three octets in
   length.  The OUI is contained in the first three address octets of a
   GLOBALLY assigned IEEE 802 address.  For this example the MAM PDU
   must contain the following:

   1.   A group Network address contained within the MAM PDU with the
        OUI of interest.

   2.   A group Network address Mask of FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-
        FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-00-00-00-00.

   3.   A Paired SNPA Address of 00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-
        00-00-00-00-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-00.


6.12.10 End System Group Hello (ESGH) PDU

   The ESGH PDU has the format shown in figure 2:












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                                                              Octet
        ,----------------------------------------------------,
        |          Network Layer Protocol Identifier         |  1
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |                 Length Indicator                   |  2
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |           Version/Protocol ID Extension            |  3
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |               reserved (must be zero)              |  4
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        | 0 | 0 | 0 |  Type (00101 = ESGH)                   |  2
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |                    Holding Time                    | 6,7
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |                      Checksum                      | 8,9
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |          Number of Group Address Pairs             |  10
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |   Group Network Address Length Indicator (GNAL)    |  11
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |                                                    |  12
        :            Group Network Address (GNA)             :
        |                                                    |
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |    Paired SNPA Address Length Indicator (PSAL)     |
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |                                                    |
        :             Paired SNPA Address (PSA)              :
        |                                                    |
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |                        GNAL                        |
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |                                                    |
        :                        GNA                         |
        |                                                    |
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |                        PSAL                        |
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |                                                    |
        :                        PSA                         :
        |                                                    | m-1
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |                                                    |  m
        :                       Options                      :
        |                                                    | p-1
        '----------------------------------------------------'
                      Figure 2 - ESGH PDU Format


6.12.11 Multicast Address Mapping (MAM) PDU

   The MAM PDU has the format shown in figure 3.




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                                                              Octet
        ,----------------------------------------------------,
        |       Network Layer Protocol Identifier            |  1
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |               Length Indicator                     |  2
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |        Version/Protocol ID Extension               |  3
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |           reserved (must be zero)                  |  4
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        | 0 | 0 | 0 |  Type (00111 = MAM)                    |  2
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |                Holding Time                        | 6,7
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |                  Checksum                          | 8,9
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |          Number of Group Address Pairs             |  10
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |  Group Network Address Length Indicator (GNAL)     |  11
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |                                                    |  12
        :          Group Network Address (GNA)               :
        |                                                    |
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |     Paired SNPA Address Length Indicator (PSAL)    |
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |                                                    |
        :              Paired SNPA Address (PSA)             :
        |                                                    |
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |                       GNAL                         |
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |                                                    |
        :                       GNA                          :
        |                                                    |
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |                       PSAL                         |
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |                                                    |
        :                       PSA                          :
        |                                                    | m-1
        |----------------------------------------------------|
        |                                                    |  m
        :                      Options                       :
        |                                                    | p-1
        '----------------------------------------------------'
                     Figure 3 - MAM PDU Format



6.13    Conformance

   All of the extensions provided to the functions to support multicast



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   capability are optional. For an End System or Intermediate System
   which is not multicast capable these extensions are not applicable. A
   Network entity may choose to be multicast capable, a multicast capa-
   ble Network entity is required to support both multicast announcement
   information and multicast address mapping information.

   An implementation claiming conformance as a multicast capable End
   System shall meet all of the requirements for an End System which is
   not multicast capable and shall support multicast announcement infor-
   mation and shall implement the functions marked as Mandatory (M) in
   column 4 of table 3. A multicast capable End System implementation
   shall also support multicast address mapping information and shall
   implement the functions marked as Mandatory (M) in column 5 of table
   3.

   An implementation claiming conformance as a multicast capable Inter-
   mediate System shall meet all of the requirements for an Intermediate
   System which is not multicast capable and shall support multicast
   announcement information and shall implement the functions marked as
   Mandatory (M) in column 6 of table 3. A multicast capable Intermedi-
   ate System implementation shall also support multicast address map-
   ping information and shall implement the functions marked as Manda-
   tory (M) in column 7 of table 3.


































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     Table 3 - Static Conformance Requirements for Multicast Capable
     Network Entities

                                                           ES      IS
                                               Clause    --------------
     Label     Function                       Reference  AI  MI  AI  MI
     ------------------------------------------------------------------

     RpMAn     Report Multicast Announcement     6.7.1    M   -   -   -
     RcMAn     Record Multicast Announcement     6.7.2.1  -   -   M   -
     RcDamp    Record Damping                    6.7.2.2  O   -   -   -
     FlMAn     Flush Old Multicast Announcement  6.7.3    O   -   M   -

     RpMAdMa   Report Multicast Address Mapping  6.8.1    -   -   -   M
     MATGn       ESMAT Generation                6.8.1    -   -   -   M
     RcMAdMa   Record Multicast Address Mapping  6.8.2    -   M   -   -
     MATPr       ESMAT Processing                6.8.2    -   M   -   -
     FlMAdMa   Flush Old Multicast Address Map   6.8.3    -   M   -   -

     PSAdSel   Paired SNPA Address Selection     6.9.1    -   M   -   -
     ExtForw   Extensions to CLNP Route Function 6.10     -   M   -   -
     OSuForw   Originating Subnetwork Forwarding 6.11     -   -   -   M


     Key:

     AI = Multicast Announcement information supported
     MI = Multicast Address Mapping information supported

     M = Mandatory;  O = Optional;  - = not applicable


























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Appendix A.  Differences with RFC 1112

This appendix is intended to identify differences between the mechanisms
defined for CLNP Multicast in this specification and those for IP multi-
cast defined in RFC 1112. The work on CLNP Multicast followed the work
on IP multicast and was explicitly aimed at bringing the capabilities
described in RFC 1112 into a CLNP context. This appendix is intended to
provide some background information on the difference; however, it is
not intended to justify the mechanisms selected for CLNP multicast use.

Static/Dynamic Address Binding of Multicast Datagrams

IP multicast utilizes a static binding of Class D IP addresses to a
specific range of IEEE 802 48 bit group addresses. The IEEE 802 address
range that is used is within the address range that IEEE 802 allocates
for "Global" administration and this block of addresses is under the
control of the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) which in turn
has allocated this block of addresses for use by IP multicast.  This
scheme is very simple and efficient. Given the use of a 32 bit IP
address, the lower 23 bits of the Class D address are mapped into the
lower 23 bits of a 48 bit IEEE 802 address where the upper 25 bits are
fixed.  Static binding of this form is global in scope (all members of a
group use the same IEEE 802 address on all subnets (at least all that
use IEEE 802 addressing).

CLNP multicast uses a dynamic binding of a group Network address (up to
20 bytes) to any subnetwork address. In cases where no multicast capable
Intermediate Systems are attached to a subnetwork then a binding using
preconfigured information or the "All Multicast Capable End Systems"
subnetwork addresses is used. The large GNA provides the room to contain
a full 48 bit IEEE 802 address if desired.  Mask capabilities are
optionally provided which allow a multicast capable Intermediate System
to specify a "static" binding for a particular subnetwork. One of the
major purposes of providing a dynamic binding is to customize a host's
subnetwork address usage to the capabilities of the attached systems.
There is considerable differences in the numbers of group subnetwork
addresses that a system can recognize using hardware hooks built into
the integrated circuits used. For example the number of addresses that
can be recognized by hardware may differ by an attached system depending
upon the interface it uses (e.g. Ethernet interface and FDDI within the
same system may have quite different capabilities).  Dynamic binding of
this form is local in scope (members of a group may use different sub-
network addresses (e.g. IEEE 802 addresses) on different subnets).

Originating of Multicast Datagrams

IP multicast originates multicast datagrams directly, where the host
originating a datagram sends it with the group Subnetwork address as its
destination. Hosts attached to the network where the datagram is ori-
ginated receive the datagram directly.

CLNP multicast originates multicast datagrams directly using the group's
subnetwork address as its destination when multicast address mapping
information is available.  This case occurs when a multicast capable



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Intermediate System is attached to the subnetwork and a host on the sub-
network is announcing an interest in multicast packets identified by a
particular group Network address.  The Active Multicast IS may use MAM
PDU mask parameters to provide multicast address mapping information for
a large number of group Network addresses. When there is no multicast
address mapping information for the particular group Network address on
a subnetwork with a multicast capable IS attached to it, hosts originate
packets using such addresses sends to the "All Multicast Capable Inter-
mediate Systems" SNPA address.  This case occurs when there are no
receivers of such multicast packets on the originating subnetwork.  When
a multicast capable Intermediate System is not attached to a subnetwork,
the End System may utilize either preconfigured information (which might
be a direct mapping from a portion of the group Network address) or use
the "All Multicast Capable End Systems" address.

Address Binding of Control Packets

IP multicast sends the control packets related to the IGMP protocol on
the same subnetwork address that is used by the multicast data traffic.

CLNP multicast sends the control packets related to the ES-IS protocol
extensions on specific group subnetwork addresses (i.e. "All Multicast
Capable End Systems" and "All Multicast Announcements" addresses).

Router Requirements for relaying Multicast Datagrams

IP multicast requires that a multicast router run in "promiscuous" mode
where it must receive all multicast datagrams originated on a subnetwork
regardless of the destination. This is a result of the choices selected
in the "Originating of Multicast Datagrams" and "Address Binding of Con-
trol Packets" discussed above.

CLNP multicast allows a multicast router to limit multicast packet
reception to only those datagrams sent to the SNPA addresses where there
is current multicast address mapping information or to the "All Multi-
cast Capable Intermediate Systems" address.  The intention is to allow
the multicast routers to be in control of the SNPA addresses for multi-
cast packets that they need to receive.   This is a result of the
choices selected in the "Originating of Multicast Datagrams" and
"Address Binding of Control Packets" discussed above.

Aggregation of Control Information

In IP multicast, a host is required to withhold an announcement report
upon hearing another host reporting a similar interest in a particular
Class D address on a particular subnetwork. This is an option for CLNP
multicast (upon hearing interest in a particular group Network address
on a particular subnetwork). Such reports are not combined in IP multi-
cast while CLNP multicast supports providing multiple announcements (and
address mappings) within a single packet. A mask feature for address
mappings supports identifying mappings for a range of group Network
addresses within a single control packet.

Datagram Scope Control



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IP multicast supports the use of the IP Hop Count as a means to support
scope control. While not documented in RFC 1112, a technique is also
being used to use bits within the Class D address to identify whether a
datagram has single subnetwork, "campus" or global scope.

CLNP has considerable scope control functionality. While the PDU Life-
time field can be employed in a similar way to the IP Hop Count, two
additional options are available. The Radius scope control provides a
mechanism for "administratively" setting distance values and de-couples
the multicast scope control from the PDU lifetime function. More impor-
tantly, the Prefix based scope control appears to provide considerable
and flexible functionality that can adjust to situations where a known,
hierarchical unicast addressing structure exists.

Marking of Multicast Datagrams

IP multicast marks a multicast PDU via the use of an IP Class D address
as its destination address parameter. CLNP multicast marks both the PDU
(a different PDU type) and the destination address (i.e. group Network
address) parameter.

Unicast Addressing Differences

An IP address identifies a specific host interface while a CLNP indivi-
dual Network address (i.e. NSAP address) identifies a particular Network
entity. This difference has lead to a  difference with RFC 1112.  IP
multicast requires a host which is attached to more than one subnetwork
to originate a multicast packet on only one subnetwork.  CLNP multicast
requires a host which is attached to more than one subnetwork to ori-
ginate a multicast packet on every subnetwork that the ISO ES-IS Confi-
guration function is reporting the NSAP address contained in the source
address parameter of the multicast PDU.

Error Reports

Error reports sent in response to receiving a multicast PDU are not per-
mitted in IP multicast while they are permitted in CLNP multicast.

Source Routing

Source routing of multicast PDUs are permitted in IP multicast (but at
the present time this is discouraged) while they are not permitted in
CLNP multicast.














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Appendix B.  Issues Under Study

This appendix is intended to record the current issues (as discussed at
the March 1994 TUBA meeting).

1. Local versus Global address bindings

The extensions to the ES-IS protocol provide a multicast address mapping
function which supports dynamically binding a group Network address to a
subnetwork address.  Concern has been expressed that this is an unneces-
sary feature which complicates the job of network administrators without
suitable benefit.  A static, global binding of group Network addresses
to IEEE 802 subnetwork addresses, as is used by IP multicast has been
suggested.

The two main reasons that the group Network address to subnetwork (IEEE
802) address was made locally configurable were to support multicast on
subnets with hosts having a mixture of capabilities (as to how many mul-
ticast subnetwork addresses a host could register to receive at a time)
and to support multicast on subnets that do not use 48 bit IEEE 802
addresses.  Thus it was felt that this should be done per subnetwork
versus globally.  Even multi-homed hosts with subnets that use 802
addresses may have varying capabilities (looking at typical Ethernet,
FDDI and 802.5 implementations).

One possible solution is to recommend a direct mapping in any Internet
use of CLNP multicast on subnets which use IEEE 802 addressing.  This
could be a default for all Internet hosts.  A policy would be needed to
identify the Internet's group Network address format.  Given such a map-
ping the only operational overhead that would occur is that in the pres-
ence of a mapping server (the Active Multicast IS), which was supporting
this mapping, a MAM PDU would periodically be sent with a Group Network
Address Mask which would identify the direct mapping.

2.  "Real Time" Scope Control Features

The scope control features are provided via optional parameters.  Use of
multicast transfer of audio and video streams may require scope control
mechanisms which operate very quickly.

One possible solution is to embed scope control mechanisms into the
group Network address itself.  For example, a group Network address
using the "Local" AFI is automatically limited to not cross inter-domain
borders.  Further, more flexible, address formats may be developed.



References

[Deering91] S.E. Deering. Multicast Routing in a Datagram Internetwork.
PhD thesis, Electrical Engineering Dept., Stanford University, December
1991.





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[RFC1112] Host Extensions for IP Multicasting, Network Working Group,
RFC 1112, S. Deering, August 1989.



[RFC1237] Guidelines for OSI NSAP Allocation in the Internet, Network
Working Group, RFC 1237, R. Colella, E. Gardner, R. Callon, July 1991.



[CLNP] Protocol for providing the connectionless-mode network service,
International Standard 8473-1, Second Edition, ISO/IEC JTC 1, Switzer-
land 1994.   (Available via FTP from merit.edu:pub/iso/iso8473part1.ps).



[ES-IS] End system to Intermediate system routing exchange protocol for
use in conjunction with the Protocol for providing the connectionless-
mode network service, International Standard 9542, ISO/IEC JTC 1,
Switzerland 1987.  (Available via FTP from
merit.edu:pub/iso/iso9542.ps).



[MULT-AMDS]: Amendments to ISO standards to support CLNP multicast
extensions:

ISO 8348 AM5 Amendment to the Network Service to support Group Network
Addressing. International Standard ISO 8348 Amendment 5, ISO/IEC JTC 1,
Switzerland 1994.

ISO 8473-1 DAM1 - Draft Amendment to the Second Edition of the Protocol
for providing the connectionless-mode network service [CLNP], Multicast
Extension, 1993.

ISO 9542 DAM2 - Draft Amendment to the ES-IS [ES-IS] protocol, Addition
of connectionless- mode multicast capability, 1993.



Author's Address:

Dave Marlow
Code B35
NSWC-DD
Dahlgren, VA. 22448

Phone: (703) 663-1675

Email: dmarlow@relay.nswc.navy.mil







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