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Versions: (draft-durand-v6ops-assisted-tunneling-requirements) 00 01 draft-palet-v6tc-goals-tunneling

Network Working Group                                          F. Parent
Internet-Draft                                                    Hexago
Expires: April 1, 2005                                         A. Durand
                                                   SUN Microsystems,inc.
                                                               A. Baudot
                                                      France Telecom R&D
                                                                Oct 2004

                Goals for Registered Assisted Tunneling

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is subject to all provisions
   of section 3 of RFC 3667.  By submitting this Internet-Draft, each
   author represents that any applicable patent or other IPR claims of
   which he or she is aware have been or will be disclosed, and any of
   which he or she become aware will be disclosed, in accordance with
   RFC 3668.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 1, 2005.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).


   This document defines requirements for a tunnel set-up protocol that
   could be used by an ISP to jumpstart its IPv6 offering to its
   customers by providing them IPv6 connectivity through tunneling.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Goal and Scope of the Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Applicability  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  Requirements for Simplicity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   4.  Protocol Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     4.1   Address and Prefix Delegation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     4.2   Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     4.3   Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     4.4   Confidentiality  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.5   Service Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.6   NAT Traversal  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.7   Firewall Traversal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.8   Accounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   5.  General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     5.1   Scalability  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     5.2   NAT Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     5.3   Keep-alive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     5.4   Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     5.5   Traceability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     5.6   Phase Out  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     5.7   Extensibility  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   6.  Compatibility with other Transition Mechanisms . . . . . . . . 10
   7.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   8.  Acknowlegements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   9.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   9.1   Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   9.2   Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   A.  Changes from version 00  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . 14

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1.  Goal and Scope of the Document

   The v6ops working group has worked on requirements and scenarios for
   IPv6 deployment by soliciting input from network operators.  This
   work has identified a need for an "assisted tunneling" mechanism.
   For example, an ISP starting its IPv6 offering to its customers
   without upgrading its access network to support IPv6 could use a
   "tunnel brokering solution" (section 5.1
   [I-D.ietf-v6ops-isp-scenarios-analysis]) a la [RFC3053].  What has
   been identified as missing from that document is a tunnel set-up

   In an ISP network, getting IPv6 connectivity to the customers
   involves upgrading the access network to support IPv6, which can take
   a long time and/or be costly.  A tunneled infrastructure can be used
   as a low cost migration path (section 5.1

   With such an infrastructure, the ISP can connect its customers to its
   IPv6 network using its production IPv6 address space, thus
   facilitating migration towards native IPv6 deployment.  The IPv6
   deployment roadmap for connecting customers may become:

   o  assisted tunneling infrastructure to early adopters,

   o  native IPv6 to customers where economically justified,

   o  native IPv6 to all customers.

   Contrary to automatic tunneling mechanism where the IPv4 address is
   embedded inside the IPv6 address, no special format are imposed on
   the IPv6 address used in assisted tunneling.  Prefix delegation is
   also possible.  As the addressing space used during the transition to
   native remains the same, the customer routing, filtering, accounting
   stay the same, and there is no need to maintain any kind of relay.

   "Assisted tunneling" is used in this document to describe a
   transition mechanism where the parameters to configure a
   bi-directional tunnel between an end-node (or leaf network) and a
   router in the core of an ISP are exchanged through a tunnel set-up
   protocol.  Although this exchange can be automated, this remains
   different from transition mechanisms like 6to4, Teredo or ISATAP.  In
   particular, assisted tunneling enables explicit access control to the
   tunneled IPv6 connectivity, where the other transion mechanisms have
   to rely on other kinds of control (e.g., access control based on the
   IPv4 address).  Also, assisted tunneling protocol negotiate the
   tunnel parameters and does not depend on having the IPv4 address
   inside the IPv6 address, for example.

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   This document analyzes the requirements for such a tunnel set-up
   protocol.  The v6ops WG scenario and evaluation documents for
   deploying IPv6 within common network environments are used as input
   to this document.

2.  Applicability

   Assisted tunneling is applicable in different IPv6 transition
   scenarios.  The focus of this document is to define the requirements
   to apply this mechanism in the IPv4 ISP context making the following

   o  ISP is offering IPv6 connectivity to its customers initially using
      controlled tunneling infrastructure
      [I-D.ietf-v6ops-isp-scenarios-analysis], section 5.1 "Steps in
      Transitioning Customer Connection Networks"

   o  Provider network where deployment of IPv6 is done in a more
      controlled manner or when the provider cannot rely on IPv4 related
      authentication (e.g.  roaming customers, users not connected to
      ISP access network).  In such networks, ease of debugging,
      traceability, filtering and so on are important features.

   o  The customer configuration may be diverse, and not necessarily
      predictable by the ISP.  The protocol must be able to adapt to the
      following cases, for example by choosing the most optimal tunnel
      encapsulation depending on the presence of a NAT.

      *  a single node,

      *  a leaf network,

      *  using a globally routable IPv4 address,

      *  behind a NAT (customer or ISP owned),

      *  using dynamic IPv4 address (internally or externally to the

   There are actually two cases where the IPv4 address of the customer
   tunnel end point can be dynamic, and both must be supported:

   o  The device used as tunnel end point is using a dynamic IPv4
      address provided by the ISP.

   o  The device used as tunnel end point is located behind a customer
      owned NAT box that is also acting as a local DHCP server.  In that
      case, the device IPv4 address may change after a reboot.

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   Althought the main focus of this document is the ISP scenario,
   assisted tunneling is applicable in other scenarios:

   In unmanaged networks [RFC3904], assisted tunneling is applicable in
   the case A where a gateway does not provide IPv6 at all (section 3),
   and case C where a dual-stack gateway is connected to an IPv4-only
   ISP (section 5).

   In the enterprise scenario [I-D.ietf-v6ops-ent-analysis], assisted
   tunneling can be used to support remote users connecting to the
   enterprise network (section 7.5.2).

3.  Requirements for Simplicity

   The tunnel set-up protocol must be simple to implement and easy to
   deploy.  In particular, it should not depend on any complex, yet to
   be designed, protocols or infrastructure pieces.

   This protocol is a transition mechanism, thus does not need to be
   perfect.  As a matter of fact, making it perfect would be counter
   productive, at it would first delay its definition, then make its
   deployment more cumbersome and, last but not least, diminish the
   incentives to deploy native IPv6.

4.  Protocol Requirements

   Assisted tunneling is aimed at production deployment which requires
   the user to be authenticated (such as using a shared secret mechanism
   Section 4.3).  This can be to offer the tunneling service to roaming
   users (users that are not directly connected to the ISP access
   network), and/or restrict the service to specific users.

   From a user point of view, an initial registration process may be
   required before using the service.  If the service provider uses an
   existing authentication database (Section 4.2), this step may not be

   From an ISP point of view, this makes a clear link between a tunnel
   and a user (account).  It provides some means to :

   o  meet requirements such as tracing (section 5.4

   o  control service provision to valid and/or identified or even
      selected users (section 5.2

   o  less prone to denial of service attacks: Since every tunnel

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      request are authenticated, it is more difficult to request
      multiple tunnels to saturate the service.

   o  stay in touch with users

4.1  Address and Prefix Delegation

   The protocol must support delegation of an IPv6 prefix.  The length
   of the IPv6 prefix delegated must be configurable on the server.  The
   protocol must be able to offer stable IPv6 prefixes to the
   authenticated customers.

   Assignment of an IPv6 address (/64) to the end-node must be

   Since no special address format is imposed, the ISP's address space
   can be used in the delegation (section 5.1

4.2  Registration

   The registration of credentials is external to the protocol.  The
   user may require registration prior to using this service (through
   some web based service or other means).  Or service provider may use
   an existing authentication database to pre-register its users.

   In order to allow a service provider to use its existing
   authentication database, an implementation may provide hooks to
   facilitate integration with the ISP management infrastructure (e.g.
   RADIUS for AAA, billing) ([I-D.ietf-v6ops-isp-scenarios-analysis],
   section 5.2).

   The protocol may send information about registration procedure when a
   non-registered client requests registered mode (ex: URL to provider
   registration web page).

4.3  Authentication

   Authentication can be used to control user has access to the IPv6
   services (section 5.2 [I-D.ietf-v6ops-isp-scenarios-analysis])

   The authentication mechanism supported should be compatible with
   standardized methods that are generally deployed.  In order to assure
   interoperability, at least one common authentication method must be
   supported.  Other authentication may be supported and should be
   negotiated between the client and server (e.g., SASL [RFC2222]).

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4.4  Confidentiality

   Assisted tunneling can be used across networks which are not under
   the service provider control (e.g., roaming users).  The tunnel
   set-up protocol should allow protection of the authentication data
   Section 4.3.  This can be achieve by selecting an authentication
   mechanism that protects the credentials (e.g., digest-md5).

   Protecting the tunneled data (IPv6 in this case) should be possible.
   A possible usage scenario is when an enterprise's users is working
   off-site and tunneling to the enterprise network (7.5.2
   [I-D.ietf-v6ops-ent-analysis]).  Mechanisms do exist to make this
   possible, such as using IPsec over IPv6 [RFC2401].
   [I-D.tschofenig-v6ops-secure-tunnels] may be applicable here but is
   not analysed further.

4.5  Service Discovery

   In order to facilitate deployment, the implementation should allow a
   mechanism to discover the address of the server that will provide the
   tunnel connectivity.

   This discovery should be automatic when the protocol is used within
   an ISP network.  There is no service discovery requirements when used
   outside the provider network (roaming users, 3rd party ISP).

   Tunnel end-point discovery mechanism work
   ([I-D.palet-v6ops-tun-auto-disc] may be applicable here.

4.6  NAT Traversal

   Tunneling through IPv4 NAT must be supported.  The protocol should
   detect if an IPv4 NAT is in the path during the set-up phase (Section
   5.2).  If a NAT is present, an extra level of encapsulation is
   necessary to tunnel IPv6 across the NAT.  If no NAT is detected,
   IPv6-over-IPv4 tunneling (IP protocol 41) is usually enough (see also
   Section 4.7).

   NAT traversal is identified as a requirement in ISP scenarios
   (section 5.1 [I-D.ietf-v6ops-isp-scenarios-analysis]) and unmanaged
   scanarios (section 7, Recommendation 1 [RFC3904])

4.7  Firewall Traversal

   Even if no NAT is in the tunnel path, there may be a firewall which
   prohibits IP protocol 41.  In such case, the tunnel encapsulation
   selection based on NAT detection (Section 5.2) will select a tunnel
   that will not work.

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   In some cases, when the firewall is managed by the ISP or customer,
   it can be configured to allow IP protocol 41.  In such cases this may
   not be an issue (section 5.1 [I-D.ietf-v6ops-isp-scenarios-analysis])

   But in order to be functional in any situation (e.g., firewall
   lacking feature), the assisted tunneling implementation must allow a
   user to explicitly specify the desired tunnel encapsulation,
   regardless of the NAT detection process.

4.8  Accounting

   The assisted tunneling should include tools for managing and
   monitoring the provided service.  Such information can be used to
   plan service capacity (traffic load) or billing information.

   Some useful accounting data are (not exhaustive list):

   o  Tunnel counters (traffic in/out)

   o  User utilization (tunnel uptime)

   o  System logging (authentication failures, resource exhaustion,

   The interface used to provide such information can be through SNMP or
   an AAA protocol (e.g., RADIUS accounting).

5.  General Requirements

5.1  Scalability

   The tunnel set-up protocol must be scalable.  Typically, this
   protocol should be deployable in an ISP or enterprise network.

   A scalability requirement which is not related to the protocol itself
   is to be able to deploy multiple servers inside the ISP network.  To
   do so, the server implementation would possibly need some load
   balancing feature and an IPv6 IGP.

5.2  NAT Considerations

   The assisted tunnel established by the protocol to be designed must
   work with the existing infrastructure, in particular it must be
   compatible with the various customer premise equipments available
   today.  This means that, in particular, the tunnels must be able to
   traverse one or many NAT boxes of different kinds.  There is no
   requirement for any particular NAT traversal technology.  However, as
   NAT traversal usually requires an extra layer of encapsulation, the

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   tunnel set-up protocol should be able to detect automatically the
   presence of one or more NAT boxes in the path.

   The implementation must provide an option to turn on extra
   encapsulation manually.  In order to assure interoperability, at
   least one common tunnel encapsulation type must be supported.

5.3  Keep-alive

   When a tunnel has to cross a NAT box, the mapping established by the
   NAT must be preserved as long as the tunnel is in use.  This is
   usually achieved by sending keep alive messages across the tunnel.
   Also, the same keep alive messages can enable the ISP tunnel end
   point to perform garbage collection of its resources when tunnels are
   not in use anymore.  To enable those two functionalities, the tunnel
   set-up protocol must include the transmission of keep-alive messages.
   A client may choose not to send those messages (for example on ISDN
   type links).  In this case, the client should be able to handle a
   tunnel disconnect event and be able to restart the set-up phase to
   re-establish the tunnel.

5.4  Security

   The tunnel set-up protocol must not introduce any new vulnerability
   to the network.  See security considerations in Section 7.

5.5  Traceability

   In some production environment, traceability is an important
   consideration ([I-D.ietf-v6ops-isp-scenarios-analysis], section 5.4).
   The tunnel set-up protocol must be instrumentable to enable the
   collection of usage data that can be used, for example, for capacity

5.6  Phase Out

   This assisted tunneling mode is only a transition mechanism to enable
   ISP to jump start IPv6 service without requiring an immediate global
   upgrade of access networks and instead enabling a progressive roll
   out.  Once IPv6 is available natively in the access network
   connecting a customer, there is no reason to keep using tunnels.  So
   the implementation should have a provision to enable the ISP to
   signal the user to use native IPv6 instead.

5.7  Extensibility

   The protocol must be extensible to support tunnel encapsulation other
   than IPv6 over IPv4 and IPv6 over transport over IPv4.  In

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   particular, encapsulation of IPv4 over IPv6 (section 7
   [I-D.ietf-v6ops-isp-scenarios-analysis], section 7 [RFC3904], section
   6 [I-D.ietf-v6ops-ent-analysis]) or IPv6 over IPv6 could be defined.

6.  Compatibility with other Transition Mechanisms

   The tunnel set-up protocol is not required to be compatible with any
   existing transition mechanism.  Although, a great deal of experience
   can be drawn from the operation of tunnel brokers currently using the
   TSP protocol [I-D.blanchet-v6ops-tunnelbroker-tsp].

7.  Security Considerations

   The establishment of a tunnel can be compared to Mobile IP
   technology, where traffic can be redirected to go from one place to
   another one.  So similar threats exists.  In particular, when a
   customer is asking for the set-up of a tunnel ending at IP address X,
   the ISP should check:

   o  the customer is allowed to set-up this tunnel, i.e.  he "owns" the
      IPv6 prefix.

   o  the customer is allowed to terminate the tunnel where he said he
      would, i.e.  he "owns" the IPv4 tunnel endpoint.

   The first check is an authentication issue.  The second may be more
   complex.  The protocol must make sure that the tunnel is established
   to the legitimate and authenticated destination.  IPv4 return
   routability checks could help this validation.  Also, when the user
   is within the ISP access network, strict ingress filtering can help
   prevent IPv4 address spoofing.

8.  Acknowlegements

   This draft has greatly benefited from substantial inputs by Pekka

   The following people provided feedback on this work (in no particular
   order): Carl Williams, Brian Carpenter, Christian Huitema, Jordi
   Palet, Jeroen Massar, Erik Nordmark, Soohong Daniel Park, Suresh
   Satapati, Fred Tremplin, Karim El-Malki, Tim Chown, Gert Doering,
   Soliman Hesham.

   Thanks to Mark Prior and Bernard Tuy for providing input from an ISP
   perspective to validate many requirements.

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9.  References

9.1  Normative References

              Bound, J., "IPv6 Enterprise Network Analysis",
              draft-ietf-v6ops-ent-analysis-00 (work in progress),
              September 2004.

              Lind, M., Ksinant, V., Park, S., Baudot, A. and P. Savola,
              "Scenarios and Analysis for Introducing IPv6 into ISP
              Networks", draft-ietf-v6ops-isp-scenarios-analysis-03
              (work in progress), June 2004.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3053]  Durand, A., Fasano, P., Guardini, I. and D. Lento, "IPv6
              Tunnel Broker", RFC 3053, January 2001.

   [RFC3904]  Huitema, C., Austein, R., Satapati, S. and R. van der Pol,
              "Evaluation of IPv6 Transition Mechanisms for Unmanaged
              Networks", RFC 3904, September 2004.

9.2  Informative References

              Parent, F. and M. Blanchet, "IPv6 Tunnel Broker with the
              Tunnel Setup Protocol(TSP)",
              draft-blanchet-v6ops-tunnelbroker-tsp-01 (work in
              progress), June 2004.

              Huitema, C., "Teredo: Tunneling IPv6 over UDP through
              NATs", draft-huitema-v6ops-teredo-02 (work in progress),
              June 2004.

              Templin, F., Gleeson, T., Talwar, M. and D. Thaler,
              "Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol
              (ISATAP)", draft-ietf-ngtrans-isatap-22 (work in
              progress), May 2004.

              Palet, J. and M. Diaz, "Evaluation of v6ops Auto-discovery
              for Tunneling Mechanisms",
              draft-palet-v6ops-tun-auto-disc-01 (work in progress),

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              June 2004.

              Tschofenig, H., "Using IPsec to Secure IPv6-over-IPv4
              Tunnels", draft-tschofenig-v6ops-secure-tunnels-01 (work
              in progress), July 2004.

   [RFC2222]  Myers, J., "Simple Authentication and Security Layer
              (SASL)", RFC 2222, October 1997.

   [RFC2401]  Kent, S. and R. Atkinson, "Security Architecture for the
              Internet Protocol", RFC 2401, November 1998.

   [RFC2831]  Leach, P. and C. Newman, "Using Digest Authentication as a
              SASL Mechanism", RFC 2831, May 2000.

Authors' Addresses

   Florent Parent
   2875 boul. Laurier, suite 300
   Sainte-Foy, QC  G1V 2M2

   EMail: Florent.Parent@hexago.com

   Alain Durand
   SUN Microsystems,inc.
   17 Network circle UMPK17-202
   Menlo Park, CA  94025

   EMail: Alain.Durand@sun.com

   Alain Baudot
   France Telecom R&D
   42, rue des coutures
   14066 Caen,

   EMail: alain.baudot@rd.francetelecom.com

Appendix A.  Changes from version 00

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   o  Non-registered mode removed (now covered in generic zero-conf
      tunneling draft).  Text throughout the document changed to reflect


   o  Renamed title from "requirements" to "goals"

   o  Changed imperatives to lowercase

   o  /128 endpoints replaced by /64

   o  Removed DNS considerations

   o  Added many references to other v6ops scenario documents

   o  Removed the appendix on protocol requirements summary

   o  Removed references to 3GPP scenario

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