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Versions: (draft-chown-v6ops-campus-transition) 00 01

IPv6 Operations                                                 T. Chown
Internet-Draft                                 University of Southampton
Intended status: Informational                            March 28, 2007
Expires: September 29, 2007

        IPv6 Campus Transition Scenario Description and Analysis

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).


   In this document we consider and analyse the specific scenario of
   IPv6 transition and deployment in a large department of a university
   campus network.  The department is large enough to operate its own
   instances of all the conventional university services including (for
   example) web, DNS, email, filestore, interactive logins, and remote
   and wireless access.  The scenario is a dual-stack one, i.e.
   transition to IPv6 means deploying IPv6 in the first instance (and
   probably for some time) alongside IPv4.  This analysis identifies the

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   available components for IPv6 transition, while validating the
   applicability of the IPv6 Enterprise Network Scenarios informational
   text.  It focuses on the network and associated service elements of
   the transition, rather than the application elements.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.1.  Site Philosophy  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Discussion of Scenarios Network Infrastructure Components  . .  5
     2.1.  Component 1: Enterprise Provider Requirements  . . . . . .  5
     2.2.  Component 2: Enterprise Application Requirements . . . . .  6
     2.3.  Component 3: Enterprise IT Department Requirements . . . .  7
     2.4.  Component 4: Enterprise Network Management System  . . . .  8
     2.5.  Component 5: Enterprise Network Interoperation and
           Coexistence  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   3.  Discussion of Network Infrastructure Component Requirements  . 10
     3.1.  DNS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     3.2.  Routing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     3.3.  Configuration of Hosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     3.4.  Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     3.5.  Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     3.6.  Network Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     3.7.  Address Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     3.8.  Multicast  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     3.9.  Multihoming  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   4.  Specific Scenario Component Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     4.1.  Network Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       4.1.1.  Physical connectivity (Layer 2)  . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       4.1.2.  Routing and Logical subnets (Layer 3)  . . . . . . . . 13
       4.1.3.  Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       4.1.4.  Intrusion Detection System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       4.1.5.  Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       4.1.6.  Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       4.1.7.  Remote access  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       4.1.8.  IPv6 External Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     4.2.  Address Allocation Components  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       4.2.1.  IPv6 network prefix allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       4.2.2.  IPv6 Address allocation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     4.3.  Core Services  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       4.3.1.  Email  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       4.3.2.  Web Hosting  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       4.3.3.  Directory Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       4.3.4.  DNS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       4.3.5.  NTP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       4.3.6.  Multicast  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     4.4.  Hard-coded address points  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

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   5.  IPv6 Enterprise Deployment Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     5.1.  Advanced Planning  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     5.2.  Testbed/Trial Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     5.3.  Production Deployment  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   6.  Analysis: Dual-Stack Deployment - Transition toolbox . . . . . 21
   7.  Analysis: Considerations beyond the Scenarios Document . . . . 22
   8.  Summary  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
   9.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
   10. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
   11. Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
   12. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
   Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 28

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1.  Introduction

   The scope of the enterprise network transition scenarios being
   considered by the IETF is very large, much more so than that of the
   other three IPv6 transition areas that have been studied (ISP [21],
   unmanaged [17] and 3GPP [27]).  However, an IPv6 Enterprise Network
   Scenarios [23] description has been produced.  In this case study
   document we present our experience in a specific area for IPv6
   transition, namely a large department (1,500 staff and students, over
   1,000 hosts) in an academic campus network.  The purpose of this
   document is to both define and analyse the IPv6 transition of such a
   network, but also to test and validate the applicability of the IPv6
   Enterprise Network Scenarios document to a specific example.  This
   document describes the transition focusing on the network elements.

   Our campus study falls under Scenario 1 of the IPv6 Enterprise
   Network Scenarios [23] document, i.e. the campus network is an
   existing IPv4 network, where IPv6 is to be deployed in conjunction
   with the IPv4 network.

   Scenario 1 has the assumption that the IPv4 network infrastructure
   used has an equivalent capability in IPv6.  This document analyses
   that assumption.  The Scenario also has requirements, i.e. that the
   existing IPv4 network infrastructure is not disrupted, and that IPv6
   should be equivalent or better than the network infrastructure in
   IPv4.  The Scenario also notes that it may also not be feasible to
   deploy IPv6 on all parts of the network immediately.

   These assumptions and requirements will be discussed later in this
   text.  An incremental deployment strategy may, for example, be a
   desirable property.

   It should also be noted why Scenarios 2 and 3 did not apply to this
   campus transition scenario.  Scenario 2 talks of specific
   applications, but in the campus case we wish to deploy IPv6
   pervasively, in wired and wireless networks, as an enabler for
   education and research, to encourage new application development.
   Scenario 3 focuses on using IPv6 as the basis for most network
   communication, but in the campus we already have a significant IPv4
   deployment that will be utilised for the foreseeable future (Scenario
   3 would perhaps be more appropriate for a green field deployment).

1.1.  Site Philosophy

   The site which is the subject of this study is a large departmental
   network on a campus.  That network (prior to transition) is an IPv4
   network with around 20 subnets, using a core network infrastructure
   that combines switch-router functionality in central devices, with

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   switches at the network edge.  The main switching equipment is all
   VLAN (IEEE 802.1q) capable.  There are around 1,000 networked nodes
   and 1,500 users, not including transient (mainly wireless) visitors.

   The site wishes to deploy IPv6 dual-stack to support its own users
   along with its teaching and research needs.  The goal is to IPv6
   enable the network (on the wire) and services (DNS, SMTP, etc) such
   that the whole operation is dual-stack.  This in due course would
   allow IPv6-only devices to be deployed within the fully IPv6-capable
   environment.  Some network links may become IPv6-only in a subsequent
   phase in the future.

   This text has evolved over time.  When we began writing, the
   department did not have IPv6 capability on its existing IPv4 routing
   equipment, thus an interim deployment method was required until the
   next router procurement.  We discuss that interim solution within
   this document, and present the discussion from an initial point of an
   interim parallel IPv6 deployment prior to unifying the IPv4 and IPv6
   routing on a single platform.  Our initial deployment plan used a
   separate IPv6 path into the department with a parallel routing
   infrastructure for IPv6.  In practice this meant that our initial
   deployment used a parallel IPv6 routing infrastructure, using BSD
   routers, for over three years, prior to deployment of a unified
   solution on a commercial platform.

2.  Discussion of Scenarios Network Infrastructure Components

   In this section, we look at the issues raised by following step by
   step the questions and considerations in the Scenarios Network
   Infrastructure Components of the IPv6 Enterprise Network Scenarios
   [23] document, section 3.2.  This section is written from the
   perspective of pre-transition planning, although we are writing this
   document having undergone transition.

2.1.  Component 1: Enterprise Provider Requirements

   The answers to the questions posed in this section of the IPv6
   Enterprise Network Scenarios document are as follows:

   o  There is external access to/from the campus network, regional MAN
      and National Research Network beyond.

   o  There are needs for access by remote staff, student and

   o  It is a single site, with four geographically close buildings.

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   o  There are no leased lines or wide-area VPNs between remote

   o  The department has 12 IPv4 Class C's, the campus has a Class B,
      independent from its provider (assigned prior to use of CIDR

   o  The IPv4 and IPv6 provider is the National Research and Education
      Network (JANET in the UK).  JANET provides a /48 IPv6 site prefix
      for the university.  The university offers a /52 prefix for the

   o  The university and department make their own prefix allocations
      for subnets.

   o  There is no multihoming, and thus no multihomed clients.  The
      regional academic MAN supports network resilience measures.

   o  The provider (JANET) offers an IPv6 Tunnel Broker [6] service and
      a 6to4 [7] relay, though the campus is offered native IPv6
      connectivity via its regional MAN.

   o  There is no external IPv6 routing protocol needed due to the use
      of static route configuration between the campus and the regional

   o  There is no external data centre.

   o  IPv6 will run over the same access links to campus as IPv4 does
      (the JANET backbone uses true dual stack, the regional MAN uses
      6PE [35]).  On campus, the IPv4 traffic to the department is
      received through a commercial firewall solution, while the IPv6
      traffic will initially be received through a BSD firewall.  Thus
      the access links into the department for IPv4 and IPv6 are
      different, though the goal in the longer term is to make them the

2.2.  Component 2: Enterprise Application Requirements

   The focus of this document is network transition and services, but
   the answers to the next IPv6 Enterprise Network Scenarios section on
   application aspects are as follows:

   o  The application inventory is out of scope of this text.

   o  We expect the first applications to be IPv6-enabled will be the
      support services, including DNS.  The first applications should be
      the common IPv4 applications, e.g. web, remote login and email,

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      such that IPv6 offers as least an equivalent service to IPv4 for
      the core service applications.

   o  The academic environment has a good mix of open source and
      commercial software, predominantly either Microsoft or Linux, but
      with a growing number of Mac OS/X users.  An exhaustive list of
      desktop, laptop and PDA platforms is out of scope of this text.
      Most open source applications have been upgraded to allow IPv6
      operation out of the box; others can be upgraded given time.

   o  The general goal is for applications to support both IPv4 or IPv6
      operation, i.e. to be IP agnostic.

   o  There is no use of NAT in the department's network.  Home users,
      or users access into the network remotely from certain locations,
      may experience NAT at their client side.

   o  NAT issues are relevant from the end-to-end perspective, for
      establishment of end-to-end security where desired, and in
      relation to IPv6 transition (remote access) methods that may need
      to be run through NATs.

   o  There is a mix of internal and external applications.  Where
      limitations occur, it is mainly by policy not technology, with
      that policy typically implemented through firewall restrictions.

2.3.  Component 3: Enterprise IT Department Requirements

   Here we list responses to the next IPv6 Enterprise Network Scenarios
   section on IT Department Requirements.  Again, in this section we
   write our comments from a pre-transition perspective.

   o  Network and system ownership and support is all in-house.

   o  Remote VPNs are supported.

   o  No inter-site networking is required.

   o  No IP mobility support is required at this point, though we expect
      to use Mobile IPv6 between the department network and a local
      community wireless network, on our wireless LAN deployment as it
      grows in size, and to pilot its use inter-campus.

   o  The IPv6 address plan for the department requires a /52 prefix.

   o  There is no detailed asset database, though one exists providing a
      host inventory (for DNS and DHCP use).

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   o  There are no (significantly) geographically separate sites.

   o  The internal IPv4 address assignment mechanism is DHCP for
      clients, with manual configuration for servers.  We thus expect to
      use DHCPv6 for at least some, if not all, IPv6 clients.  This will
      depend on availability of DHCP client and server software.

   o  Internal IPv4 routing is static or uses RIP.  We thus expect to
      use RIPng internally.

   o  We expect our IPv6 network management policy to be very similar to
      that for IPv4.  Having coherent policies, and a consistent means
      to configure them, should make network operation simpler.

   o  There is no QoS provision at present, largely due to the ample
      campus bandwidth (1Gbit/s uplink).

   o  Security is applied through many technologies implementing our
      policies, e.g. firewall, email scanning, IDS and wireless LAN
      access controls.  We expect similar policies for IPv6, but need to
      analyse potential differences (e.g. considering use of RFC3041
      privacy addresses [5]).

   o  Training will be done in-house.

   o  The impacted software service components are discussed in the next
      main section.  Not all functions are upgradeable to IPv6; those
      that are not are discussed in the analysis sections.  Some are,
      e.g. use of OpenLDAP (IPv6 capable) as an interim step in place of
      MS Active Directory (not IPv6 capable at the time of the
      analysis).  Our view is that if components cannot be given
      immediate IPv6 equivalents, this functionality will come in due
      course, and IPv4 transport can be used in the interim.  But the
      ultimate goal is to facilitate IPv6 capability.

   o  The impacted hardware components are discussed in the next main
      section.  Not all hardware is upgradeable, e.g. network printers.
      There are no load balancing systems in use.  There are wireless
      LAN hosts in the network that are mobile, but currently the
      wireless network is a single flat IPv4 subnet.  There may be nodes
      moving to external wireless networks (i.e. the local community
      wireless network).

2.4.  Component 4: Enterprise Network Management System

   The responses to the next IPv6 Enterprise Network Scenarios section
   are as follows:

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   o  No performance management is required.  Systems are monitored for
      loading for purposes for future capacity planning.

   o  There are a number of network management and monitoring tools in
      use, which will need to be used in a dual stack or IPv6 mode, e.g.
      the nocol availability monitoring tools, and SNMP-based

   o  The configuration management may include use of tools to configure
      services including DNS and email.  In-house DNS management tools
      are used.

   o  No policy management and enforcement tools are required.

   o  No detailed security management is required, though we expect to
      manage the implementations including firewalls and intrusion
      detection, and here a consistent management interface for both
      protocols is desirable..

   o  We may need to manage any specific deployed transition tools and

   o  We need to analyse the considerations IPv6 creates for network
      management, e.g. use (or not) of IPv6 privacy addresses.  The need
      for user privacy is recognised, but the need for simplified
      management is also a strong consideration.

2.5.  Component 5: Enterprise Network Interoperation and Coexistence

   Answers to the final IPv6 Enterprise Network Scenarios section on
   Coexistence are as follows:

   o  An exhaustive list of platforms that are required to be IPv6
      capable is out of scope of this text.

   o  There is only one network ingress and egress point to the site
      that needs to be IPv6 capable; this is a Gigabit Ethernet

   o  The required transition mechanisms are discussed in the analysis
      section.  In the initial phase of deployment, with the existing
      IPv4 switch-router equipment not supporting IPv6 routing, We
      expect to mainly use the VLAN [32] mechanism for internal IPv6
      transport, with a parallel IPv6 routing infrastructure based on
      BSD routers, until the core infrastructure is able to support IPv6
      (via upgrade or a new procurement).

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   o  The transition to IPv6 will be enabled on the wire first, enabling
      clients, with a phased introduction of service capability, as
      discussed below in the analysis section.

   o  The preferred mechanism for interoperation with legacy nodes is to
      use dual-stack and thus IPv4 to communicate with IPv4 nodes and
      IPv6 to communicate to IPv6 nodes.  We have not identified any in-
      house, non-upgradeable legacy software applications (most in-house
      applications are presented to users as web applications).

3.  Discussion of Network Infrastructure Component Requirements

   In this section, we discuss the network infrastructure component
   requirements raised in the IPv6 Enterprise Network Scenarios [23]
   document, in section 4.  We document current IPv4 practices, and how
   we see these being facilitated when IPv6 is deployed and enabled.

3.1.  DNS

   The open source package BIND (version 9) is used for our three
   internal name servers.  The servers will be made dual stack, to be
   available for IPv6 transport for local dual-stack or IPv6-only nodes.
   The three servers will each be listed with AAAA records, and AAAA
   glue added.

3.2.  Routing

   Internal unicast routing is either statically configured or uses RIP.
   We thus expect to use RIPng for internal IPv6 routing.  The external
   routing is statically configured for IPv4, and thus is likely to be
   statically configured for IPv6.

3.3.  Configuration of Hosts

   IPv4 clients use DHCP for address and other configuration options.
   We expect to use Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6
   (DHCPv6) [11] for IPv6 clients.  This will require analysis of the
   IPv4 and IPv6 Dual-Stack Issues for DHCPv6 [30].  We expect some
   clients, perhaps those in wireless LANs, to use IPv6 Stateless
   Autoconfiguration [3], and these nodes will need support for
   Stateless Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Service for IPv6
   [15] for other configuration options, including the IPv6 address of a
   local DNS resolver.

   Although IPv6 offers Stateless Autoconfiguration, it is expected that
   the managed environment will continue, driven from the asset
   database, for some time.  The site administrators are comfortable

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   with the use of DHCP for IPv4, and wish to use it for IPv6, for
   global address and potentially IPv6 Privacy Address assignment.  Thus
   DHCPv6 is required.  Use of Stateless Autoconfiguration implies a
   requirement for dynamic DNS updates for such nodes.  It is not yet
   decided how to apply or enforce that plan; it may certainly be
   flexible with time.

3.4.  Security

   We need to identify new IPv6 related security considerations, and
   those associated with transition mechanisms [37].  Site policies may
   need to be updated as a result.

3.5.  Applications

   Discussion of applications is out of scope of this document.
   However, the Application Aspects of IPv6 Transition [22] document
   describes best porting practice for applications.  A new Advanced
   Sockets API for IPv6 [13] defines the IP version independent API that
   is now widely supported.  Recent versions of Java support IPv4 and
   IPv6 operation.  There should also be consideration for making any
   required application proxies dual-stack.

3.6.  Network Management

   The network management and monitoring systems will need to support
   IPv6, and the management and monitoring of any transition mechanisms
   used to deploy IPv6.  Monitoring includes usage tracking (e.g. via
   open source packages such as MRTG) and availability monitoring (e.g.
   via the Nagios package).

3.7.  Address Planning

   The department has been allocated 12 Class C prefixes for IPv4 use,
   and uses only globally routable addresses internally.  No IPv4 NAT is
   used.  The IPv4 address space for the campus was obtained prior to
   CIDR, but the IPv6 address space is allocated from the UK National
   Research Network (JANET) address space.  The university receives a
   /48 prefix, and the department has a /52 allocation within this

   Given that global IPv4 addresses are in use throughout our network,
   we plan to use global IPv6 addresses as well.  Since we also do not
   expect to renumber (our IPv6 provider is expected to be JANET
   indefinitely) and our connectivity is expected to be stable we do not
   see any real need to deploy Unique Local Addresses (ULAs) [25].
   Doing so would require full support for Default Address Selection
   [12] (so that ULA source addresses are used for ULA destinations, and

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   global source addresses for global destinations) and running a two-
   faced DNS (with ULAs advertised only internally), which we do not
   currently do for IPv4.

   IPv6 address assignment planning for a campus-style enterprise is
   discussed separately in more detail in the IPv6 Unicast Address
   Assignment Considerations [36] text.

3.8.  Multicast

   IPv4 multicast is used for a number of applications, including
   AccessGrid multi-party videoconferencing.  Connectivity is provided
   via the local campus and regional network.  We expect to use PIM-SM
   [33] for IPv6, initially as Any Source Multicast (ASM).  We also plan
   to make use of Source Specific Multicast (SSM) more heavily in IPv6,
   bringing IPv6 and SSM together in one deployment cycle.

   The use of IPv6 multicast makes it much simpler for our site to
   generate its own globally unique multicast group addresses than is
   the case for IPv4, where we need to use GLOP space [8] from an
   upstream provider.  For IPv6, you can generate your own unique
   multicast group address for regular groups [9] or Embedded-RP groups
   [18] based on your unicast prefix (typically /48 or /64).

   Since there is no MSDP [14] equivalent for IPv6, we only expect to
   use regular unicast prefix based group addresses [9] within our own
   organisational scope.  For wider scope multicast we expect to use
   Embedded-RP where possible, running our own IPv6 Rendezvous Point(s)
   to support our own content.  In terms of the IPv6 address
   architecture [28], we plan to use a site scope (ff05) for our
   department, with the university having organisational scope (ff08).
   Locally assigned group IDs would honour the guidelines of RFC3307

3.9.  Multihoming

   The site is not multihomed for IPv4, and thus will not be for IPv6.
   This is typical for UK academic networks, where resilience is
   provisioned through the regional MAN links.

4.  Specific Scenario Component Review

   Here we describe specific technology in use now in the department.
   Later in this section we discuss any items not included in the above
   section, i.e. those not explicitly mentioned in the IPv6 Enterprise
   Network Scenarios document.  Note that not all applications and
   services have at the time of writing been made IPv6 capable; in

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   general open source packages are IPv6 capable out of the box, but
   discussion of specific applications is outside the scope of this text
   (this text aims to be a stable description of the processes and
   thinking followed during our campus transition).

4.1.  Network Components

4.1.1.  Physical connectivity (Layer 2)

   o  Switched Ethernet

   o  Gigabit Ethernet

   o  Wireless networking (802.11a/b/g)

4.1.2.  Routing and Logical subnets (Layer 3)

   The hybrid Layer 2/3 routing equipment has approximately 20 internal
   IPv4 subnets (in effect, routed VLANs).  The only specific internal
   routing protocol used is RIP [2].  There is a static route via the
   site firewall to the main upstream provider (academic) running at
   1Gbit/s.  We would expect to use RIPng [1] for IPv6 internally.

4.1.3.  Firewall

   The firewall is currently one running on a commercial hardware
   platform without IPv6 support.  There is one internal facing
   interface, one external facing interface, and two DMZ interfaces, one
   for wired hosts and one for the Wireless LAN provision.  We expect
   the topology to remain the same, with the DMZ(s) becoming dual-stack.

4.1.4.  Intrusion Detection System

   The Snort open source package is used locally for IPv4 IDS.  Work on
   IPv6 capability for Snort is ongoing, but needs to consider both
   similar (e.g. application transport) issues as IPv4 as well as IPv6-
   specific issues (e.g. excessive use of Hop-by-Hop options).

4.1.5.  Management

   Some network management is performed by SNMP; there is no specific
   package for this (scripts used are in-house).

4.1.6.  Monitoring

   A number of open source tools are used, to monitor network usage as
   well as systems availability, e.g.  Nagios and MRTG.  The network
   testing tools include iperf, rude and crude.

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4.1.7.  Remote access

   o  RADIUS servers (our current RADIUS package supports IPv6)

   o  VPN servers

4.1.8.  IPv6 External Access

   o  IPv6 connectivity will come via our regional MAN (which runs 6PE)
      through trunked (unrouted) VLANs across campus to our departmental
      network.  Because the existing IP firewall pre-transition does not
      support IPv6, IPv6 will need to be transported into the
      departmental network via a separate parallel IPv6 capable firewall
      (e.g. a BSD system using a package such as pf).

4.2.  Address Allocation Components

   The department receives its IPv4 and IPv6 address allocations from
   the University.  For IPv4, the University has a Class B allocation
   which is not aggregated under the JANET NREN address space post-CIDR.
   For IPv6, the University receives its allocation from JANET.

4.2.1.  IPv6 network prefix allocation

   For IPv6, JANET currently has a /32 prefix from RIPE-NCC, as the
   national academic ISP in the UK.  The university has been allocated a
   /48 from this block by JANET.  The department IPv6 deployment will be
   allocated a /52 size prefix from the university allocation.

   In the initial deployment, we expect that IPv4 and IPv6 subnets will
   be congruent (and share the same VLANs).  This is because the
   existing subnet divisions are made for geographic or administrative
   reasons that are not IP version dependent (e.g. by building location
   or research group membership).

   One advantage of IPv6 is that subnets will not need to be resized to
   conserve or efficiently utilise address space as is the case
   currently for IPv4 (as subnet host counts rise and fall for
   administrative or research group growth/decline reasons).

4.2.2.  IPv6 Address allocation

   It is expected that the network devices will use a combination of
   address allocation mechanisms:

   o  Manually configured addresses (in some servers)

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   o  Stateful DHCPv6 (probably in fixed, wired devices and some

   o  Stateless address autoconfiguration (probably in wireless and
      mobile devices)

   o  RFC3041 privacy addresses (in some client devices)

   For devices using stateless or RFC3041 mechanisms, at least a
   Stateless DHCPv6 service [15] will be required for other (non-
   address) configuration options, e.g.  DNS and NTP servers.  It is
   likely that a full DHCPv6 service would provide this function

   As discussed above, due to current experience with DHCP for IPv4,
   where all addresses are managed centrally, we expect that use of
   DHCPv6 for address allocation and management will be preferred (once
   implementations are mature).

4.3.  Core Services

4.3.1.  Email

   There are three MX hosts for inbound email, and two main internal
   mail servers.  Sendmail is the MTA.  MailScanner is used for anti-
   spam/anti-virus.  This uses external services including various RBLs
   for part of its spam checking.  Successful reverse DNS lookup is
   required for sendmail to accept internal SMTP connections for
   delivery.  Email access is provided by a variety of open source and
   commercial client and server applications (including a web front end)
   the details of which are outside the scope of this document.

   We expect to continue to use sendmail for MX and MTA functions, as it
   supports IPv6 out of the box.  Each of our MX servers will be made
   dual stack, noting the considerations in RFC3974 [20].

4.3.2.  Web Hosting

   Web content hosting is provided either with Apache 2.x (open source)
   or in some cases commercial equivalents.  Common components used to
   build systems with are MySQL, PHP and Perl; these enable local tools
   such as Wikis to be run.  Apache 2.x has support for IPv6 included.

4.3.3.  Directory Services

   The following directory services are used:

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   o  NIS (being phased out)

   o  LDAP (OpenLDAP has IPv6 support)

   o  Active Directory

   o  RADIUS (Our current RADIUS package has IPv6 support)

4.3.4.  DNS

   The three DNS servers are running BIND9.  A DNS secondary is held at
   another UK university site.  While we will make our three DNS servers
   dual-stack, our DNS secondary would remain IPv4-only since it is out
   of our administrative control.

4.3.5.  NTP

   The JANET NREN offers a stratum 1 NTP server.  The department also
   has a GPS-based NTP server built-in to its own RIPE NCC test traffic
   server and an NTP device from a commercial provider.  Both support
   IPv6 operation and transport.

4.3.6.  Multicast

   PIM-SM IPv4 multicast is facilitated via a dedicated commercial
   router, using a Rendezvous Point operated by our regional network.
   This supports applications including the IPv4 AccessGrid conferencing
   system.  A number of bugs in the existing IPv4 routing equipment
   prevent heavy use of IPv4 Multicast within the department network
   (another reason that an IPv6 Multicast solution is desirable).  An
   IPv4 Multicast beacon is used for monitoring Multicast.  Our IPv6
   multicast deployment plans are discussed in Section 3.8 above.

4.4.  Hard-coded address points

   Usage of IPv4 hard-coded addresses is interesting for at least two
   reasons.  One is that it illustrates where IPv6 hard-coded addresses
   may appear, and thus secondly it is useful to analyse which hard-
   coded addresses may be barriers to smooth IPv6 renumbering.  A
   procedure for renumbering has been described in Procedures for
   Renumbering an IPv6 Network without a Flag Day [24].  A non-
   exhaustive list of instances of such addresses includes:

   o  Provider based prefix(es)

   o  Names resolved to IP addresses in firewall at startup time

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   o  IP addresses in remote firewalls allowing access to remote

   o  IP-based authentication in remote systems allowing access to
      online bibliographic resources

   o  IP address of both tunnel end points for IPv6 in IPv4 tunnel

   o  Hard-coded IP subnet configuration information

   o  IP addresses for static route targets

   o  Blocked SMTP server IP list (spam sources)

   o  Web .htaccess and remote access controls

   o  Apache .Listen. directive on given IP address

   o  Configured multicast rendezvous point

   o  TCP wrapper files

   o  Samba configuration files

   o  DNS resolv.conf on Unix

   o  Nocol monitoring tool

   o  NIS/ypbind via the hosts file

   o  Some interface configurations

   o  Unix portmap security masks

   o  NIS security masks

5.  IPv6 Enterprise Deployment Procedure

   In this section we document (retrospectively) the procedure we went
   through in deploying IPv6 within our campus site.

   The work described in this document has also been fed into the IPv6
   Enterprise Analysis [38].  The reader is referred in particular to
   Section 4 ("Wide-Scale Dual-Stack Deployment") and Section 7
   ("General issues and applicability for all Scenarios") which were
   directly contributed from the work here.

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   As described in the IPv6 Enterprise Analysis [38] document, the
   scenario here is one of wide-scale dual-stack deployment.  The plan
   for deployment follows the general guidelines of Section 7 of that
   document, though we have expanded that description here from
   subsequent experience.

   Note that our analysis does not include issues relating to deployment
   of new IPv6-specific technology, e.g.  MIPv6 [16].  The focus of our
   deployment has been deploying dual-stack pervasively on the wire,
   with core network oriented services being IPv6 enabled.

5.1.  Advanced Planning

   A first phase for deployment includes the following actions.

   o  Include IPv6 requirements in all future tenders.  Consult to
      understand IPv6 specification requirements for tenders; this may
      prove particularly valuable where new IPv6 specific technology is
      desirable, e.g.  Embedded-RP support for Multicast.

   o  Identify your IPv6 ISP.  This will most likely be your IPv4 ISP
      also, but in some cases it may not be.

   o  Speak to your IPv6 ISP to acquire IPv6 address space (a /48
      prefix) for your site; you will need this at some point, so may as
      well acquire the space sooner rather than later.  This will
      include delegation of IPv6 forward and reverse DNS for your site.
      Our campus address space is a /48 prefix allocated by JANET.

   o  Establish IPv6 training for operational staff, for administration
      of host and router platforms.

   o  Investigate how to deploy basic IPv6 network services: DNS,
      routing, host configuration.

   o  Encourage operational staff to get some IPv6 familiarity by trying
      IPv6 through services such as a public or ISP-supported IPv6
      tunnel broker [6].

   o  Review IPv6 security issues.  IPv6 is enabled by default on many
      host platforms; this should be considered when enforcing security
      policies on systems and networks.

   Following these action points should allow sites or networks to be
   ready for a trial or pilot IPv6 deployment, and to have confidence
   they understand and have control of their current - perhaps unwitting
   - usage of IPv6 (from systems which have it enabled by default).

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5.2.  Testbed/Trial Deployment

   In this stage a site is validating IPv6 for deployment, and will thus
   take actions including the following:

   o  Assign and deploy an IPv6-capable router and (we recommend) a
      firewall or filtering device.

   o  Establish IPv6 connectivity to the IPv6 ISP.  Sites might use a
      tunnelled service, or check for any native IPv6 offering.  In our
      case, the connectivity is native IPv6 from JANET, via the regional
      MAN (using 6PE [35]) and the campus (using a VLAN to carry IPv6

   o  Connect testbed host systems on the internal router interface,
      using one subnet prefix (a /64) from the site's allocated IPv6 /48
      prefix.  At this stage your trial network may be standalone
      (disconnected from other internal networks) or, as we did, it may
      be that you dual-stack your existing IPv4 DMZ(s) for the pilot

   o  Enable IPv6 on the host systems, and test IPv6 functions on
      services and applications (e.g.  BIND for DNS, Apache for Web,
      sendmail or exim for mail transport).

   In parallel, other preparation can be undertaken for a production

   o  Survey systems, applications and services for IPv6 capability,
      including management, monitoring and access control devices and
      systems.  The Enterprise Scenarios text as evaluated earlier in
      this document is a good basis to undertake this task from.

   o  Formulate an IPv6 address plan for your site/network.  Our campus
      has allocated the department network a /56 prefix that can grow
      into a /52 prefix, i.e. the department can in theory create up to
      256 IPv6 subnets initially.  We discuss address planning issues in
      a separate document on IPv6 addressing considerations [36].

   o  Discuss and document IPv6-related policies (e.g. use of Privacy
      Addresses, and of stateless or stateful address assignment).

   Once the site is satisfied in the testbed deployment, then a
   production deployment can be considered, enabling IPv6 for
   appropriate links and services.

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5.3.  Production Deployment

   A production deployment includes the following action points:

   o  Plan which parts of the network will be IPv6-enabled first, and
      which existing subnets will be IPv6-enabled (made dual-stack).
      This may be certain server subnets, a DMZ, or a Wireless LAN
      network, for example.

   o  Determine how your production IPv6 connectivity will be handled;
      it can (ideally) be via a single dual-stack entry point, or
      through separate IPv4 and IPv6 links.

   o  Enable IPv6, and IPv6 routing, such that IPv6 is on the wire,
      prior to host system activation.  Ensure filtering and firewall
      policies are implemented as required.

   o  Add IPv6 address configuration to your DNS systems, and configure
      them to respond over IPv4 or IPv6 transport.  Do not advertise
      AAAA records for a node until it is IPv6-reachable.  Be aware that
      multiple services may run on a node, all of which may need to be
      IPv6-enabled before a AAAA record for the node is published.

   o  Deploy IPv6 support in appropriate management and monitoring

   o  Enable IPv6 in selected production services and applications (e.g.
      Apache or IIS for web servers).  In our case, we focused initially
      on DNS (bind), mail/MX (sendmail) and web services (Apache) in
      dual-stack mode.

   o  Include IPv6 transport in all ongoing security audit/penetration

   o  Support IPv4-IPv6 interworking.  As there are not (yet) any IPv6-
      only links on our site, interworking methods are not required.
      Should IPv6-only devices be deployed on the dual-stack
      infrastructure, we anticipate using proxy tools (web cache, SMTP
      relay, etc) to support their access to legacy IPv4 services,
      rather than deploying translation-based tools.

   o  Supporting remote users.  These may connect via an IPv4 VPN and
      then use an IPv6 connection over that VPN, or use the remote IPv6
      services of your ISP (e.g. our ISP, JANET, runs a tunnel broker
      and a 6to4 relay).

   The depth of the IPv6 deployment may vary from site to site.  By
   enabling key services you make your site ready for a fuller

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   deployment, and gain confidence and experience in the technology,
   which is good for your support staff, your students, staff and

6.  Analysis: Dual-Stack Deployment - Transition toolbox

   Within our network we initially deployed IPv6 such that it was routed
   in parallel to IPv4, but with data running on the same end-host
   links, using a VLAN-based method as cited below.  This allowed us to
   pilot IPv6 without risking adverse impact on our existing IPv4
   platforms.  This method was used for over two years.  Towards the end
   of its use, the BSD platforms used to facilitate this were showing
   signs of strain under the load, in terms of pure unicast and
   multicast forwarding requirements under heavier traffic bursts.  We
   have since deployed a unified IPv4 and IPv6 commercial routing
   platform from a single vendor, which met all our IPv4 and IPv6
   procurement requirements for IPv4 and IPv6 unicast and multicast
   functions, including but not limited to:

   o  IPv6 unicast routing protocols;

   o  IPv6 multicast routing protocols (PIM-SM including SSM);

   o  IPv6 multicast Embedded-RP support;

   o  IPv6 multicast MLD(v1 and v2) snooping (see RFC4541 [31]).

   We have used the following mechanisms in our department's transition

   o  VLANs [32] in an initial phase to distribute IPv6 connectivity
      over the non-dual-stack capable network infrastructure.  This VLAN
      solution was an interim step until full dual protocol capable
      equipment was deployed during 2005;

   o  A Tunnel broker [6] for remote access, provided by our IPv6 ISP
      (JANET).  We initially deployed our own tunnel broker, but now
      refer our home and roaming users to the JANET solution.  This is
      only used for remote access to our network, not within our

   o  A 6to4 [7] relay for remote access, provided by our IPv6 ISP.
      Again, we used to run our own relay, but the relay operated by our
      IPv6 ISP is perfectly adequate at this time for communicating with
      6to4 sites.  We do not believe 6to4 is an acceptable solution as a
      campus connectivity method (because we do not then use our own
      IPv6 address space as allocated by JANET, and 6to4 itself is prone

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      to failure and abuse [19]).

   We do NOT currently see a requirement for:

   o  NAT-PT [4], because we are dual-stack with no IPv6-only networks
      (yet), and as we introduce such networks, or IPv6-only nodes in
      the dual-stack networks, we expect to use application layer
      gateways and proxies for legacy IPv4 access.  Where dual-stack
      nodes may in future be used on IPv6-only links, the Dual Stack
      Transition Mechanism (DSTM) may be of value, but preference would
      be given to use IPv6 transport where possible;

   o  ISATAP [26], because we prefer to use a structured internal IPv6
      deployment, and are doing so in a pervasive fashion (i.e. not as a
      sparse deployment).  ISATAP may be useful for sparse deployment of
      IPv6 in sites who are happy to IPv6 pilot in a less structured
      fashion.  We do not wish to see arbitrary automatic tunnels being
      used between links on our network;

   o  Teredo [29] - we considered deploying servers/relays to support
      home users behind NATs, but chose not to do so since our ISP's
      tunnel broker service supports NAT traversal, and we feel it
      offers better management and monitoring facilities.  This decision
      may be reviewed if we see a rise in demand for Teredo service

7.  Analysis: Considerations beyond the Scenarios Document

   Here we mention issues or scenario components that were not
   explicitly listed in the IPv6 Enterprise Network Scenarios document.
   Due to the scope, that document could not embrace all details.  We
   mention here components that other sites may also wish to consider:

   o  Support for WLAN and other access control.  Most sites tend to use
      a web-redirection portal to authenticate users, but these
      invariably do not detect or support use of IPv6.  One solution is
      to use 802.1x which is IP-agnostic as a Layer 2 port control

   o  Consideration for hard-coded addresses.

   The brevity of this list shows that the IPv6 Enterprise Network
   Scenarios text includes very good coverage of the issues and
   considerations faced by our enterprise site.

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8.  Summary

   In this document we have analysed the specific campus transition
   scenario for the author's site, and reported the analysis for the
   benefit of others who may be in a similar scenario, or for whom parts
   of the scenario may be relevant.

   In our case transition does not mean from IPv4 only to IPv6 only,
   rather from IPv4 only to a dual-stack environment that could support
   IPv6 only nodes at a later date.  We would probably best describe the
   process as dual stack integration.

   We have described how a phased approach to transition can be adopted
   at a campus site (or part thereof), from a planning stage through a
   pilot to a fuller deployment.  During our transition we initially ran
   a parallel IPv6 routing infrastructure, then in 2005 unified the
   routing to a single platform, for unicast and multicast IPv6.  We
   enabled key services for dual-stack operation from the outset (DNS,
   web and mail/MX) and have enabled other services as and when they
   have become available.  The VLAN-based interim step was useful for
   two years until a dual-protocol routing solution could be procured.

   We do not discuss detailed availability of IPv6 capability in the
   services described in Section 4 above in this text, and we leave
   application support as an issue out of scope (though we observe that
   open source support for IPv6 is in general very good).  For the
   purposes of our network-oriented transition, we are happy that the
   path taken and current solution is stable and complete.

   The deployment has now been in full dual-stack operation for over two
   years, with key services enabled (including public-facing DNS, SMTP,
   web) without any significant adverse effects on the IPv4 service.
   The author welcomes discussion with other sites that are undergoing
   or have undergone a similar transition or integration process.

9.  Acknowledgements

   Discussions with fellow participants on the 6NET and Euro6IX projects
   have been valuable.  Input from the IETF IPv6 Operations WG list have
   also been welcomed.

10.  IANA Considerations

   The document contains no IANA considerations.

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11.  Security Considerations

   There are no specific new considerations from this scenario
   description and analysis.

12.  Informative References

   [1]   Malkin, G. and R. Minnear, "RIPng for IPv6", RFC 2080,
         January 1997.

   [2]   Malkin, G., "RIP Version 2", STD 56, RFC 2453, November 1998.

   [3]   Thomson, S. and T. Narten, "IPv6 Stateless Address
         Autoconfiguration", RFC 2462, December 1998.

   [4]   Tsirtsis, G. and P. Srisuresh, "Network Address Translation -
         Protocol Translation (NAT-PT)", RFC 2766, February 2000.

   [5]   Narten, T. and R. Draves, "Privacy Extensions for Stateless
         Address Autoconfiguration in IPv6", RFC 3041, January 2001.

   [6]   Durand, A., Fasano, P., Guardini, I., and D. Lento, "IPv6
         Tunnel Broker", RFC 3053, January 2001.

   [7]   Carpenter, B. and K. Moore, "Connection of IPv6 Domains via
         IPv4 Clouds", RFC 3056, February 2001.

   [8]   Albanna, Z., Almeroth, K., Meyer, D., and M. Schipper, "IANA
         Guidelines for IPv4 Multicast Address Assignments", BCP 51,
         RFC 3171, August 2001.

   [9]   Haberman, B. and D. Thaler, "Unicast-Prefix-based IPv6
         Multicast Addresses", RFC 3306, August 2002.

   [10]  Haberman, B., "Allocation Guidelines for IPv6 Multicast
         Addresses", RFC 3307, August 2002.

   [11]  Droms, R., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins, C., and M.
         Carney, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6
         (DHCPv6)", RFC 3315, July 2003.

   [12]  Draves, R., "Default Address Selection for Internet Protocol
         version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 3484, February 2003.

   [13]  Stevens, W., Thomas, M., Nordmark, E., and T. Jinmei, "Advanced
         Sockets Application Program Interface (API) for IPv6",
         RFC 3542, May 2003.

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   [14]  Fenner, B. and D. Meyer, "Multicast Source Discovery Protocol
         (MSDP)", RFC 3618, October 2003.

   [15]  Droms, R., "Stateless Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
         (DHCP) Service for IPv6", RFC 3736, April 2004.

   [16]  Johnson, D., Perkins, C., and J. Arkko, "Mobility Support in
         IPv6", RFC 3775, June 2004.

   [17]  Huitema, C., Austein, R., Satapati, S., and R. van der Pol,
         "Evaluation of IPv6 Transition Mechanisms for Unmanaged
         Networks", RFC 3904, September 2004.

   [18]  Savola, P. and B. Haberman, "Embedding the Rendezvous Point
         (RP) Address in an IPv6 Multicast Address", RFC 3956,
         November 2004.

   [19]  Savola, P. and C. Patel, "Security Considerations for 6to4",
         RFC 3964, December 2004.

   [20]  Nakamura, M. and J. Hagino, "SMTP Operational Experience in
         Mixed IPv4/v6 Environments", RFC 3974, January 2005.

   [21]  Lind, M., Ksinant, V., Park, S., Baudot, A., and P. Savola,
         "Scenarios and Analysis for Introducing IPv6 into ISP
         Networks", RFC 4029, March 2005.

   [22]  Shin, M-K., Hong, Y-G., Hagino, J., Savola, P., and E. Castro,
         "Application Aspects of IPv6 Transition", RFC 4038, March 2005.

   [23]  Bound, J., "IPv6 Enterprise Network Scenarios", RFC 4057,
         June 2005.

   [24]  Baker, F., Lear, E., and R. Droms, "Procedures for Renumbering
         an IPv6 Network without a Flag Day", RFC 4192, September 2005.

   [25]  Hinden, R. and B. Haberman, "Unique Local IPv6 Unicast
         Addresses", RFC 4193, October 2005.

   [26]  Templin, F., Gleeson, T., Talwar, M., and D. Thaler, "Intra-
         Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP)", RFC 4214,
         October 2005.

   [27]  Wiljakka, J., "Analysis on IPv6 Transition in Third Generation
         Partnership Project (3GPP) Networks", RFC 4215, October 2005.

   [28]  Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
         Architecture", RFC 4291, February 2006.

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   [29]  Huitema, C., "Teredo: Tunneling IPv6 over UDP through Network
         Address Translations (NATs)", RFC 4380, February 2006.

   [30]  Chown, T., Venaas, S., and C. Strauf, "Dynamic Host
         Configuration Protocol (DHCP): IPv4 and IPv6 Dual-Stack
         Issues", RFC 4477, May 2006.

   [31]  Christensen, M., Kimball, K., and F. Solensky, "Considerations
         for Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) and Multicast
         Listener Discovery (MLD) Snooping Switches", RFC 4541,
         May 2006.

   [32]  Chown, T., "Use of VLANs for IPv4-IPv6 Coexistence in
         Enterprise Networks", RFC 4554, June 2006.

   [33]  Fenner, B., Handley, M., Holbrook, H., and I. Kouvelas,
         "Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM):
         Protocol Specification (Revised)", RFC 4601, August 2006.

   [34]  Fuller, V. and T. Li, "Classless Inter-domain Routing (CIDR):
         The Internet Address Assignment and Aggregation Plan", BCP 122,
         RFC 4632, August 2006.

   [35]  De Clercq, J., Ooms, D., Prevost, S., and F. Le Faucheur,
         "Connecting IPv6 Islands over IPv4 MPLS Using IPv6 Provider
         Edge Routers (6PE)", RFC 4798, February 2007.

   [36]  Velde, G., "IPv6 Unicast Address Assignment Considerations",
         draft-ietf-v6ops-addcon-03 (work in progress), March 2007.

   [37]  Davies, E., "IPv6 Transition/Co-existence Security
         Considerations", draft-ietf-v6ops-security-overview-06 (work in
         progress), October 2006.

   [38]  Bound, J., "IPv6 Enterprise Network Analysis - IP Layer 3
         Focus", draft-ietf-v6ops-ent-analysis-07 (work in progress),
         December 2006.

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Author's Address

   Tim Chown
   University of Southampton
   School of Electronics and Computer Science
   Southampton, Hampshire  SO17 1BJ
   United Kingdom

   Email: tjc@ecs.soton.ac.uk

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Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).

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