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Versions: (draft-thomson-webpush-protocol) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 RFC 8030

WEBPUSH                                                       M. Thomson
Internet-Draft                                                   Mozilla
Intended status: Standards Track                             E. Damaggio
Expires: April 25, 2017                                   B. Raymor, Ed.
                                                               Microsoft
                                                        October 22, 2016


                 Generic Event Delivery Using HTTP Push
                     draft-ietf-webpush-protocol-12

Abstract

   A simple protocol for the delivery of real-time events to user agents
   is described.  This scheme uses HTTP/2 server push.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 25, 2017.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.




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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.1.  Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   2.  Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.1.  HTTP Resources  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   3.  Connecting to the Push Service  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   4.  Subscribing for Push Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     4.1.  Collecting Subscriptions into Sets  . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   5.  Requesting Push Message Delivery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     5.1.  Requesting Push Message Receipts  . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     5.2.  Push Message Time-To-Live . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     5.3.  Push Message Urgency  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     5.4.  Replacing Push Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   6.  Receiving Push Messages for a Subscription  . . . . . . . . .  15
     6.1.  Receiving Push Messages for a Subscription Set  . . . . .  17
     6.2.  Acknowledging Push Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     6.3.  Receiving Push Message Receipts . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   7.  Operational Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     7.1.  Load Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     7.2.  Push Message Expiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     7.3.  Subscription Expiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
       7.3.1.  Subscription Set Expiration . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
     7.4.  Implications for Application Reliability  . . . . . . . .  22
     7.5.  Subscription Sets and Concurrent HTTP/2 streams . . . . .  22
   8.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     8.1.  Confidentiality from Push Service Access  . . . . . . . .  23
     8.2.  Privacy Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     8.3.  Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     8.4.  Denial of Service Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
     8.5.  Logging Risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
   9.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     9.1.  Header Field Registrations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     9.2.  Link Relation URNs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     9.3.  Service Name and Port Number Registration . . . . . . . .  28
   10. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
   11. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
     11.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
     11.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
   Appendix A.  Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
     A.1.  Since draft-ietf-webpush-protocol-00  . . . . . . . . . .  31
     A.2.  Since draft-ietf-webpush-protocol-01  . . . . . . . . . .  31
     A.3.  Since draft-ietf-webpush-protocol-02  . . . . . . . . . .  31
     A.4.  Since draft-ietf-webpush-protocol-03  . . . . . . . . . .  32
     A.5.  Since draft-ietf-webpush-protocol-04  . . . . . . . . . .  32
     A.6.  Since draft-ietf-webpush-protocol-05  . . . . . . . . . .  32
     A.7.  Since draft-ietf-webpush-protocol-06  . . . . . . . . . .  32
     A.8.  Since draft-ietf-webpush-protocol-07  . . . . . . . . . .  32



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     A.9.  Since draft-ietf-webpush-protocol-08  . . . . . . . . . .  32
     A.10. Since draft-ietf-webpush-protocol-09  . . . . . . . . . .  32
     A.11. Since draft-ietf-webpush-protocol-10  . . . . . . . . . .  32
     A.12. Since draft-ietf-webpush-protocol-11  . . . . . . . . . .  33
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33

1.  Introduction

   Many applications on mobile and embedded devices require continuous
   access to network communications so that real-time events - such as
   incoming calls or messages - can be delivered (or "pushed") in a
   timely fashion.  These devices typically have limited power reserves,
   so finding more efficient ways to serve application requirements
   greatly benefits the application ecosystem.

   One significant contributor to power usage is the radio.  Radio
   communications consume a significant portion of the energy budget on
   a wireless device.

   Uncoordinated use of persistent connections or sessions from multiple
   applications can contribute to unnecessary use of the device radio,
   since each independent session can incur its own overhead.  In
   particular, keep alive traffic used to ensure that middleboxes do not
   prematurely time out sessions, can result in significant waste.
   Maintenance traffic tends to dominate over the long term, since
   events are relatively rare.

   Consolidating all real-time events into a single session ensures more
   efficient use of network and radio resources.  A single service
   consolidates all events, distributing those events to applications as
   they arrive.  This requires just one session, avoiding duplicated
   overhead costs.

   The W3C Push API [API] describes an API that enables the use of a
   consolidated push service from web applications.  This document
   expands on that work by describing a protocol that can be used to:

   o  request the delivery of a push message to a user agent,

   o  create new push message delivery subscriptions, and

   o  monitor for new push messages.

   A standardized method of event delivery is particularly important for
   the W3C Push API, where application servers might need to use
   multiple push services.  The subscription, management and monitoring
   functions are currently fulfilled by proprietary protocols; these are




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   adequate, but do not offer any of the advantages that standardization
   affords.

   This document intentionally does not describe how a push service is
   discovered.  Discovery of push services is left for future efforts,
   if it turns out to be necessary at all.  User agents are expected to
   be configured with a URL for a push service.

1.1.  Conventions and Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   This document defines the following terms:

   application:  Both the sender and ultimate consumer of push messages.
      Many applications have components that are run on a user agent and
      other components that run on servers.

   application server:  The component of an application that usually
      runs on a server and requests the delivery of a push message.

   push message subscription:  A message delivery context that is
      established between the user agent and the push service and shared
      with the application server.  All push messages are associated
      with a push message subscription.

   push message subscription set:  A message delivery context that is
      established between the user agent and the push service that
      collects multiple push message subscriptions into a set.

   push message:  A message sent from an application server to a user
      agent via a push service.

   push message receipt:  A message delivery confirmation sent from the
      push service to the application server.

   push service:  A service that delivers push messages to user agents.

   user agent:  A device and software that is the recipient of push
      messages.

   Examples in this document use the HTTP/1.1 message format [RFC7230].
   Many of the exchanges can be completed using HTTP/1.1:

   o  Subscribing for Push Messages (Section 4)




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   o  Requesting Push Message Delivery (Section 5)

   o  Replacing Push Messages (Section 5.4)

   o  Acknowledging Push Messages (Section 6.2)

   When an example depends on HTTP/2 server push, the more verbose frame
   format from [RFC7540] is used:

   o  Receiving Push Messages for a Subscription (Section 6)

   o  Receiving Push Messages for a Subscription Set (Section 6.1)

   o  Receiving Push Message Receipts (Section 6.3)

   All examples use HTTPS over the default port (443) rather than the
   registered port (WEBPUSH-PORT).  A push service deployment might
   prefer this configuration to maximize chances for user agents to
   reach the service.  A push service might use HTTP alternative
   services to redirect a user agent to the registered port (WEBPUSH-
   PORT) to gain the benefits of the standardized HTTPS port without
   sacrificing reachability (see Section 3).  This would only be
   apparent in the examples through the inclusion of the Alt-Used header
   field [RFC7838] in requests from the user agent to the push service.

   Examples do not include specific methods for push message encryption
   or application server authentication because the protocol does not
   define a mandatory system.  The examples in Voluntary Application
   Server Identification [I-D.ietf-webpush-vapid] and Message Encryption
   for WebPush [I-D.ietf-webpush-encryption] demonstrate the approach
   adopted by the W3C Push API [API] for its requirements.

2.  Overview

   A general model for push services includes three basic actors: a user
   agent, a push service, and an application (server).















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    +-------+           +--------------+       +-------------+
    |  UA   |           | Push Service |       | Application |
    +-------+           +--------------+       |   Server    |
        |                      |               +-------------+
        |      Subscribe       |                      |
        |--------------------->|                      |
        |       Monitor        |                      |
        |<====================>|                      |
        |                      |                      |
        |          Distribute Push Resource           |
        |-------------------------------------------->|
        |                      |                      |
        :                      :                      :
        |                      |     Push Message     |
        |    Push Message      |<---------------------|
        |<---------------------|                      |
        |                      |                      |

                      Figure 1: Webpush Architecture

   At the very beginning of the process, a new message subscription is
   created by the user agent and then distributed to its application
   server.  This subscription is the basis of all future interactions
   between the actors.  A subscription is used by the application server
   to send messages to the push service for being delivered to the user
   agent.  It is used by the user agent to monitor the push service for
   any incoming message.

   To offer more control for authorization, a message subscription is
   modeled as two resources with different capabilities:

   o  A subscription resource is used to receive messages from a
      subscription and to delete a subscription.  It is private to the
      user agent.

   o  A push resource is used to send messages to a subscription.  It is
      public and shared by the user agent with its application server.

   It is expected that a unique subscription will be distributed to each
   application; however, there are no inherent cardinality constraints
   in the protocol.  Multiple subscriptions might be created for the
   same application, or multiple applications could use the same
   subscription.  Note however that sharing subscriptions has security
   and privacy implications.

   Subscriptions have a limited lifetime.  They can also be terminated
   by either the push service or user agent at any time.  User agents




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   and application servers must be prepared to manage changes in
   subscription state.

2.1.  HTTP Resources

   This protocol uses HTTP resources [RFC7230] and link relations
   [RFC5988].  The following resources are defined:

   push service:  This resource is used to create push message
      subscriptions (Section 4).  A URL for the push service is
      configured into user agents.

   push message subscription:  This resource provides read and delete
      access for a message subscription.  A user agent receives push
      messages (Section 6) using a push message subscription.  Every
      push message subscription has exactly one push resource associated
      with it.

   push message subscription set:  This resource provides read and
      delete access for a collection of push message subscriptions.  A
      user agent receives push messages (Section 6.1) for all the push
      message subscriptions in the set.  A link relation of type
      "urn:ietf:params:push:set" identifies a push message subscription
      set.

   push:  An application server requests the delivery (Section 5) of a
      push message using a push resource.  A link relation of type
      "urn:ietf:params:push" identifies a push resource.

   push message:  The push service creates a push message resource to
      identify push messages that have been accepted for delivery
      (Section 5).  The push message resource is also deleted by the
      user agent to acknowledge receipt (Section 6.2) of a push message.

   receipt subscription:  An application server receives delivery
      confirmations (Section 5.1) for push messages using a receipt
      subscription.  A link relation of type
      "urn:ietf:params:push:receipt" identifies a receipt subscription.

3.  Connecting to the Push Service

   The push service MUST use HTTP over TLS [RFC2818] following the
   recommendations in [RFC7525].  The push service shares the same
   default port number (443/TCP) with HTTPS, but MAY also advertise the
   IANA allocated TCP System Port (WEBPUSH-PORT) using HTTP alternative
   services [RFC7838].





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   While the default port (443) offers broad reachability
   characteristics, it is most often used for web browsing scenarios
   with a lower idle timeout than other ports configured in middleboxes.
   For webpush scenarios, this would contribute to unnecessary radio
   communications to maintain the connection on battery-powered devices.

   Advertising the alternate port (WEBPUSH-PORT) allows middleboxes to
   optimize idle timeouts for connections specific to push scenarios
   with the expectation that data exchange will be infrequent.

   Middleboxes SHOULD comply with REQ-5 in [RFC5382] which requires that
   "the value of the 'established connection idle-timeout' MUST NOT be
   less than 2 hours 4 minutes".

4.  Subscribing for Push Messages

   A user agent sends a POST request to its configured push service
   resource to create a new subscription.

   POST /subscribe HTTP/1.1
   Host: push.example.net


   A 201 (Created) response indicates that the push subscription was
   created.  A URI for the push message subscription resource that was
   created in response to the request MUST be returned in the Location
   header field.

   The push service MUST provide a URI for the push resource
   corresponding to the push message subscription in a link relation of
   type "urn:ietf:params:push".

   An application-specific method is used to distribute the push URI to
   the application server.  Confidentiality protection and application
   server authentication MUST be used to ensure that this URI is not
   disclosed to unauthorized recipients (Section 8.3).


   HTTP/1.1 201 Created
   Date: Thu, 11 Dec 2014 23:56:52 GMT
   Link: </push/JzLQ3raZJfFBR0aqvOMsLrt54w4rJUsV>;
           rel="urn:ietf:params:push"
   Link: </subscription-set/4UXwi2Rd7jGS7gp5cuutF8ZldnEuvbOy>;
           rel="urn:ietf:params:push:set"
   Location: https://push.example.net/subscription/LBhhw0OohO-Wl4Oi971UG






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4.1.  Collecting Subscriptions into Sets

   Collecting multiple push message subscriptions into a subscription
   set can represent a significant efficiency improvement for push
   services and user agents.  The push service MAY provide a URI for a
   subscription set resource in a link relation of type
   "urn:ietf:params:push:set".

   When a subscription set is returned in a push message subscription
   response, the user agent SHOULD include this subscription set in a
   link relation of type "urn:ietf:params:push:set" in subsequent
   requests to create new push message subscriptions.

   A user agent MAY omit the subscription set if it is unable to receive
   push messages in an aggregated way for the lifetime of the
   subscription.  This might be necessary if the user agent is
   monitoring subscriptions on behalf of other push message receivers.


   POST /subscribe HTTP/1.1
   Host: push.example.net
   Link: </subscription-set/4UXwi2Rd7jGS7gp5cuutF8ZldnEuvbOy>;
           rel="urn:ietf:params:push:set"

   The push service SHOULD return the same subscription set in its
   response, although it MAY return a new subscription set if it is
   unable to reuse the one provided by the user agent.


   HTTP/1.1 201 Created
   Date: Thu, 11 Dec 2014 23:56:52 GMT
   Link: </push/YBJNBIMwwA_Ag8EtD47J4A>;
           rel="urn:ietf:params:push"
   Link: </subscription-set/4UXwi2Rd7jGS7gp5cuutF8ZldnEuvbOy>;
           rel="urn:ietf:params:push:set"
   Location: https://push.example.net/subscription/i-nQ3A9Zm4kgSWg8_ZijV

   A push service MUST return a 400 (Bad Request) status code for
   requests which contain an invalid subscription set.  A push service
   MAY return a 429 (Too Many Requests) status code [RFC6585] to reject
   requests which omit a subscription set.

   How a push service detects that requests originate from the same user
   agent is implementation-specific but could take ambient information
   into consideration, such as the TLS connection, source IP address and
   port.  Implementers are reminded that some heuristics can produce
   false positives and cause requests to be rejected incorrectly.




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5.  Requesting Push Message Delivery

   An application server requests the delivery of a push message by
   sending a HTTP POST request to a push resource distributed to the
   application server by a user agent.  The content of the push message
   is included in the body of the request.


   POST /push/JzLQ3raZJfFBR0aqvOMsLrt54w4rJUsV HTTP/1.1
   Host: push.example.net
   TTL: 15
   Content-Type: text/plain;charset=utf8
   Content-Length: 36

   iChYuI3jMzt3ir20P8r_jgRR-dSuN182x7iB

   A 201 (Created) response indicates that the push message was
   accepted.  A URI for the push message resource that was created in
   response to the request MUST be returned in the Location header
   field.  This does not indicate that the message was delivered to the
   user agent.

   HTTP/1.1 201 Created
   Date: Thu, 11 Dec 2014 23:56:55 GMT
   Location: https://push.example.net/message/qDIYHNcfAIPP_5ITvURr-d6BGt

5.1.  Requesting Push Message Receipts

   An application server can include the Prefer header field [RFC7240]
   with the "respond-async" preference to request confirmation from the
   push service when a push message is delivered and then acknowledged
   by the user agent.  The push service MUST support delivery
   confirmations.


   POST /push/JzLQ3raZJfFBR0aqvOMsLrt54w4rJUsV HTTP/1.1
   Host: push.example.net
   Prefer: respond-async
   TTL: 15
   Content-Type: text/plain;charset=utf8
   Content-Length: 36

   iChYuI3jMzt3ir20P8r_jgRR-dSuN182x7iB








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   When the push service accepts the message for delivery with
   confirmation, it MUST return a 202 (Accepted) response.  A URI for
   the push message resource that was created in response to the request
   MUST be returned in the Location header field.  The push service MUST
   also provide a URI for the receipt subscription resource in a link
   relation of type "urn:ietf:params:push:receipt".


   HTTP/1.1 202 Accepted
   Date: Thu, 11 Dec 2014 23:56:55 GMT
   Link: </receipt-subscription/3ZtI4YVNBnUUZhuoChl6omUvG4ZM>;
           rel="urn:ietf:params:push:receipt"
   Location: https://push.example.net/message/qDIYHNcfAIPP_5ITvURr-d6BGt


   For subsequent receipt requests to the same origin [RFC6454], the
   application server SHOULD include the returned receipt subscription
   in a link relation of type "urn:ietf:params:push:receipt".  This
   gives the push service an option to aggregate the receipts.  The push
   service SHOULD return the same receipt subscription in its response,
   although it MAY return a new receipt subscription if it is unable to
   reuse the one provided by the application server.

   An application server MAY omit the receipt subscription if it is
   unable to receive receipts in an aggregated way for the lifetime of
   the receipt subscription.  This might be necessary if the application
   server is monitoring receipt subscriptions on the behalf of other
   push message senders.

   A push service MUST return a 400 (Bad Request) status code for
   requests which contain an invalid receipt subscription.  If a push
   service wishes to limit the number of receipt subscriptions that it
   maintains, it MAY return a 429 (Too Many Requests) status code
   [RFC6585] to reject receipt requests which omit a receipt
   subscription.

5.2.  Push Message Time-To-Live

   A push service can improve the reliability of push message delivery
   considerably by storing push messages for a period.  User agents are
   often only intermittently connected, and so benefit from having short
   term message storage at the push service.

   Delaying delivery might also be used to batch communication with the
   user agent, thereby conserving radio resources.

   Some push messages are not useful once a certain period of time
   elapses.  Delivery of messages after they have ceased to be relevant



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   is wasteful.  For example, if the push message contains a call
   notification, receiving a message after the caller has abandoned the
   call is of no value; the application at the user agent is forced to
   suppress the message so that it does not generate a useless alert.

   An application server MUST include the TTL (Time-To-Live) header
   field in its request for push message delivery.  The TTL header field
   contains a value in seconds that suggests how long a push message is
   retained by the push service.

   The TTL rule specifies a non-negative integer, representing time in
   seconds.  A recipient parsing and converting a TTL value to binary
   form SHOULD use an arithmetic type of at least 31 bits of non-
   negative integer range.  If a recipient receives a TTL value greater
   than the greatest integer it can represent, or if any of its
   subsequent calculations overflows, it MUST consider the value to be
   2147483648 (2^31).

   TTL = 1*DIGIT

   A push service MUST return a 400 (Bad Request) status code in
   response to requests that omit the TTL header field.

   A push service MAY retain a push message for a shorter duration than
   requested.  It indicates this by returning a TTL header field in its
   response with the actual TTL.  This TTL value MUST be less than or
   equal to the value provided by the application server.

   Once the TTL period elapses, the push service MUST NOT attempt to
   deliver the push message to the user agent.  A push service might
   adjust the TTL value to account for time accounting errors in
   processing.  For instance, distributing a push message within a
   server cluster might accrue errors due to clock skew or propagation
   delays.

   A push service is not obligated to account for time spent by the
   application server in sending a push message to the push service, or
   delays incurred while sending a push message to the user agent.  An
   application server needs to account for transit delays in selecting a
   TTL header field value.

   A Push message with a zero TTL is immediately delivered if the user
   agent is available to receive the message.  After delivery, the push
   service is permitted to immediately remove a push message with a zero
   TTL.  This might occur before the user agent acknowledges receipt of
   the message by performing a HTTP DELETE on the push message resource.
   Consequently, an application server cannot rely on receiving
   acknowledgement receipts for zero TTL push messages.



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   If the user agent is unavailable, a push message with a zero TTL
   expires and is never delivered.

5.3.  Push Message Urgency

   For a device that is battery-powered, it is often critical that it
   remains dormant for extended periods.  Radio communication in
   particular consumes significant power and limits the length of time
   that the device can operate.

   To avoid consuming resources to receive trivial messages, it is
   helpful if an application server can communicate the urgency of a
   message and if the user agent can request that the push server only
   forward messages of a specific urgency.

   An application server MAY include an Urgency header field in its
   request for push message delivery.  This header field indicates the
   message urgency.  The push service MUST NOT forward the Urgency
   header field to the user agent.  A push message without the Urgency
   header field defaults to a value of "normal".

   A user agent MAY include the Urgency header field when monitoring for
   push messages to indicate the lowest urgency of push messages that it
   is willing to receive.  A push service MUST NOT deliver push messages
   with lower urgency than the value indicated by the user agent in its
   monitoring request.  Push messages of any urgency are delivered to a
   user agent that does not include an Urgency header field when
   monitoring for messages.


   Urgency = urgency-option
   urgency-option = ("very-low" / "low" / "normal" / "high")


                      In order of increasing urgency:

   +----------+-----------------------------+--------------------------+
   | Urgency  | Device State                | Example Application      |
   |          |                             | Scenario                 |
   +----------+-----------------------------+--------------------------+
   | very-low | On power and wifi           | Advertisements           |
   |   low    | On either power or wifi     | Topic updates            |
   |  normal  | On neither power nor wifi   | Chat or Calendar Message |
   |   high   | Low battery                 | Incoming phone call or   |
   |          |                             | time-sensitive alert     |
   +----------+-----------------------------+--------------------------+

                   Table 1: Illustrative Urgency Values



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   Multiple values for the Urgency header field MUST NOT be included in
   requests; otherwise, the push service MUST return a 400 (Bad Request)
   status code.

5.4.  Replacing Push Messages

   A push message that has been stored by the push service can be
   replaced with new content.  If the user agent is offline during the
   time that the push messages are sent, updating a push message avoids
   the situation where outdated or redundant messages are sent to the
   user agent.

   Only push messages that have been assigned a topic can be replaced.
   A push message with a topic replaces any outstanding push message
   with an identical topic.

   A push message topic is a string carried in a Topic header field.  A
   topic is used to correlate push messages sent to the same
   subscription and does not convey any other semantics.

   The grammar for the Topic header field uses the "token" rule defined
   in [RFC7230].


   Topic = token


   For use with this protocol, the Topic header field MUST be restricted
   to no more than 32 characters from the URL and filename safe Base 64
   alphabet [RFC4648].  A push service that receives a request with a
   Topic header field that does not meet these constraints MUST return a
   400 (Bad Request) status code to the application server.

   A push message replacement request creates a new push message
   resource and simultaneously deletes any existing message resource
   that has a matching topic.  If an attempt was made to deliver the
   deleted push message, an acknowledgment could arrive at the push
   service after the push message has been replaced.  Delivery receipts
   for such deleted messages SHOULD be suppressed.

   The replacement request also replaces the stored TTL, Urgency, and
   any receipt subscription associated with the previous message in the
   matching topic.

   A push message with a topic that is not shared by an outstanding
   message to the same subscription is stored or delivered as normal.





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   For example, the following message could cause an existing message to
   be replaced:

   POST /push/JzLQ3raZJfFBR0aqvOMsLrt54w4rJUsV HTTP/1.1
   Host: push.example.net
   TTL: 600
   Topic: upd
   Content-Type: text/plain;charset=utf8
   Content-Length: 36

   ZuHSZPKa2b1jtOKLGpWrcrn8cNqt0iVQyroF

   If the push service identifies an outstanding push message with a
   topic of "upd", then that message resource is deleted.  A 201
   (Created) response indicates that the push message replacement was
   accepted.  A URI for the new push message resource that was created
   in response to the request is included in the Location header field.

   HTTP/1.1 201 Created
   Date: Thu, 11 Dec 2014 23:57:02 GMT
   Location: https://push.example.net/message/qDIYHNcfAIPP_5ITvURr-d6BGt

   The value of the Topic header field MUST NOT be forwarded to user
   agents.  Its value is neither encrypted nor authenticated.

6.  Receiving Push Messages for a Subscription

   A user agent requests the delivery of new push messages by making a
   GET request to a push message subscription resource.  The push
   service does not respond to this request, it instead uses HTTP/2
   server push [RFC7540] to send the contents of push messages as they
   are sent by application servers.

   A user agent MAY include a Urgency header field in its request.  The
   push service MUST NOT deliver messages with lower urgency than the
   value of the header field as defined in the
   Illustrative Urgency Values.

   Each push message is pushed as the response to a synthesized GET
   request sent in a PUSH_PROMISE.  This GET request is made to the push
   message resource that was created by the push service when the
   application server requested message delivery.  The response headers
   SHOULD provide a URI for the push resource corresponding to the push
   message subscription in a link relation of type
   "urn:ietf:params:push".  The response body is the entity body from
   the most recent request sent to the push resource by the application
   server.




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   The following example request is made over HTTP/2.

   HEADERS      [stream 7] +END_STREAM +END_HEADERS
     :method        = GET
     :path          = /subscription/LBhhw0OohO-Wl4Oi971UG
     :authority     = push.example.net

   The push service permits the request to remain outstanding.  When a
   push message is sent by an application server, a server push is
   generated in association with the initial request.  The response for
   the server push includes the push message.


   PUSH_PROMISE [stream 7; promised stream 4] +END_HEADERS
     :method        = GET
     :path          = /message/qDIYHNcfAIPP_5ITvURr-d6BGt
     :authority     = push.example.net

   HEADERS      [stream 4] +END_HEADERS
     :status        = 200
     date           = Thu, 11 Dec 2014 23:56:56 GMT
     last-modified  = Thu, 11 Dec 2014 23:56:55 GMT
     cache-control  = private
     link           = </push/JzLQ3raZJfFBR0aqvOMsLrt54w4rJUsV>;
                       rel="urn:ietf:params:push"
     content-type   = text/plain;charset=utf8
     content-length = 36

   DATA         [stream 4] +END_STREAM
     iChYuI3jMzt3ir20P8r_jgRR-dSuN182x7iB

   HEADERS      [stream 7] +END_STREAM +END_HEADERS
     :status        = 200


   A user agent can also request the contents of the push message
   subscription resource immediately by including a Prefer header field
   [RFC7240] with a "wait" preference set to "0".  In response to this
   request, the push service MUST generate a server push for all push
   messages that have not yet been delivered.

   A 204 (No Content) status code with no associated server pushes
   indicates that no messages are presently available.  This could be
   because push messages have expired.







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6.1.  Receiving Push Messages for a Subscription Set

   There are minor differences between receiving push messages for a
   subscription and a subscription set.  If a subscription set is
   available, the user agent SHOULD use the subscription set to monitor
   for push messages rather than individual push message subscriptions.

   A user agent requests the delivery of new push messages for a
   collection of push message subscriptions by making a GET request to a
   push message subscription set resource.  The push service does not
   respond to this request, it instead uses HTTP/2 server push [RFC7540]
   to send the contents of push messages as they are sent by application
   servers.

   A user agent MAY include a Urgency header field in its request.  The
   push service MUST NOT deliver messages with lower urgency than the
   value of the header field as defined in the
   Illustrative Urgency Values.

   Each push message is pushed as the response to a synthesized GET
   request sent in a PUSH_PROMISE.  This GET request is made to the push
   message resource that was created by the push service when the
   application server requested message delivery.  The synthetic request
   MUST provide a URI for the push resource corresponding to the push
   message subscription in a link relation of type
   "urn:ietf:params:push".  This enables the user agent to differentiate
   the source of the message.  The response body is the entity body from
   the most recent request sent to the push resource by an application
   server.

   The following example request is made over HTTP/2.


   HEADERS      [stream 7] +END_STREAM +END_HEADERS
     :method        = GET
     :path          = /subscription-set/4UXwi2Rd7jGS7gp5cuutF8ZldnEuvbOy
     :authority     = push.example.net














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   The push service permits the request to remain outstanding.  When a
   push message is sent by an application server, a server push is
   generated in association with the initial request.  The server push's
   response includes the push message.


   PUSH_PROMISE [stream 7; promised stream 4] +END_HEADERS
     :method        = GET
     :path          = /message/qDIYHNcfAIPP_5ITvURr-d6BGt
     :authority     = push.example.net

   HEADERS      [stream 4] +END_HEADERS
     :status        = 200
     date           = Thu, 11 Dec 2014 23:56:56 GMT
     last-modified  = Thu, 11 Dec 2014 23:56:55 GMT
     link           = </push/JzLQ3raZJfFBR0aqvOMsLrt54w4rJUsV>;
                       rel="urn:ietf:params:push"
     cache-control  = private
     content-type   = text/plain;charset=utf8
     content-length = 36

   DATA         [stream 4] +END_STREAM
     iChYuI3jMzt3ir20P8r_jgRR-dSuN182x7iB

   HEADERS      [stream 7] +END_STREAM +END_HEADERS
     :status        = 200


   A user agent can request the contents of the push message
   subscription set resource immediately by including a Prefer header
   field [RFC7240] with a "wait" preference set to "0".  In response to
   this request, the push service MUST generate a server push for all
   push messages that have not yet been delivered.

   A 204 (No Content) status code with no associated server pushes
   indicates that no messages are presently available.  This could be
   because push messages have expired.

6.2.  Acknowledging Push Messages

   To ensure that a push message is properly delivered to the user agent
   at least once, the user agent MUST acknowledge receipt of the message
   by performing a HTTP DELETE on the push message resource.


   DELETE /message/qDIYHNcfAIPP_5ITvURr-d6BGt HTTP/1.1
   Host: push.example.net




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   If the push service receives the acknowledgement and the application
   has requested a delivery receipt, the push service MUST return a 204
   (No Content) response to the application server monitoring the
   receipt subscription.

   If the push service does not receive the acknowledgement within a
   reasonable amount of time, then the message is considered to be not
   yet delivered.  The push service SHOULD continue to retry delivery of
   the message until its advertised expiration.

   The push service MAY cease to retry delivery of the message prior to
   its advertised expiration due to scenarios such as an unresponsive
   user agent or operational constraints.  If the application has
   requested a delivery receipt, then the push service MUST return a 410
   (Gone) response to the application server monitoring the receipt
   subscription.

6.3.  Receiving Push Message Receipts

   The application server requests the delivery of receipts from the
   push service by making a HTTP GET request to the receipt subscription
   resource.  The push service does not respond to this request, it
   instead uses HTTP/2 server push [RFC7540] to send push receipts when
   messages are acknowledged (Section 6.2) by the user agent.

   Each receipt is pushed as the response to a synthesized GET request
   sent in a PUSH_PROMISE.  This GET request is made to the same push
   message resource that was created by the push service when the
   application server requested message delivery.  The response includes
   a status code indicating the result of the message delivery and
   carries no data.

   The following example request is made over HTTP/2.


   HEADERS      [stream 13] +END_STREAM +END_HEADERS
     :method        = GET
     :path          = /receipt-subscription/3ZtI4YVNBnUUZhuoChl6omUvG4ZM
     :authority     = push.example.net












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   The push service permits the request to remain outstanding.  When the
   user agent acknowledges the message, the push service pushes a
   delivery receipt to the application server.  A 204 (No Content)
   status code confirms that the message was delivered and acknowledged.


   PUSH_PROMISE [stream 13; promised stream 82] +END_HEADERS
     :method        = GET
     :path          = /message/qDIYHNcfAIPP_5ITvURr-d6BGt
     :authority     = push.example.net

   HEADERS      [stream 82] +END_STREAM
                           +END_HEADERS
     :status        = 204
     date           = Thu, 11 Dec 2014 23:56:56 GMT


   If the user agent fails to acknowledge the receipt of the push
   message and the push service ceases to retry delivery of the message
   prior to its advertised expiration, then the push service MUST push a
   failure response with a status code of 410 (Gone).

7.  Operational Considerations

7.1.  Load Management

   A push service is likely to have to maintain a very large number of
   open TCP connections.  Effective management of those connections can
   depend on being able to move connections between server instances.

   A user agent MUST support the 307 (Temporary Redirect) status code
   [RFC7231], which can be used by a push service to redistribute load
   at the time that a new subscription is requested.

   A server that wishes to redistribute load can do so using HTTP
   alternative services [RFC7838].  HTTP alternative services allows for
   redistribution of load while maintaining the same URIs for various
   resources.  A user agent can ensure a graceful transition by using
   the GOAWAY frame once it has established a replacement connection.

7.2.  Push Message Expiration

   Storage of push messages based on the TTL header field comprises a
   potentially significant amount of storage for a push service.  A push
   service is not obligated to store messages indefinitely.  A push
   service is able to indicate how long it intends to retain a message
   to an application server using the TTL header field (Section 5.2).




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   A user agent that does not actively monitor for push messages will
   not receive messages that expire during that interval.

   Push messages that are stored and have not been delivered to a user
   agent are delivered when the user agent recommences monitoring.
   Stored push messages SHOULD include a Last-Modified header field
   (Section 2.2 of [RFC7232]) indicating when delivery was requested by
   an application server.

   A GET request to a push message subscription resource with only
   expired messages results in a response as though no push message was
   ever sent.

   Push services might need to limit the size and number of stored push
   messages to avoid overloading.  To limit the size of messages, the
   push service MAY return a 413 (Payload Too Large) status code
   [RFC7231] in response to requests that include an entity body that is
   too large.  Push services MUST NOT return a 413 status code in
   responses to an entity body that is 4096 bytes or less in size.

   To limit the number of stored push messages, the push service MAY
   respond with a shorter Time-To-Live than proposed by the application
   server in its request for push message delivery (Section 5.2).  Once
   a message has been accepted, the push service MAY later expire the
   message prior to its advertised Time-To-Live.  If the application
   server requested a delivery receipt, the push service MUST return a
   failure response (Section 6.2).

7.3.  Subscription Expiration

   In some cases, it may be necessary to terminate subscriptions so that
   they can be refreshed.  This applies to both push message
   subscriptions and receipt subscriptions.

   A push service MAY expire a subscription at any time.  If there are
   outstanding requests to an expired push message subscription resource
   (Section 6) from a user agent or to an expired receipt subscription
   resource (Section 6.3) from an application server, this MUST be
   signaled by returning a 404 (Not Found) status code.

   A push service MUST return a 404 (Not Found) status code if an
   application server attempts to send a push message to an expired push
   message subscription.

   A user agent can remove its push message subscription by sending a
   DELETE request to the corresponding URI.  An application server can
   remove its receipt subscription by sending a DELETE request to the
   corresponding URI.



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7.3.1.  Subscription Set Expiration

   A push service MAY expire a subscription set at any time and MUST
   also expire all push message subscriptions in the set.  If a user
   agent has an outstanding request to a push subscription set
   (Section 6.1) this MUST be signaled by returning a 404 (Not Found)
   status code.

   A user agent can request that a subscription set be removed by
   sending a DELETE request to the subscription set URI.  This MUST also
   remove all push message subscriptions in the set.

   If a specific push message subscription that is a member of a
   subscription set is expired or removed, then it MUST also be removed
   from its subscription set.

7.4.  Implications for Application Reliability

   A push service that does not support reliable delivery over
   intermittent network connections or failing applications on devices,
   forces the device to acknowledge receipt directly to the application
   server, incurring additional power drain in order to establish and
   maintain (usually secure) connections to the individual application
   servers.

   Push message reliability can be important if messages contain
   information critical to the state of an application.  Repairing state
   can be expensive, particularly for devices with limited
   communications capacity.  Knowing that a push message has been
   correctly received avoids retransmissions, polling, and state
   resynchronization.

   The availability of push message delivery receipts ensures that the
   application developer is not tempted to create alternative mechanisms
   for message delivery in case the push service fails to deliver a
   critical message.  Setting up a polling mechanism or a backup
   messaging channel in order to compensate for these shortcomings
   negates almost all of the advantages a push service provides.

   However, reliability might not be necessary for messages that are
   transient (e.g. an incoming call) or messages that are quickly
   superceded (e.g. the current number of unread emails).

7.5.  Subscription Sets and Concurrent HTTP/2 streams

   If the push service requires that the user agent use push message
   subscription sets, then it MAY limit the number of concurrently
   active streams with the SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS parameter



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   within a HTTP/2 SETTINGS frame [RFC7540].  The user agent MAY be
   limited to one concurrent stream to manage push message subscriptions
   and one concurrent stream for each subscription set returned by the
   push service.  This could force the user agent to serialize
   subscription requests to the push service.

8.  Security Considerations

   This protocol MUST use HTTP over TLS [RFC2818] following the
   recommendations in [RFC7525].  This includes any communications
   between user agent and push service, plus communications between the
   application server and the push service.  All URIs therefore use the
   "https" scheme.  This provides confidentiality and integrity
   protection for subscriptions and push messages from external parties.

8.1.  Confidentiality from Push Service Access

   The protection afforded by TLS does not protect content from the push
   service.  Without additional safeguards, a push service can inspect
   and modify the message content.

   Applications using this protocol MUST use mechanisms that provide
   end-to-end confidentiality, integrity and data origin authentication.
   The application server sending the push message and the application
   on the user agent that receives it are frequently just different
   instances of the same application, so no standardized protocol is
   needed to establish a proper security context.  The distribution of
   subscription information from the user agent to its application
   server also offers a convenient medium for key agreement.

   For this requirement, the W3C Push API [API] has adopted Message
   Encryption for WebPush [I-D.ietf-webpush-encryption] to secure the
   content of messages from the push service.  Other scenarios can be
   addressed by similar policies.

   The Topic header field exposes information that allows more granular
   correlation of push messages on the same subject.  This might be used
   to aid traffic analysis of push messages by the push service.

8.2.  Privacy Considerations

   Push message confidentiality does not ensure that the identity of who
   is communicating and when they are communicating is protected.
   However, the amount of information that is exposed can be limited.

   The URIs provided for push resources MUST NOT provide any basis to
   correlate communications for a given user agent.  It MUST NOT be
   possible to correlate any two push resource URIs based solely on



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   their contents.  This allows a user agent to control correlation
   across different applications, or over time.  Of course, this does
   not prevent correlation using other information that a user agent
   might expose.

   Similarly, the URIs provided by the push service to identify a push
   message MUST NOT provide any information that allows for correlation
   across subscriptions.  Push message URIs for the same subscription
   MAY contain information that would allow correlation with the
   associated subscription or other push messages for that subscription.

   User and device information MUST NOT be exposed through a push or
   push message URI.

   In addition, push URIs established by the same user agent or push
   message URIs for the same subscription MUST NOT include any
   information that allows them to be correlated with the user agent.

   Note:  This need not be perfect as long as the resulting anonymity
      set ([RFC6973], Section 6.1.1) is sufficiently large.  A push URI
      necessarily identifies a push service or a single server instance.
      It is also possible that traffic analysis could be used to
      correlate subscriptions.

   A user agent MUST be able to create new subscriptions with new
   identifiers at any time.

8.3.  Authorization

   This protocol does not define how a push service establishes whether
   a user agent is permitted to create a subscription, or whether push
   messages can be delivered to the user agent.  A push service MAY
   choose to authorize requests based on any HTTP-compatible
   authorization method available, of which there are multiple options
   (including experimental options) with varying levels of security.
   The authorization process and any associated credentials are expected
   to be configured in the user agent along with the URI for the push
   service.

   Authorization is managed using capability URLs for the push message
   subscription, push, and receipt subscription resources ([CAP-URI]).
   A capability URL grants access to a resource based solely on
   knowledge of the URL.

   Capability URLs are used for their "easy onward sharing" and "easy
   client API" properties.  These make it possible to avoid relying on
   relationships between push services and application servers, with the
   protocols necessary to build and support those relationships.



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   Capability URLs act as bearer tokens.  Knowledge of a push message
   subscription URI implies authorization to either receive push
   messages or delete the subscription.  Knowledge of a push URI implies
   authorization to send push messages.  Knowledge of a push message URI
   allows for reading and acknowledging that specific message.
   Knowledge of a receipt subscription URI implies authorization to
   receive push receipts.

   Encoding a large amount of random entropy (at least 120 bits) in the
   path component ensures that it is difficult to successfully guess a
   valid capability URL.

8.4.  Denial of Service Considerations

   A user agent can control where valid push messages originate by
   limiting the distribution of push URIs to authorized application
   servers.  Ensuring that push URIs are hard to guess ensures that only
   application servers that have received a push URI can use it.

   Push messages that are not successfully authenticated by the user
   agent will not be delivered, but this can present a denial of service
   risk.  Even a relatively small volume of push messages can cause
   battery-powered devices to exhaust power reserves.

   To address this case, the W3C Push API [API] has adopted Voluntary
   Application Server Identification [I-D.ietf-webpush-vapid], which
   allows a user agent to restrict a subscription to a specific
   application server.  The push service can then identify and reject
   unwanted messages without contacting the user agent.

   A malicious application with a valid push URI could use the greater
   resources of a push service to mount a denial of service attack on a
   user agent.  Push services SHOULD limit the rate at which push
   messages are sent to individual user agents.

   A push service MAY return a 429 (Too Many Requests) status code
   [RFC6585] when an application server has exceeded its rate limit for
   push message delivery to a push resource.  The push service SHOULD
   also include a Retry-After header [RFC7231] to indicate how long the
   application server is requested to wait before it makes another
   request to the push resource.

   A push service or user agent MAY also terminate subscriptions
   (Section 7.3) that receive too many push messages.

   A push service is also able to deny service to user agents.
   Intentional failure to deliver messages is difficult to distinguish




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   from faults, which might occur due to transient network errors,
   interruptions in user agent availability, or genuine service outages.

8.5.  Logging Risks

   Server request logs can reveal subscription-related URIs or
   relationships between subscription-related URIs for the same user
   agent.  Limitations on log retention and strong access control
   mechanisms can ensure that URIs are not revealed to unauthorized
   entities.

9.  IANA Considerations

   This protocol defines new HTTP header fields in Section 9.1.  New
   link relation types are identified using the URNs defined in
   Section 9.2.  Port registration is defined in Section 9.3

9.1.  Header Field Registrations

   HTTP header fields are registered within the "Message Headers"
   registry maintained at <https://www.iana.org/assignments/message-
   headers/>.

   This document defines the following HTTP header fields, so their
   associated registry entries shall be added according to the permanent
   registrations below ([RFC3864]):

   +-------------------+----------+----------+--------------+
   | Header Field Name | Protocol | Status   | Reference    |
   +-------------------+----------+----------+--------------+
   | TTL               | http     | standard | Section 5.2  |
   | Urgency           | http     | standard | Section 5.3  |
   | Topic             | http     | standard | Section 5.4  |
   +-------------------+----------+----------+--------------+

   The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet
   Engineering Task Force".

9.2.  Link Relation URNs

   This document registers URNs for use in identifying link relation
   types.  These are added to a new "Web Push Identifiers" registry
   according to the procedures in Section 4 of [RFC3553]; the
   corresponding "push" sub-namespace is entered in the "IETF URN Sub-
   namespace for Registered Protocol Parameter Identifiers" registry.

   The "Web Push Identifiers" registry operates under the IETF Review
   policy [RFC5226].



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   Registry name:  Web Push Identifiers

   URN Prefix:  urn:ietf:params:push

   Specification:  (this document)

   Repository:  [Editor/IANA note: please include a link to the final
      registry location.]

   Index value:  Values in this registry are URNs or URN prefixes that
      start with the prefix "urn:ietf:params:push".  Each is registered
      independently.

   New registrations in the "Web Push Identifiers" are encouraged to
   include the following information:

   URN:  A complete URN or URN prefix.

   Description:  A summary description.

   Specification:  A reference to a specification describing the
      semantics of the URN or URN prefix.

   Contact:  Email for the person or group making the registration.

   Index value:  As described in [RFC3553], URN prefixes that are
      registered include a description of how the URN is constructed.
      This is not applicable for specific URNs.

   These values are entered as the initial content of the "Web Push
   Identifiers" registry.

   URN:  urn:ietf:params:push

   Description:  This link relation type is used to identify a resource
      for sending push messages.

   Specification:  (this document)

   Contact:  The Web Push WG (webpush@ietf.org)

   URN:  urn:ietf:params:push:set

   Description:  This link relation type is used to identify a
      collection of push message subscriptions.

   Specification:  (this document)




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   Contact:  The Web Push WG (webpush@ietf.org)

   URN:  urn:ietf:params:push:receipt

   Description:  This link relation type is used to identify a resource
      for receiving delivery confirmations for push messages.

   Specification:  (this document)

   Contact:  The Web Push WG (webpush@ietf.org)

9.3.  Service Name and Port Number Registration

   Service names and port numbers are registered within the "Service
   Name and Transport Protocol Port Number Registry" maintained at
   <https://www.iana.org/assignments/service-names-port-numbers/service-
   names-port-numbers.xhtml>.

   In accordance with [RFC6335], it is requested that IANA assign the
   suggested System Port number 1001 (or another port in the System
   range) and the service name "webpush".

   Service Name:
      webpush

   Transport Protocol:
      tcp

   Assignee:
      The IESG (iesg@ietf.org)

   Contact:
      The IETF Chair (chair@ietf.org)

   Description:
      HTTP Web Push

   Reference:
      [RFCthis]

   Port Number:
      1001

   [[The RFC Editor is requested to remove this editorial note at
   publication.]]






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   This document uses a placeholder value for a system port pending IANA
   assignment which needs to be replaced with the finalized value at the
   time of publication.  Please apply the following replacement:

   o  "WEBPUSH-PORT" --> the assigned port value for "webpush"

10.  Acknowledgements

   Significant technical input to this document has been provided by Ben
   Bangert, Peter Beverloo, Kit Cambridge, JR Conlin, Lucas Jenss,
   Matthew Kaufman, Costin Manolache, Mark Nottingham, Idel Pivnitskiy,
   Robert Sparks, Darshak Thakore and many others.

11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [CAP-URI]  Tennison, J., "Good Practices for Capability URLs", FPWD
              capability-urls, February 2014,
              <http://www.w3.org/TR/capability-urls/>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2818]  Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818, May 2000.

   [RFC3553]  Mealling, M., Masinter, L., Hardie, T., and G. Klyne, "An
              IETF URN Sub-namespace for Registered Protocol
              Parameters", BCP 73, RFC 3553, June 2003.

   [RFC3864]  Klyne, G., Nottingham, M., and J. Mogul, "Registration
              Procedures for Message Header Fields", BCP 90, RFC 3864,
              September 2004.

   [RFC4648]  Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data
              Encodings", RFC 4648, October 2006.

   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
              May 2008.

   [RFC5382]  Biswas, K., Ford, B., Sivakumar, S., and P. Srisuresh,
              "NAT Behavioral Requirements for TCP", RFC 5382, October
              2008.

   [RFC5988]  Nottingham, M., "Web Linking", RFC 5988, October 2010.





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   [RFC6335]  Cotton, M., Eggert, L., Touch, J., Westerlund, M., and S.
              Cheshire, "Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
              Procedures for the Management of the Service Name and
              Transport Protocol Port Number Registry", RFC 6335, August
              2011.

   [RFC6454]  Barth, A., "The Web Origin Concept", RFC 6454, December
              2011.

   [RFC6585]  Nottingham, M. and R. Fielding, "Additional HTTP Status
              Codes", RFC 6585, April 2012.

   [RFC7230]  Fielding, R. and J. Reschke, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol
              (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing", RFC 7230, June
              2014.

   [RFC7231]  Fielding, R. and J. Reschke, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol
              (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content", RFC 7231, June 2014.

   [RFC7232]  Fielding, R. and J. Reschke, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol
              (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests", RFC 7232, June 2014.

   [RFC7240]  Snell, J., "Prefer Header for HTTP", RFC 7240, June 2014.

   [RFC7525]  Sheffer, Y., Holz, R., and P. Saint-Andre,
              "Recommendations for Secure Use of Transport Layer
              Security (TLS) and Datagram Transport Layer Security
              (DTLS)", BCP 195, RFC 7525, DOI 10.17487/RFC7525, May
              2015.

   [RFC7540]  Belshe, M., Peon, R., and M. Thomson, "Hypertext Transfer
              Protocol Version 2", RFC 7540, May 2015.

   [RFC7838]  Nottingham, M., McManus, P., and J. Reschke, "HTTP
              Alternative Services", RFC 7838, April 2016.

11.2.  Informative References

   [API]      van Ouwerkerk, M., Thomson, M., Sullivan, B., and E.
              Fullea, "W3C Push API", ED push-api, August 2016,
              <https://w3c.github.io/push-api/>.

   [I-D.ietf-webpush-encryption]
              Thomson, M., "Message Encryption for Web Push", draft-
              ietf-webpush-encryption-04 (work in progress), October
              2016, <https://tools.ietf.org/pdf/draft-ietf-webpush-
              encryption-04.pdf>.




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   [I-D.ietf-webpush-vapid]
              Thomson, M. and P. Beverloo, "Voluntary Application Server
              Identification for Web Push", draft-ietf-webpush-vapid-01
              (work in progress), June 2016,
              <https://tools.ietf.org/pdf/draft-ietf-webpush-vapid-
              01.pdf>.

   [RFC6973]  Cooper, A., Tschofenig, H., Aboba, B., Peterson, J.,
              Morris, J., Hansen, M., and R. Smith, "Privacy
              Considerations for Internet Protocols", RFC 6973, July
              2013.

Appendix A.  Change Log

   [[The RFC Editor is requested to remove this section at
   publication.]]

A.1.  Since draft-ietf-webpush-protocol-00

   Editorial changes for Push Message Time-To-Live

   Editorial changes for Push Acknowledgements

   Removed subscription expiration based on HTTP cache headers

A.2.  Since draft-ietf-webpush-protocol-01

   Added Subscription Sets

   Added System Port as an alternate service with guidance for idle
   timeouts

   Finalized status codes for acknowledgements

   Editorial changes for Rate Limits

A.3.  Since draft-ietf-webpush-protocol-02

   Added explicit correlation for Subscription Sets

   Added Push Message Updates (message collapsing)

   Renamed the push:receipt link relation to push:receipts and
   transitioned the Push-Receipt header field to the push:receipt link
   relation type






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A.4.  Since draft-ietf-webpush-protocol-03

   An application server MUST include the TTL (Time-To-Live) header
   field in its request for push message delivery.

   Added Push Message Urgency header field

A.5.  Since draft-ietf-webpush-protocol-04

   Simplified design for Push Receipts and eliminated the
   urn:ietf:params:push:receipts link relation

   Clarified Security Considerations section and added informative
   references to Message Encryption and Voluntary Application Server
   Identification

A.6.  Since draft-ietf-webpush-protocol-05

   Addressed feedback from Working Group Last Call

A.7.  Since draft-ietf-webpush-protocol-06

   Updated informative references to W3C Push API, Message Encryption,
   and Voluntary Application Server Identification

A.8.  Since draft-ietf-webpush-protocol-07

   Minor editorial changes

A.9.  Since draft-ietf-webpush-protocol-08

   Minor correction to Acknowledgements

   Updated dates for informative references

A.10.  Since draft-ietf-webpush-protocol-09

   Updates for Area Director (Alissa Cooper) evaluation

A.11.  Since draft-ietf-webpush-protocol-10

   Updates for TSV-ART review from Magnus Westerlund

   Updated informative reference for Message Encryption







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A.12.  Since draft-ietf-webpush-protocol-11

   Updates from IESG Evaluation

Authors' Addresses

   Martin Thomson
   Mozilla
   331 E Evelyn Street
   Mountain View, CA  94041
   US

   Email: martin.thomson@gmail.com


   Elio Damaggio
   Microsoft
   One Microsoft Way
   Redmond, WA  98052
   US

   Email: elioda@microsoft.com


   Brian Raymor (editor)
   Microsoft
   One Microsoft Way
   Redmond, WA  98052
   US

   Email: brian.raymor@microsoft.com




















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