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Versions: (draft-blanchet-weirds-bootstrap) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 RFC 7484

Network Working Group                                        M. Blanchet
Internet-Draft                                              G. Leclanche
Intended status: Standards Track                                Viagenie
Expires: March 1, 2015                                   August 28, 2014


       Finding the Authoritative Registration Data (RDAP) Service
                   draft-ietf-weirds-bootstrap-05.txt

Abstract

   This document specifies a method to find which Registration Data
   Access Protocol (RDAP) server is authoritative to answer queries for
   a requested scope, such as domain names, IP addresses or Autonomous
   System numbers.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on March 1, 2015.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.




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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Conventions Used In This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   3.  Structure of RDAP Bootstrap Registries  . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   4.  Domain Name RDAP Bootstrap Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   5.  Internet Numbers RDAP Bootstrap Registries  . . . . . . . . .   6
     5.1.  IPv4 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Registry  . . . . . . .   6
     5.2.  IPv6 Address Space RDAP Registry  . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     5.3.  Autonomous Systems RDAP Bootstrap Registry  . . . . . . .   8
   6.  Entity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   7.  Non-existent Entries or RDAP URL Values . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   8.  Deployment and Implementation Considerations  . . . . . . . .  10
   9.  Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   12. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   13. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     13.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     13.2.  Non-Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13

1.  Introduction

   Querying and retrieving registration data from registries are defined
   in the Registration Data Access Protocol(RDAP)[I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-q
   uery][I-D.ietf-weirds-using-http][I-D.ietf-weirds-json-response].
   These documents do not specify where to send the queries.  This
   document specifies a method to find which server is authoritative to
   answer queries for the requested scope.

   The proposed mechanism is based on the fact that allocation data for
   domain names and IP addresses are maintained by IANA, are publicly
   available and are in a structured format.  The mechanism assumes some
   data structure within these registries and request IANA to create
   these registries for the specific purpose of RDAP use, herein named
   RDAP Bootstrap registries.  An RDAP client fetches the RDAP Bootstrap
   registries, extract the data and then do a match with the query data
   to find the authoritative registration data server and appropriate
   query base URL.

2.  Conventions Used In This Document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].





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3.  Structure of RDAP Bootstrap Registries

   The RDAP Bootstrap Registries are implemented as JSON [RFC7159]
   objects.  A registry starts with metadata such as a version id
   identified as a timestamp of the publication date of the registry and
   some defaults values.  Then the "services" element is an array of
   arrays.  Each second level array contains two elements, each of them
   being an array (third-level arrays).  The first third-level array
   contains all entries that have the same set of base RDAP URLs, as
   strings, arrays, or integers.  The second third-level array contains
   the list of base RDAP URLs usable for the entries found in the first
   third-level array.  There is no assumption of sorting at the first-
   level arrays.  The two arrays found in each second-level array MUST
   appear in the correct order: array of entries first, then array of
   base RDAP URLs.  An example structure of a JSON RDAP Bootstrap
   Registry is illustrated:

   {
     "rdap_bootstrap": {
       "version": "1.0",
       "publication": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ",
       "description": "RDAP Bootstrap file for example registries."

       "services": [
         [
           ["entry1", "entry2", "entry3"],
           [
             "https://registry.example.com/myrdap/",
             "http://registry.example.com/myrdap/"
           ]
         ],
         [
           ["entry4"],
           [
             "http://example.org/"
           ]
         ]
       ]
     }
   }


   The version corresponds to the format version of the registry.  This
   specification defines "1.0".

   The syntax of "publication" value conforms to the Internet date/time
   format [RFC3339].




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   Per [RFC7258], in each array of base RDAP URLs, the secure version of
   the transport protocol SHOULD be first.  Base RDAP URLs are likely to
   have a trailing "/" character because they are aggregated to the
   various segments defined in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query].

   JSON names MUST follow format recommendations of
   [I-D.ietf-weirds-using-http].  Any unknown or unspecified JSON object
   properties or values should be ignored by implementers.

   Internationalized Domain Names labels used as keys or base RDAP URLs
   in the registries defined in this document MUST be only represented
   using their A-Label form as defined in [RFC5890].

   All Domain Names labels used as keys or base RDAP URLs in the
   registries defined in this document MUST be only represented in
   lowercase.

4.  Domain Name RDAP Bootstrap Registry

   This registry contains domain labels entries attached to the root,
   grouped by base RDAP URLs, as shown in this example.






























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   {
     "rdap_bootstrap": {
       "version": "1.0",
       "publication": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ",

       "services": [
         [
           ["net", "com"],
           [
             "https://registry.example.com/myrdap/"
           ]
         ],
         [
           ["org", "mytld"],
           [
             "http://example.org/"
           ]
         ],
         [
           ["mytld2"],
           [
             "https://example.net/rdapmytld2/",
             "http://example.net/rdapmytld2/"
           ]
         ]
       ]
     }
   }

   The domain names authoritative registration data service is found by
   doing the longest match of the target domain name with the domain
   values in the arrays in the IANA Domain Name RDAP Bootstrap Registry.
   This is a string search of the longest match starting from the end of
   the target name and the end of each value in the arrays.  The values
   contained in the second element of the array are the valid base RDAP
   URLs as described in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query].

   For example, a domain RDAP query for a.b.example.com matches the com
   entry in one of the arrays of the registry.  The base RDAP URL for
   this query is then taken from the second element of the array, which
   is an array of base RDAP URLs valid for this entry.  The client
   chooses one of the base URLs from this array; in this example it
   chooses the only one available, "https://registry.example.com/
   myrdap/".  The segment specified in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query] is
   then appended to the base URL to complete the query.  The complete
   query is then "https://registry.example.com/myrdap/domain/
   a.b.example.com".  This example is not normative.




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5.  Internet Numbers RDAP Bootstrap Registries

   This section discusses IPv4 and IPv6 address space and autonomous
   system numbers.

   For IP address space, the authoritative registration data service is
   found by doing a longest match of the target address with the values
   of the arrays in the corresponding Address Space RDAP Bootstrap
   registry.  The longest match is done the same way as for routing: the
   addresses are converted in binary form and then the binary strings
   are compared to find the longest match.  The values contained in the
   second element of the array are the base RDAP URLs as described in
   [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query].  The longest match method enables
   covering prefixes of a larger address space pointing to one base RDAP
   URL while more specific prefixes within the covering prefix being
   served by another base RDAP URL.

5.1.  IPv4 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Registry

   This registry contains IPv4 prefix entries, specified in CIDR format
   and grouped by RDAP URLs, as shown in this example.






























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   {
     "rdap_bootstrap": {
       "version": "1.0",
       "publication": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ",

       "services": [
         [
           ["1.0.0.0/8", "192.0.0.0/8"],
           [
             "https://rir1.example.com/myrdap/"
           ]
         ],
         [
           ["28.2.0.0/16", "192.0.2.0/24"],
           [
             "http://example.org/"
           ]
         ],
         [
           ["28.3.0.0/16"],
           [
             "https://example.net/rdaprir2/",
             "http://example.net/rdaprir2/"
           ]
         ]
       ]
     }
   }

   For example, a query for "192.0.2.0/24" matches the "192.0.0.0/8"
   entry and the "192.0.2.0/24" entry in the example registry above.
   The latter is chosen by the client given the longest match.  The base
   RDAP URL for this query is then taken from the second element of the
   array, which is an array of base RDAP URLs valid for this entry.  The
   client chooses one of the base URLs from this array; in this example
   it chooses the only one available, "http://example.org/".  The
   {resource} specified in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query] is then appended
   to the base URL to complete the query.  The complete query is then
   "https://example.org/ip/192.0.2.0/24".  This example is not
   normative.

5.2.  IPv6 Address Space RDAP Registry

   This registry contains IPv6 prefix entries, using [RFC4291] text
   representation of address prefixes format, grouped by base RDAP URLs,
   as shown in this example.





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   {
     "rdap_bootstrap": {
       "version": "1.0",
       "publication": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ",

       "services": [
         [
           ["2001:0200::/23", "2001:db8::/32"],
           [
             "https://rir2.example.com/myrdap/"
           ]
         ],
         [
           ["2600::/16", "2100:ffff::/32"],
           [
             "http://example.org/"
           ]
         ],
         [
           ["2001:0200:1000::/28"],
           [
             "https://example.net/rdaprir2/",
             "http://example.net/rdaprir2/"
           ]
         ]
       ]
     }
   }

   For example, a query for "2001:0200:1000::/48" matches the
   "2001:0200::/23" entry and the "2001:0200:1000::/28" entry in the
   example registry above.  The latter is chosen by the client given the
   longest match.  The base RDAP URL for this query is then taken from
   the second element of the array, which is an array of base RDAP URLs
   valid for this entry.  The client chooses one of the base URLs from
   this array; in this example it chooses "https://example.net/
   rdaprir2/" because it's the secure version of the protocol.  The
   segment specified in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query] is then appended to
   the base URL to complete the query.  The complete query is therefore
   "https://example.net/rdaprir2/ip/2001:0200:1000::/48".  If the server
   does not answer, the client can then use another URL prefix from the
   array.  This example is not normative.

5.3.  Autonomous Systems RDAP Bootstrap Registry

   This registry contains Autonomous Systems Number Ranges entries,
   grouped by base RDAP URLs, as shown in this example.  The first
   element of each second-level array is an array containing the list of



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   AS numbers served by the base RDAP URLs found in the second element.
   When an element of the AS Numbers array is an array with two AS
   numbers, then it represents the range of AS Numbers between the two
   elements of this array.

   {
     "rdap_bootstrap": {
       "version": "1.0",
       "publication": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ",

       "services": [
         [
           [2045],
           [
             "https://rir3.example.com/myrdap/"
           ]
         ],
         [
           [[10000, 12000], [300000, 400000]],
           [
             "http://example.org/"
           ]
         ],
         [
           [[64512, 65534]],
           [
             "http://example.net/rdaprir2/",
             "https://example.net/rdaprir2/"
           ]
         ]
       ]
     }
   }

   For example, a query for AS 65411 matches the [64512, 65534] entry in
   the example registry above.  The base RDAP URL for this query is then
   taken from the second element of the array, which is an array of base
   RDAP URLs valid for this entry.  The client chooses one of the base
   URLs from this array; in this example it chooses
   "https://example.net/rdaprir2/".  The segment specified in
   [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query] is then appended to the base URL to
   complete the query.  The complete query is therefore
   "https://example.net/rdaprir2/autnum/65411".  If the server does not
   answer, the client can then use another URL prefix from the array.
   This example is not normative.






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6.  Entity

   Since there is no global namespace for entities, this document does
   not describe how to find the authoritative RDAP server for entities.
   It is possible however that, if the entity identifier was received
   from a previous query, the same RDAP server could be queried for that
   entity or the entity identifier itself is a fully referenced URL that
   can be queried.

7.  Non-existent Entries or RDAP URL Values

   The registries may not contain the requested value or the base RDAP
   URL value may be empty.  In these cases, there is no known RDAP
   server for that requested value and the client SHOULD provide an
   appropriate error message to the user.

8.  Deployment and Implementation Considerations

   This method relies on the fact that RDAP clients are fetching the
   IANA registries to then find the servers locally.  Clients SHOULD NOT
   fetch every time the registry.  Clients SHOULD cache the registry,
   but use underlying protocol signalling, such as HTTP Expires header
   field [RFC7234], to identify when it is time to refresh the cached
   registry.

   If the query data does not match any entry in the client cached
   registry, then the client may implement various methods, such as the
   following:

   o  In the case of a domain object to be RDAP queried, the client may
      first query the DNS to see if the respective entry has been
      delegated or if it is a mistyped information by the user.  The DNS
      query could be to fetch the NS records for the TLD domain.  If the
      DNS answer is negative, then there is no need to fetch the new
      version of the registry.  However, if the DNS answer is positive,
      this may mean that the currently cached registry is no more
      current.  The client could then fetch the registry, parse and then
      do the normal matching as specified above.  This method may not
      work for all types of RDAP objects.

   o  If the client knows the existence of a RDAP aggregator or
      redirector and trust that service, then it could send the query to
      the redirector, which would redirect the client if it knows the
      authoritative server that client has not found.

   IANA should make sure that the service of those registries is able to
   cope with a larger demand and should take appropriate measures such
   as caching and load balancing.



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   This specification does not assume while not prohibiting how some
   authorities of registration data may work together on sharing their
   information for a common service, including mutual
   redirection[I-D.ietf-weirds-redirects].

9.  Limitations

   This method does not provide a direct way to find authoritative RDAP
   servers:

   o  for entities

   o  for queries using search patterns that do not contain a
      terminating string that matches some entries in the registries

10.  Security Considerations

   By providing a bootstrap method to find RDAP servers, this document
   helps making sure that the end-users will get the RDAP data from
   authoritative source, instead of from rogue sources.  The method
   itself has the same security properties as the RDAP protocols
   themselves.  The transport used to access the registries could be
   more secure by using TLS [RFC5246] if IANA supports it.

11.  IANA Considerations

   IANA is requested to do the following:

   o  Create a new registry "IPv4 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service"
      in the JSON format, as shown above.

   o  Create a new registry "IPv6 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service"
      in the JSON format, as shown above.

   o  Create a new registry "Autonomous System Number Space RDAP
      Bootstrap Service" in the JSON format, as shown above.

   o  Create a new registry "Domain Name Space RDAP Bootstrap Service"
      in the JSON format, as shown above.

   It is envisioned that these new registries will have similar entries
   than the corresponding IANA allocation registries, such as
   [ipv4reg],[ipv6reg],[asreg], [domainreg], and possibly similar
   registration policies.  However, the registration policies for the
   new registries of this document are left to IANA.






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   The registries may be maintained in IANA own format, such as XML.
   However, the registry should be available in the JSON format, and
   optionally in other formats such as XML.

12.  Acknowledgements

   The weirds working group had multiple discussions on this topic,
   including a session during IETF 84, where various methods such as in-
   DNS and others were debated.  The idea of using IANA registries was
   discovered by the editor during discussions with his colleagues as
   well as by a comment from Andy Newton.  All the people involved in
   these discussions are herein acknowledged.  Linlin Zhou, Jean-
   Philippe Dionne, John Levine, Kim Davies, Ernie Dainow, Scott
   Hollenbeck, Arturo Servin, Andy Newton, Murray Kucherawy, Tom
   Harrison, Naoki Kambe have provided input and suggestions to this
   document.

13.  References

13.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3339]  Klyne, G., Ed. and C. Newman, "Date and Time on the
              Internet: Timestamps", RFC 3339, July 2002.

   [RFC4291]  Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
              Architecture", RFC 4291, February 2006.

   [RFC5890]  Klensin, J., "Internationalized Domain Names for
              Applications (IDNA): Definitions and Document Framework",
              RFC 5890, August 2010.

   [RFC7159]  Bray, T., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
              Interchange Format", RFC 7159, March 2014.

13.2.  Non-Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-weirds-json-response]
              Newton, A. and S. Hollenbeck, "JSON Responses for the
              Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)", draft-ietf-
              weirds-json-response-08 (work in progress), August 2014.

   [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query]
              Newton, A. and S. Hollenbeck, "Registration Data Access
              Protocol Query Format", draft-ietf-weirds-rdap-query-13
              (work in progress), August 2014.



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   [I-D.ietf-weirds-redirects]
              Martinez, C., Zhou, L., and G. Rada, "Redirection Service
              for Registration Data Access Protocol", draft-ietf-weirds-
              redirects-04 (work in progress), July 2014.

   [I-D.ietf-weirds-using-http]
              Newton, A., Ellacott, B., and N. Kong, "HTTP usage in the
              Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)", draft-ietf-
              weirds-using-http-10 (work in progress), August 2014.

   [RFC5246]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008.

   [RFC7234]  Fielding, R., Nottingham, M., and J. Reschke, "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching", RFC 7234, June
              2014.

   [RFC7258]  Farrell, S. and H. Tschofenig, "Pervasive Monitoring Is an
              Attack", BCP 188, RFC 7258, May 2014.

   [asreg]    Internet Assigned Numbers Authority(IANA), , "Autonomous
              System (AS) Numbers", <http://www.iana.org/assignments/as-
              numbers/as-numbers.xml>.

   [domainreg]
              Internet Assigned Numbers Authority(IANA), , "Root Zone
              Database", <http://www.iana.org/domains/root/db>.

   [ipv4reg]  Internet Assigned Numbers Authority(IANA), , "IPv4 Address
              Space", <http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipv4-address-
              space/ipv4-address-space.xml>.

   [ipv6reg]  Internet Assigned Numbers Authority(IANA), , "IPv6 Global
              Unicast Address Assignments",
              <http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipv6-unicast-address-
              assignments/ipv6-unicast-address-assignments.xml>.

Authors' Addresses

   Marc Blanchet
   Viagenie
   246 Aberdeen
   Quebec, QC  G1R 2E1
   Canada

   Email: Marc.Blanchet@viagenie.ca
   URI:   http://viagenie.ca




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   Guillaume Leclanche
   Viagenie
   246 Aberdeen
   Quebec, QC  G1R 2E1
   Canada

   Email: Guillaume.Leclanche@viagenie.ca
   URI:   http://viagenie.ca











































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