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Versions: (draft-newton-weirds-unified-json-response) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 RFC 7483

Network Working Group                                          A. Newton
Internet-Draft                                                      ARIN
Intended status: Standards Track                           S. Hollenbeck
Expires: December 14, 2013                                 Verisign Labs
                                                           June 12, 2013


    JSON Responses for the Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)
                   draft-ietf-weirds-json-response-04

Abstract

   This document describes JSON data structures representing
   registration information maintained by Regional Internet Registries
   (RIRs) and Domain Name Registries (DNRs).  These data structures are
   used to form Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP) query
   responses.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on December 14, 2013.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.












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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Terminology and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Use of JSON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.1.  Signaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.2.  Naming  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  Common Data Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   5.  Common Data Structures  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     5.1.  RDAP Conformance  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     5.2.  Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     5.3.  Notices And Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     5.4.  Language Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     5.5.  Events  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     5.6.  Status  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     5.7.  Port 43 Whois Server  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     5.8.  Public IDs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     5.9.  An Example  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   6.  Object Classes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     6.1.  The Entity Object Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     6.2.  The Nameserver Object Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     6.3.  The Domain Object Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     6.4.  The IP Network Object Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
     6.5.  Autonomous System Number Entity Object Class  . . . . . .  39
   7.  Error Response Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
   8.  Responding to Help Queries  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
   9.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
     9.1.  Status  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
     9.2.  Event Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  48
     9.3.  Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  50
     9.4.  Variant Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53
   10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  54
   11. Internationalization Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . .  54
     11.1.  Character Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  54
     11.2.  URIs and IRIs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  54
     11.3.  Language Tags  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  55
     11.4.  Internationalized Domain Names . . . . . . . . . . . . .  55
   12. Privacy Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  55



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   13. Contributing Authors and Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . .  55
   14. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  56
     14.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  56
     14.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  57
   Appendix A.  Suggested Data Modeling with the Entity Object Class  58
     A.1.  Registrants and Contacts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  58
     A.2.  Registrars  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  60
   Appendix B.  Modeling Events  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  62
   Appendix C.  Structured vs Unstructured Addresses . . . . . . . .  64
   Appendix D.  Secure DNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  66
   Appendix E.  Motivations for Using JSON . . . . . . . . . . . . .  67
   Appendix F.  Changelog  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  67
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  70

1.  Introduction

   This document describes responses in the JSON [RFC4627] format for
   the RESTful web queries as defined by the Registration Data Access
   Protocol Lookup Format [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query].

   The data model for JSON responses is specified in four sections:

   1.  simple data types conveyed in JSON strings

   2.  data structures specified as JSON arrays or objects that are used
       repeatedly when building up larger objects

   3.  object classes representing structured data corresponding to a
       given query

   4.  the response to an error

   The object classes represent responses for two major categories of
   data: responses returned by Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) for
   registrations data related to IP addresses, reverse DNS names, and
   Autonomous System numbers; and responses returned by Domain Name
   Registries (DNRs) for registration data related to forward DNS names.
   The following object classes are served by both RIRs and DNRs:

   1.  domains

   2.  nameservers

   3.  entities

   The information served by both RIRs and DNRs for these object classes
   overlap extensively and are given in this document as a unified model
   for both classes of service.



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   In addition to the object classes listed above, RIRs also serve the
   following object classes:

   1.  IP networks

   2.  Autonomous System numbers

   Object classes defined in this document represent a minimal set of
   what a compliant client/server MUST understand to function correctly,
   however some deployments may want to include additional object
   classes to suit individual needs.  Anticipating this need for
   extension, Section 3.2 of this document defines a mechanism for
   extending the JSON objects that are described in this document.

2.  Terminology and Definitions

   The following list describes terminology and definitions used
   throughout this document:

   DNR:              "Domain Name Registry".

   LDH:              "Letters, Digits, Hyphen".

   member:           data found with in an object as defined by JSON
                     [RFC4627].

   object:           a data structure as defined by JSON [RFC4627].

   object class:     the definition of members that may be found in JSON
                     objects described in this document.

   object instance:  an instantiation or specific instance of an object
                     class.

   RDAP:             "Registration Data Access Protocol".

   RIR:              "Regional Internet Registry".

3.  Use of JSON

3.1.  Signaling

   Media type signaling for the JSON data specified in this document is
   specified in [I-D.ietf-weirds-using-http].

3.2.  Naming





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   Clients processing JSON [RFC4627] responses are under no obligation
   to process unrecognized JSON attributes but SHOULD NOT treat them as
   an error.  Servers MAY insert values signified by names into the JSON
   responses which are not specified in this document.  Insertion of
   unspecified values into JSON responses SHOULD have names prefixed
   with a short identifier followed by an underscore followed by a
   meaningful name.  The full JSON name (the prefix plus the underscore
   plus the meaningful name) SHOULD adhere to the character and name
   limitations of the prefix registry described in
   [I-D.ietf-weirds-using-http].

   Consider the following JSON response with JSON names, all of which
   are specified in this document.

   {
     "handle" : "ABC123",
     "remarks" :
     [
       {
         "description" :
         [
           "She sells sea shells down by the sea shore.",
           "Originally written by Terry Sullivan."
         ]
       }
     ]
   }

                                 Figure 1

   If The Registry of the Moon desires to express information not found
   in this specification, it might select "lunarNic" as its identifying
   prefix and insert, as an example, the name
   "lunarNic_beforeOneSmallStep" to signify registrations occurring
   before the first moon landing and the name
   "lunarNic_harshMistressNotes" containing other descriptive text.

   Consider the following JSON response with JSON names, some of which
   should be ignored by clients without knowledge of their meaning.












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   {
     "handle" : "ABC123",
     "lunarNic_beforeOneSmallStep" : "TRUE THAT!",
     "remarks" :
     [
       {
         "description" :
         [
           "She sells sea shells down by the sea shore.",
           "Originally written by Terry Sullivan."
         ]
       }
     ],
     "lunarNic_harshMistressNotes" :
     [
       "In space,",
       "nobody can hear you scream."
     ]
   }

                                 Figure 2

   Insertion of unrecognized names ignored by clients may also be used
   for future revisions to this specification.

   Clients processing JSON responses MUST be prepared for values
   specified in this document to be absent from a response as no JSON
   value listed is required to appear in a response.  In other words,
   servers MAY remove values as is needed by the policies of the server
   operator.

   Finally, all JSON names specified in this document are case
   sensitive.  Both servers and clients MUST transmit and process them
   using the specified character case.

4.  Common Data Types

   JSON [RFC4627] defines the data types of a number, character string,
   boolean, array, object and null.  This section describes the
   semantics and/or syntax reference for data types used in this
   document derived from the JSON character string.

   'handle':         DNRs and RIRs have registry-unique identifiers that
                     may be used to specifically reference an object
                     instance.  The semantics of this data type as found
                     in this document is to be a registry-unique
                     reference to the closest enclosing object where the
                     value is found.  The data type names 'registryId',



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                     'roid', 'nic-handle', 'registrationNo', etc. are
                     terms often synonymous with this data type.  In
                     this document, the term 'handle' is used.  The term
                     exposed to users by clients is a presentation issue
                     beyond the scope of this document.

   IPv4 addresses:   The representation of IPv4 addresses in this
                     document uses the dotted-decimal notation described
                     in [RFC1166].  An example of this textual
                     representation is '192.0.2.0'.

   IPv6 addresses:   The representation of IPv6 addresses in this
                     document follow the forms outlined in [RFC5952].
                     An example of this textual representation is
                     '2001:db8::1:0:0:1'.

   country codes:    Where the identity of a geopolitical nation or
                     country is needed, these identities are represented
                     with the alpha-2 or 2 character country code
                     designation as defined in [ISO.3166.1988].  The
                     alpha-2 representation is used because it is freely
                     available whereas the alpha-3 and numeric-3
                     standards are not.

   LDH names:        Textual representations of DNS names where the
                     labels of the domain are all "letters, digits,
                     hyphen" labels as described by [RFC5890].  Trailing
                     periods are optional.

   Unicode names:    Textual representations of DNS names where one or
                     more of the labels are U-labels as described by
                     [RFC5890].  Trailing periods are optional.

   dates and times:  The syntax for values denoting dates and times is
                     defined in [RFC3339].

   URIs:             The syntax for values denoting a Uniform Resource
                     Identifier (URI) is defined by [RFC3986].

   Contact information is defined using JSON vCards as described in
   [I-D.kewisch-vcard-in-json]

5.  Common Data Structures

   This section defines common data structures used commonly in object
   classes.





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5.1.  RDAP Conformance

   The first data structure is named "rdapConformance" and is simply an
   array of strings, each providing a hint as to the specifications used
   in the construction of the response.  This data structure appears
   only in the top most object of a response.

   An example rdapConformance data structure:

   "rdapConformance" :
   [
     "rdap_level_0"
   ]

                                 Figure 3

   The string literal "rdap_level_0" signifies conformance with this
   specification.  When custom JSON values are inserted into responses,
   conformance to those custom specifications should use a string
   prefixed with the appropriate identifier from the IANA prefix
   identifier registry specified in [I-D.ietf-weirds-using-http].  For
   example, if the fictional Registry of the Moon wants to signify that
   their JSON responses are conformant with their registered extensions,
   the string used might be "lunarNIC_level_0".

   Example rdapConformance structure with custom extensions noted:

   "rdapConformance" :
   [
     "rdap_level_0",
     "lunarNic_level_0"
   ]

                                 Figure 4

5.2.  Links

   The "links" array is found in data structures to signify links to
   other resources on the Internet.  The relationship of these links is
   defined by the IANA registry described by [RFC5988].

   The following is an example of the link structure:









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    {
      "value" : "http://example.com/context_uri",
      "rel" : "self",
      "href" : "http://example.com/target_uri",
      "hreflang" : [ "en", "ch" ],
      "title" : [ "title1", "title2" ],
      "media" : "screen",
      "type" : "application/json"
    }

                                 Figure 5

   The JSON name/values of "rel", "href", "hreflang", "title", "media",
   and "type" correspond to values found in Section 5 of [RFC5988].  The
   "value" JSON value is the context URI as described by [RFC5988].  The
   "value", "rel", and "href" JSON values MUST be specified.  All other
   JSON values are optional.

   This is an example of the "links" array as it might be found in an
   object class:

       "links" :
       [
           {
             "value" : "http://example.com/ip/2001:db8::123",
             "rel" : "self",
             "href" : "http://example.com/ip/2001:db8::123"
           },
           {
             "value" : "http://example.com/ip/2001:db8::123",
             "rel" : "up",
             "href" : "http://example.com/ip/2001:db8::/48"
           }

       ]


5.3.  Notices And Remarks

   The "notices" and "remarks" data structures take the same form.  The
   "notices" structure denotes information about the service providing
   RDAP information, whereas the "remarks" structure denotes information
   about the object class it is contained within (see Section 6
   regarding object classes).

   Both are an array of objects.  Each object contains an optional
   "title" string representing the title of the object, an array of
   strings named "description" for the purposes of conveying any



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   descriptive text, and an optional "links" array as described in
   Section 5.2.

   An example of the notices data structure:

   "notices" :
   [
     {
       "title" : "Terms of Use",
       "description" :
       [
         "Service subject to The Registry of the Moon's TOS.",
         "Copyright (c) 2020 LunarNIC"
       ],
       "links" :
       [
         {
           "value" : "http://example.net/entity/XXXX",
           "rel" : "alternate",
           "type" : "text/html",
           "href" : "http://www.example.com/terms_of_use.html"
         }
       ]
     }
   ]

                                 Figure 6

   It is the job of the clients to determine line breaks, spacing and
   display issues for sentences within the character strings of the
   "description" array.  Servers SHOULD NOT split sentences across
   multiple strings of this array.  Each string is to represent a
   semantic division in the descriptive text.

   An example of the remarks data structure:

   "remarks" :
   [
     {
       "description" :
       [
         "She sells sea shells down by the sea shore.",
         "Originally written by Terry Sullivan."
       ]
     }
   ]

                                 Figure 7



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   Note that objects in the "remarks" array may also have a "links"
   array.

   While the "remarks" array will appear in many object classes in a
   response, the "notices" array appears only in the top most object of
   a response.

5.4.  Language Identifier

   This data structure is a simple JSON name/value of "lang" with a
   string containing a language identifier as described by [RFC5646].

   "lang" : "mn-Cyrl-MN"

                                 Figure 8

   The 'lang' attribute may appear anywhere in an object class or data
   structure.

5.5.  Events

   This data structure represents events that have occurred on an
   instance of an object class (see Section 6 regarding object classes).

   This is an example of an "events" array.

   "events" :
   [
     {
       "eventAction" : "registration",
       "eventActor" : "SOMEID-LUNARNIC",
       "eventDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z"
     },
     {
       "eventAction" : "last changed",
       "eventActor" : "OTHERID-LUNARNIC",
       "eventDate" : "1991-12-31T23:59:60Z"
     }
   ]

                                 Figure 9

   The "events" array consists of objects, each with the following
   members:

   o  'eventAction' -- a string denoting the reason for the event





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   o  'eventActor' -- an optional identifier denoting the actor
      responsible for the event

   o  'eventDate' -- a string containing the time and date the event
      occurred.

   Events can be future dated.  One use case for future dating of events
   is to denote when an object expires from a registry.

   See Section 9.2 for a list of values for the 'eventAction' string.
   See Appendix B regarding the various ways events can be modeled.

5.6.  Status

   This data structure, named 'status', is an array of strings
   indicating the state of a registered object (see Section 9.1 for a
   list of values).

5.7.  Port 43 Whois Server

   This data structure, named 'port43', is a simple string containing
   the fully-qualified host name of the WHOIS [RFC3912] server where the
   containing object instance may be found.  Note that this is not a
   URI, as there is no WHOIS URI scheme.

5.8.  Public IDs

   This data structure maps a public identifier to an object class.  It
   is named 'publicIds' and is an array of objects, with each object
   containing the following members:

   o  type - a string denoting the type of public identifier

   o  identifier - a public identifier of the type denoted by 'type'

   The following is an example of a 'publicIds' structure.


   "publicIds":
   [
     {
       "type":"IANA Registrar ID",
       "identifier":"1"
     }
   ]


                                 Figure 10



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5.9.  An Example

   This is an example response with both rdapConformance and notices
   embedded:

   {
     "rdapConformance" :
     [
       "rdap_level_0"
     ],
     "notices" :
     [
       {
         "title" : "Content Redacted",
         "description" :
         [
           "Without full authorization, content has been redacted.",
           "Sorry, dude!"
         ],
         "links" :
         [
           {
             "value" : "http://example.net/ip/192.0.2.0/24",
             "rel" : "alternate",
             "type" : "text/html",
             "href" : "http://www.example.com/redaction_policy.html"
           }
         ]
       }
     ],
     "lang" : "en",
     "startAddress" : "192.0.2.0",
     "endAddress" : "192.0.2.255",
     "handle" : "XXXX-RIR",
     "ipVersion" : "v4",
     "name": "NET-RTR-1",
     "parentHandle" : "YYYY-RIR",
     "remarks" :
     [
       {
         "description" :
         [
           "She sells sea shells down by the sea shore.",
           "Originally written by Terry Sullivan."
         ]
       }
     ]
   }



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                                 Figure 11

6.  Object Classes

   Object classes represent structures appropriate for a response from
   the queries specified in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query].

   Each object class contains a "links" array as specified in
   Section 5.2.  For every object class in a response, whether the
   object class is directly representing the response to a query or is
   embedded in other object classes, servers SHOULD provide a link
   representing a URI for that object class using the "self"
   relationship as specified in the IANA registry specified by
   [RFC5988].  As explained in Section 6.2, this may be not always be
   possible for name server data.  Clients MUST be able to process
   object instances without a "self" link.  When present, clients MAY
   use the self link for caching data.  Servers MAY provide more than
   one "self" link for any given object instance.

   This is an example of the "links" array with a self link to an object
   class:

    "links" :
    [
        {
          "value" : "http://example.com/ip/2001:db8::123",
          "rel" : "self",
          "href" : "http://example.com/ip/2001:db8::123"
        }
    ]


6.1.  The Entity Object Class

   The entity object class appears throughout this document and is an
   appropriate response for the /entity/XXXX query defined in
   Registration Data Access Protocol Lookup Format
   [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query].  This object class represents the
   information of organizations, corporations, governments, non-profits,
   clubs, individual persons, and informal groups of people.  All of
   these representations are so similar that it is best to represent
   them in JSON [RFC4627] with one construct, the entity object class,
   to aid in the re-use of code by implementers.

   The entity object is served by both RIRs and DNRs.  The following is
   an example of an entity that might be served by an RIR.  For
   illustrative purposes, it does not include rdapConformance or notices
   data structures.



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   {
     "handle":"XXXX",
     "vcardArray":[
       "vcard",
       [
         ["version", {}, "text", "4.0"],
         ["fn", {}, "text", "Joe User"],
         ["n", {}, "text",
           ["User", "Joe", "", "", ["ing. jr", "M.Sc."]]
         ],
         ["bday", {}, "date-and-or-time", "--02-03"],
         ["anniversary",
           {}, "date-and-or-time", "2009-08-08T14:30:00-05:00"
         ],
         ["gender", {}, "text", "M"],
         ["kind", {}, "text", "individual"],
         ["lang", {
           "pref":"1"
         }, "language-tag", "fr"],
         ["lang", {
           "pref":"2"
         }, "language-tag", "en"],
         ["org", {
           "type":"work"
         }, "text", "Example"],
         ["title", {}, "text", "Research Scientist"],
         ["role", {}, "text", "Project Lead"],
         ["adr",
           { "type":"work" },
           "text",
           [
             "",
             "Suite 1234",
             "4321 Rue Somewhere",
             "Quebec",
             "QC",
             "G1V 2M2",
             "Canada"
           ]
         ],
         ["adr",
           {
             "type":"home",
             "label":"123 Maple Ave\nSuite 90001\nVancouver\nBC\n1239\n"
           },
           "text",
           [
             "", "", "", "", "", "", ""



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           ]
         ],
         ["tel",
           {
             "type":["work", "voice"],
             "pref":"1"
           },
           "uri",
           "tel:+1-555-555-1234;ext=102"
         ],
         ["tel",
           { "type":["work", "cell", "voice", "video", "text"] },
           "uri",
           "tel:+1-555-555-4321"
         ],
         ["email",
           { "type":"work" },
           "text",
           "joe.user@example.com"
         ],
         ["geo", {
           "type":"work"
         }, "uri", "geo:46.772673,-71.282945"],
         ["key",
           { "type":"work" },
           "uri",
           "http://www.example.com/joe.user/joe.asc"
         ],
         ["tz", {},
           "utc-offset", "-05:00"],
         ["url", { "type":"home" },
           "uri", "http://example.org"]
       ]
     ],
     "roles":[ "registrar" ],
     "publicIds":[
       {
         "type":"IANA Registrar ID",
         "identifier":"1"
       }
     ],
     "remarks":[
       {
         "description":[
           "She sells sea shells down by the sea shore.",
           "Originally written by Terry Sullivan."
         ]
       }



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     ],
     "links":[
       {
         "value":"http://example.com/entity/XXXX",
         "rel":"self",
         "href":"http://example.com/entity/XXXX"
       }
     ],
     "events":[
       {
         "eventAction":"registration",
         "eventDate":"1990-12-31T23:59:60Z"
       }
     ],
     "asEventActor":[
       {
         "eventAction":"last changed",
         "eventDate":"1991-12-31T23:59:60Z"
       }
     ]
   }



   Entities may also have other entities embedded with them in an array.
   This can be used to model an organization with specific individuals
   fulfilling designated roles of responsibility.

   The following is an elided example of an entity with embedded
   entities.


   {
     "handle" : "ANENTITY",
     "roles" : [ "registrar" ],
     ...
     "entities" :
     [
       {
         "handle": "ANEMBEDDEDENTITY",
         "roles" : [ "technical" ],
         ...
       },
       ...
     ],
     ...
   }




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                                 Figure 12

   This object has the following members:

   o  handle -- a string representing an registry unique identifier of
      the entity

   o  vcardArray -- a JSON vCard with the entity's contact information

   o  roles -- an array of strings, each signifying the relationship an
      object would have with its closest containing object (see
      Section 9.3 for a list of values)

   o  publicIds - see Section 5.8

   o  entities - an array of entity objects as defined by this section.

   o  remarks -- see Section 5.3

   o  links -- see Section 5.2

   o  events -- see Section 5.5

   o  asEventActor -- this data structure takes the same form as the
      'events' data structure (see Section 5.5), but each object in the
      array MUST NOT have an 'eventActor' member.  These objects denote
      that the entity is an event actor for the given events.  See
      Appendix B regarding the various ways events can be modeled.

   o  status -- see Section 5.6

   o  port43 -- see Section 5.7

   The following is an example of a entity that might be served by a
   DNR.  For illustrative purposes, it does not include rdapConformance
   or notices data structures.


   {
     "handle":"XXXX",
     "vcardArray":[
       "vcard",
       [
         ["version", {}, "text", "4.0"],
         ["fn", {}, "text", "Joe User"],
         ["kind", {}, "text", "individual"],
         ["lang", {
           "pref":"1"



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         }, "language-tag", "fr"],
         ["lang", {
           "pref":"2"
         }, "language-tag", "en"],
         ["org", {
           "type":"work"
         }, "text", "Example"],
         ["title", {}, "text", "Research Scientist"],
         ["role", {}, "text", "Project Lead"],
         ["adr",
           { "type":"work" },
           "text",
           [
             "",
             "Suite 1234",
             "4321 Rue Somewhere",
             "Quebec",
             "QC",
             "G1V 2M2",
             "Canada"
           ]
         ],
         ["tel",
           { "type":["work", "voice"], "pref":"1" },
           "uri", "tel:+1-555-555-1234;ext=102"
         ],
         ["email",
           { "type":"work" },
           "text", "joe.user@example.com"
         ],
       ]
     ],
     "status":[ "validated", "locked" ],
     "remarks":[
       {
         "description":[
           "She sells sea shells down by the sea shore.",
           "Originally written by Terry Sullivan."
         ]
       }
     ],
     "links":[
       {
         "value":"http://example.com/entity/XXXX",
         "rel":"self",
         "href":"http://example.com/entity/XXXX"
       }
     ],



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     "port43":"whois.example.net",
     "events":[
       {
         "eventAction":"registration",
         "eventDate":"1990-12-31T23:59:60Z"
       },
       {
         "eventAction":"last changed",
         "eventDate":"1991-12-31T23:59:60Z",
         "eventActor":"joe@example.com"
       }
     ]
   }



6.2.  The Nameserver Object Class

   The nameserver object class represents information regarding DNS name
   servers used in both forward and reverse DNS.  RIRs and some DNRs
   register or expose nameserver information as an attribute of a domain
   name, while other DNRs model nameservers as "first class objects".

   The nameserver object class accommodates both models and degrees of
   variation in between.

   The following is an example of a nameserver object.  For illustrative
   purposes, it does not include rdapConformance or notices data
   structures.






















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     {
       "handle" : "XXXX",
       "ldhName" : "ns1.xn--fo-5ja.example",
       "unicodeName" : "foo.example",
       "status" : [ "active" ],
       "ipAddresses" :
       {
         "v4": [ "192.0.2.1", "192.0.2.2" ],
         "v6": [ "2001:db8::123" ]
       },
       "remarks" :
       [
         {
           "description" :
           [
             "She sells sea shells down by the sea shore.",
             "Originally written by Terry Sullivan."
           ]
         }
       ],
       "links" :
       [
         {
           "value" : "http://example.net/nameserver/xxxx",
           "rel" : "self",
           "href" : "http://example.net/nameserver/xxxx"
         }
       ],
       "port43" : "whois.example.net",
       "events" :
       [
         {
           "eventAction" : "registration",
           "eventDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z"
         },
         {
           "eventAction" : "last changed",
           "eventDate" : "1991-12-31T23:59:60Z",
           "eventActor" : "joe@example.com"
         }
       ]
     }


                                 Figure 13

   Figure 13 is an example of a nameserver object with all values given.
   Registries using a first-class nameserver data model would embed this



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   in domain objects as well as allowing references to it with the "/
   nameserver" query type (all depending on the registry operators
   policy).  Other registries may pare back the information as needed.
   Figure 14 is an example of a nameserver object as would be found in
   RIRs and some DNRs, while Figure 15 is an example of a nameserver
   object as would be found in other DNRs.

   The following is an example of the simplest nameserver object:


     {
       "ldhName" : "ns1.example.com"
     }


                                 Figure 14

   The following is an example of a simple nameserver object that might
   be commonly used by DNRs:


     {
       "ldhName" : "ns1.example.com",
       "ipAddresses" : { "v6" : [ "2001:db8::123", "2001:db8::124" ] }
     }


                                 Figure 15

   As nameservers can be modeled by some registries to be first-class
   objects, they may also have an array of entities (Section 6.1)
   embedded to signify parties responsible for the maintenance,
   registrations, etc.  of the nameservers.

   The following is an elided example of a nameserver with embedded
   entities.















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   {
     "handle" : "XXXX",
     "ldhName" : "ns1.xn--fo-5ja.example",
     ...
     "entities" :
     [
       ...
     ],
     ...
   }


                                 Figure 16

   The nameserver object class has the following members:

   o  handle -- a string representing an registry unique identifier of
      the nameserver

   o  ldhName -- a string containing the LDH name of the nameserver (see
      Section 4)

   o  unicodeName -- a string containing a DNS Unicode name of the
      nameserver (see Section 4)

   o  ipAddresses -- an object containing the following members:

      *  v6 -- an array of strings containing IPv6 addresses of the
         nameserver

      *  v4 -- an array of strings containing IPv4 addresses of the
         nameserver

   o  entities -- an array of entity objects as defined by Section 6.1.

   o  status - see Section 5.6

   o  remarks - see Section 5.3

   o  links - see Section 5.2

   o  port43 - see Section 5.7

   o  events - see Section 5.5

6.3.  The Domain Object Class





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   The domain object class represents a DNS name and point of
   delegation.  For RIRs these delegation points are in the reverse DNS
   tree, whereas for DNRs these delegation points are in the forward DNS
   tree.

   In both cases, the high level structure of the domain object class
   consists of information about the domain registration, nameserver
   information related to the domain name, and entities related to the
   domain name (e.g. registrant information, contacts, etc.).

   The following is an elided example of the domain object showing the
   high level structure:


   {
     "handle" : "XXX",
     "ldhName" : "blah.example.com",
     ...
     "nameServers" :
     [
       ...
     ],
     ...
     "entities" :
     [
       ...
     ]
   }



   The following is a description of the members of this object:

   o  handle -- a string representing a registry unique identifier of
      the domain object instance

   o  ldhName -- a string describing a domain name in LDH form as
      described in Section 4

   o  unicodeName -- a string containing a domain name with U-labels as
      described in Section 4

   o  variants -- an array of objects, each containing the following
      values:







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      *  relation -- an array of strings, with each string denoting the
         relationship between the variants and the containing domain
         object (see Section 9.4 for a list of suggested variant
         relations).

      *  idnTable -- the name of the IDN table of codepoints, such as
         one listed with the IANA (see IDN tables [1]).

      *  variantNames -- an array of objects, with each object
         containing an "ldhName" member and a "unicodeName" member (see
         Section 4).

   o  nameservers -- an array of nameserver objects as defined by
      Section 6.2

   o  secureDNS -- an object with the following members:

      *  zoneSigned -- boolean true if the zone has been signed, false
         otherwise.

      *  delegationSigned -- boolean true if there are DS records in the
         parent, false otherwise.

      *  maxSigLife -- an integer representing the signature life time
         in seconds to be used when creating the RRSIG DS record in the
         parent zone [RFC5910].

      *  dsData - an array of objects, each with the following members:

         +  keyTag -- an integer as specified by the key tag field of a
            DNS DS record as specified by RFC 4034 RFC 4034 [RFC4034] in
            presentation format

         +  algorithm -- an integer as specified by the algorithm field
            of a DNS DS record as specified by RFC 4034 in presentation
            format

         +  digest -- a string as specified by the digest field of a DNS
            DS record as specified by RFC 4034 in presentation format

         +  digestType -- an integer as specified by the digest type
            field of a DNS DS record as specified by RFC 4034 in
            presentation format

         +  events - see Section 5.5

      *  keyData - an array of objects, each with the following members:




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         +  flags -- a string representing the flags field value in the
            DNSKEY record [RFC4034] in presentation format.

         +  protocol - a string representation of the protocol field
            value of the DNSKEY record [RFC4034] in presentation format.

         +  publicKey - a string representation of the public key in the
            DNSKEY record [RFC4034] in presentation format.

         +  algorithm -- an integer as specified by the algorithm field
            of a DNSKEY record as specified by RFC 4034 [RFC4034] in
            presentation format

         +  events - see Section 5.5

      See Appendix D for background information on these objects.

   o  entities -- an array of entity objects as defined by Section 6.1.

   o  status - see Section 5.6

   o  publicIds - see Section 5.8

   o  remarks - see Section 5.3

   o  links - see Section 5.2

   o  port43 - see Section 5.7

   o  events - see Section 5.5

   The following is an example of a JSON domain object representing a
   reverse DNS delegation point that might be served by an RIR.  For
   illustrative purposes, it does not include rdapConformance or notices
   data structures.


   {
     "handle" : "XXXX",
     "ldhName" : "192.in-addr.arpa",
     "nameServers" :
     [
       { "ldhName" : "ns1.rir.example" },
       { "ldhName" : "ns2.rir.example" }
     ],
     "secureDNS":
     {
       "delegationSigned": true,



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       "dsData":
       [
         {
           "keyTag": 12345,
           "algorithm": 3,
           "digestType": 1,
           "digest": "49FD46E6C4B45C55D4AC",
         }
       ]
     },
     "remarks" :
     [
       {
         "description" :
         [
           "She sells sea shells down by the sea shore.",
           "Originally written by Terry Sullivan."
         ]
       }
     ],
     "links" :
     [
       {
         "value": "http://example.net/domain/XXXX",
         "rel" : "self",
         "href" : "http://example.net/domain/XXXXX"
       }
     ],
     "events" :
     [
       {
         "eventAction" : "registration",
         "eventDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z"
       },
       {
         "eventAction" : "last changed",
         "eventDate" : "1991-12-31T23:59:60Z",
         "eventActor" : "joe@example.com"
       }
     ],
     "entities" :
     [
       {
         "handle" : "XXXX",
         "vcardArray":[
           "vcard",
           [
             ["version", {}, "text", "4.0"],



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             ["fn", {}, "text", "Joe User"],
             ["kind", {}, "text", "individual"],
             ["lang", {
               "pref":"1"
             }, "language-tag", "fr"],
             ["lang", {
               "pref":"2"
             }, "language-tag", "en"],
             ["org", {
               "type":"work"
             }, "text", "Example"],
             ["title", {}, "text", "Research Scientist"],
             ["role", {}, "text", "Project Lead"],
             ["adr",
               { "type":"work" },
               "text",
               [
                 "",
                 "Suite 1234",
                 "4321 Rue Somewhere",
                 "Quebec",
                 "QC",
                 "G1V 2M2",
                 "Canada"
               ]
             ],
             ["tel",
               { "type":["work", "voice"], "pref":"1" },
               "uri", "tel:+1-555-555-1234;ext=102"
             ],
             ["email",
               { "type":"work" },
               "text", "joe.user@example.com"
             ],
           ]
         ],
         "roles" : [ "registrant" ],
         "remarks" :
         [
           {
             "description" :
             [
               "She sells sea shells down by the sea shore.",
               "Originally written by Terry Sullivan."
             ]
           }
         ],
         "links" :



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         [
           {
             "value": "http://example.net/entity/xxxx",
             "rel" : "self",
             "href" : "http://example.net/entity/xxxx"
           }
         ],
         "events" :
         [
           {
             "eventAction" : "registration",
             "eventDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z"
           },
           {
             "eventAction" : "last changed",
             "eventDate" : "1991-12-31T23:59:60Z",
             "eventActor" : "joe@example.com"
           }
         ]
       }
     ]
   }



   The following is an example of a JSON domain object representing a
   forward DNS delegation point that might be served by a DNR.  For
   illustrative purposes, it does not include rdapConformance or notices
   data structures.


   {
     "handle" : "XXXX",
     "ldhName" : "xn--fo-5ja.example",
     "unicodeName" : "foo.example",
     "variants" :
     [
       {
         "relation" : [ "registered", "conjoined" ],
         "variantNames" :
         [
           {
             "ldhName" : "xn--fo-cka.example",
             "unicodeName" : "foo.example"
           },
           {
             "ldhName" : "xn--fo-fka.example",
             "unicodeName" : "foeo.example"



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           }
         ]
       },
       {
         "relation" : [ "unregistered", "restricted registration" ],
         "idnTable": ".EXAMPLE Swedish",
         "variantNames" :
         [
           {
             "ldhName": "xn--fo-8ja.example",
             "unicodeName" : "foo.example"
           }
         ]
       }
     ],
     "status" : [ "locked", "transferProhibited" ],
     "publicIds":[
       {
         "type":"ENS_Auth ID",
         "identifier":"1234567890"
       }
     ],
     "nameServers" :
     [
       {
         "handle" : "XXXX",
         "ldhName" : "ns1.example.com",
         "status" : [ "active" ],
         "ipAddresses" :
         {
           "v6": [ "2001:db8::123", "2001:db8::124" ],
           "v4": [ "192.0.2.1", "192.0.2.2" ]
         },
         "remarks" :
         [
           {
             "description" :
             [
               "She sells sea shells down by the sea shore.",
               "Originally written by Terry Sullivan."
             ]
           }
         ],
         "links" :
         [
           {
             "value" : "http://example.net/nameserver/XXXX",
             "rel" : "self",



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             "href" : "http://example.net/nameserver/XXXX"
           }
         ],
         "events" :
         [
           {
             "eventAction" : "registration",
             "eventDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z"
           },
           {
             "eventAction" : "last changed",
             "eventDate" : "1991-12-31T23:59:60Z"
           }
         ]
       },
       {
         "handle" : "XXXX",
         "ldhName" : "ns2.example.com",
         "status" : [ "active" ],
         "ipAddresses" :
         {
           "v6" : [ "2001:db8::125", "2001:db8::126" ],
           "v4" : [ "192.0.2.3", "192.0.2.4" ]
         },
         "remarks" :
         [
           {
             "description" :
             [
               "She sells sea shells down by the sea shore.",
               "Originally written by Terry Sullivan."
             ]
           }
         ],
         "links" :
         [
           {
             "value" : "http://example.net/nameserver/XXXX",
             "rel" : "self",
             "href" : "http://example.net/nameserver/XXXX"
           }
         ],
         "events" :
         [
           {
             "eventAction" : "registration",
             "eventDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z"
           },



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           {
             "eventAction" : "last changed",
             "eventDate" : "1991-12-31T23:59:60Z"
           }
         ]
       }
     ],
     "secureDNS":
     [
        "zoneSigned": true,
        "delegationSigned": true,
        "maxSigLife": 604800,
        "keyData":
        [
          {
            "flags": 257,
            "protocol": 3,
            "algorithm": 1,
            "publicKey": "AQPJ////4Q==",
            "events":
            [
              {
                "eventAction": "last changed",
                "eventDate": "2012-07-23T05:15:47Z"
              }
            ]
          }
        ]
     ],
     "remarks" :
     [
       {
         "description" :
         [
           "She sells sea shells down by the sea shore.",
           "Originally written by Terry Sullivan."
         ]
       }
     ],
     "links" :
     [
       {
         "value": "http://example.net/domain/XXXX",
         "rel" : "self",
         "href" : "http://example.net/domain/XXXX"
       }
     ],
     "port43" : "whois.example.net",



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     "events" :
     [
       {
         "eventAction" : "registration",
         "eventDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z"
       },
       {
         "eventAction" : "last changed",
         "eventDate" : "1991-12-31T23:59:60Z",
         "eventActor" : "joe@example.com"
       },
       {
         "eventAction" : "transfer",
         "eventDate" : "1991-12-31T23:59:60Z",
         "eventActor" : "joe@example.com"
       },
       {
         "eventAction" : "expiration",
         "eventDate" : "2016-12-31T23:59:60Z",
         "eventActor" : "joe@example.com"
       }
     ],
     "entities" :
     [
       {
         "handle" : "XXXX",
         "vcardArray":[
           "vcard",
           [
             ["version", {}, "text", "4.0"],
             ["fn", {}, "text", "Joe User"],
             ["kind", {}, "text", "individual"],
             ["lang", {
               "pref":"1"
             }, "language-tag", "fr"],
             ["lang", {
               "pref":"2"
             }, "language-tag", "en"],
             ["org", {
               "type":"work"
             }, "text", "Example"],
             ["title", {}, "text", "Research Scientist"],
             ["role", {}, "text", "Project Lead"],
             ["adr",
               { "type":"work" },
               "text",
               [
                 "",



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                 "Suite 1234",
                 "4321 Rue Somewhere",
                 "Quebec",
                 "QC",
                 "G1V 2M2",
                 "Canada"
               ]
             ],
             ["tel",
               { "type":["work", "voice"], "pref":"1" },
               "uri", "tel:+1-555-555-1234;ext=102"
             ],
             ["email",
               { "type":"work" },
               "text", "joe.user@example.com"
             ],
           ]
         ],
         "status" : [ "validated", "locked" ],
         "roles" : [ "registrant" ],
         "remarks" :
         [
           {
             "description" :
             [
               "She sells sea shells down by the sea shore.",
               "Originally written by Terry Sullivan."
             ]
           }
         ],
         "links" :
         [
           {
             "value" : "http://example.net/entity/xxxx",
             "rel" : "self",
             "href" : "http://example.net/entity/xxxx"
           }
         ],
         "events" :
         [
           {
             "eventAction" : "registration",
             "eventDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z"
           },
           {
             "eventAction" : "last changed",
             "eventDate" : "1991-12-31T23:59:60Z"
           }



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         ]
       }
     ]
   }



6.4.  The IP Network Object Class

   The IP Network object class models IP network registrations found in
   RIRs and is the expected response for the "/ip" query as defined by
   [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query].  There is no equivalent object class
   for DNRs.  The high level structure of the IP network object class
   consists of information about the network registration and entities
   related to the IP network (e.g. registrant information, contacts,
   etc...).

   The following is an elided example of the IP network object type
   showing the high level structure:


   {
     "handle" : "XXX",
     ...
     "entities" :
     [
       ...
     ]
   }



   The following is an example of the JSON object for the network
   registration information.  For illustrative purposes, it does not
   include rdapConformance or notices data structures.


   {
     "handle" : "XXXX-RIR",
     "startAddress" : "2001:db8::0",
     "endAddress" : "2001:db8::0:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF",
     "ipVersion" : "v6",
     "name": "NET-RTR-1",
     "type" : "DIRECT ALLOCATION",
     "country" : "AU",
     "parentHandle" : "YYYY-RIR",
     "status" : [ "allocated" ],
     "remarks" :



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     [
       {
         "description" :
         [
           "She sells sea shells down by the sea shore.",
           "Originally written by Terry Sullivan."
         ]
       }
     ],
     "links" :
     [
       {
         "value" : "http://example.ent/ip/2001:db8::/48",
         "rel" : "self",
         "href" : "http://example.net/ip/2001:db8::/48"
       },
       {
         "value" : "http://example.net/ip/2001:db8::/48",
         "rel" : "up",
         "href" : "http://example.net/ip/2001:C00::/23"
       }
     ],
     "events" :
     [
       {
         "eventAction" : "registration",
         "eventDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z"
       },
       {
         "eventAction" : "last changed",
         "eventDate" : "1991-12-31T23:59:60Z"
       }
     ],
     "entities" :
     [
       {
         "handle" : "XXXX",
         "vcardArray":[
           "vcard",
           [
             ["version", {}, "text", "4.0"],
             ["fn", {}, "text", "Joe User"],
             ["kind", {}, "text", "individual"],
             ["lang", {
               "pref":"1"
             }, "language-tag", "fr"],
             ["lang", {
               "pref":"2"



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             }, "language-tag", "en"],
             ["org", {
               "type":"work"
             }, "text", "Example"],
             ["title", {}, "text", "Research Scientist"],
             ["role", {}, "text", "Project Lead"],
             ["adr",
               { "type":"work" },
               "text",
               [
                 "",
                 "Suite 1234",
                 "4321 Rue Somewhere",
                 "Quebec",
                 "QC",
                 "G1V 2M2",
                 "Canada"
               ]
             ],
             ["tel",
               { "type":["work", "voice"], "pref":"1" },
               "uri", "tel:+1-555-555-1234;ext=102"
             ],
             ["email",
               { "type":"work" },
               "text", "joe.user@example.com"
             ],
           ]
         ],
         "roles" : [ "registrant" ],
         "remarks" :
         [
           {
             "description" :
             [
               "She sells sea shells down by the sea shore.",
               "Originally written by Terry Sullivan."
             ]
           }
         ],
         "links" :
         [
           {
             "value" : "http://example.net/entity/xxxx",
             "rel" : "self",
             "href" : "http://example.net/entity/xxxx"
           }
         ],



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         "events" :
         [
           {
             "eventAction" : "registration",
             "eventDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z"
           },
           {
             "eventAction" : "last changed",
             "eventDate" : "1991-12-31T23:59:60Z"
           }
         ]
       }
     ]
   }



   The following is a description of the members of this object:

   o  handle -- a string representing an RIR unique identifier of the
      network registration

   o  startAddress -- the starting IP address of the network, either
      IPv4 or IPv6

   o  endAddress -- the ending IP address of the network, either IPv4 or
      IPv6

   o  ipVersion -- a string signifying the IP protocol version of the
      network: "v4" signifying an IPv4 network, "v6" signifying an IPv6
      network

   o  name -- an identifier assigned to the network registration by the
      registration holder

   o  type -- a string containing an RIR-specific classification of the
      network

   o  country -- a string containing the name of the 2 character country
      code of the network

   o  parentHandle -- a string containing an RIR-unique identifier of
      the parent network of this network registration

   o  status -- an array of strings indicating the state of the IP
      network

   o  entities -- an array of entity objects as defined by Section 6.1.



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   o  remarks - see Section 5.3

   o  links - see Section 5.2

   o  events - see Section 5.5

6.5.  Autonomous System Number Entity Object Class

   The Autonomous System Number (autnum) object class models Autonomous
   System Number registrations found in RIRs and represents the expected
   response to an "/autnum" query as defined by
   [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query].  There is no equivalent object class
   for DNRs.  The high level structure of the autnum object class
   consists of information about the network registration and entities
   related to the autnum registration (e.g. registrant information,
   contacts, etc.), and is similar to the IP Network entity object
   class.

   The following is an example of a JSON object representing an autnum.
   For illustrative purposes, it does not include rdapConformance or
   notices data structures.


   {
     "handle" : "XXXX-RIR",
     "startAutnum" : 10,
     "endAutnum" : 15,
     "name": "AS-RTR-1",
     "type" : "DIRECT ALLOCATION",
     "status" : [ "allocated" ],
     "country": "AU",
     "remarks" :
     [
       {
         "description" :
         [
           "She sells sea shells down by the sea shore.",
           "Originally written by Terry Sullivan."
         ]
       }
     ],
     "links" :
     [
       {
         "value" : "http://example.net/autnum/xxxx",
         "rel" : "self",
         "href" : "http://example.net/autnum/xxxx"
       }



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     ],
     "events" :
     [
       {
         "eventAction" : "registration",
         "eventDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z"
       },
       {
         "eventAction" : "last changed",
         "eventDate" : "1991-12-31T23:59:60Z"
       }
     ],
     "entities" :
     [
       {
         "handle" : "XXXX",
         "vcardArray":[
           "vcard",
           [
             ["version", {}, "text", "4.0"],
             ["fn", {}, "text", "Joe User"],
             ["kind", {}, "text", "individual"],
             ["lang", {
               "pref":"1"
             }, "language-tag", "fr"],
             ["lang", {
               "pref":"2"
             }, "language-tag", "en"],
             ["org", {
               "type":"work"
             }, "text", "Example"],
             ["title", {}, "text", "Research Scientist"],
             ["role", {}, "text", "Project Lead"],
             ["adr",
               { "type":"work" },
               "text",
               [
                 "",
                 "Suite 1234",
                 "4321 Rue Somewhere",
                 "Quebec",
                 "QC",
                 "G1V 2M2",
                 "Canada"
               ]
             ],
             ["tel",
               { "type":["work", "voice"], "pref":"1" },



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               "uri", "tel:+1-555-555-1234;ext=102"
             ],
             ["email",
               { "type":"work" },
               "text", "joe.user@example.com"
             ],
           ]
         ],
         "roles" : [ "registrant" ],
         "remarks" :
         [
           {
             "description" :
             [
               "She sells sea shells down by the sea shore.",
               "Originally written by Terry Sullivan."
             ]
           }
         ],
         "links" :
         [
           {
             "value" : "http://example.net/entity/XXXX",
             "rel" : "self",
             "href" : "http://example.net/entity/XXXX"
           }
         ],
         "events" :
         [
           {
             "eventAction" : "registration",
             "eventDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z"
           },
           {
             "eventAction" : "last changed",
             "eventDate" : "1991-12-31T23:59:60Z"
           }
         ]
       }
     ]
   }



   The following is a description of the members of this object:

   o  handle -- a string representing an RIR-unique identifier of the
      autnum registration



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   o  startAutnum -- a number representing the starting number [RFC5396]
      in the block of autonomous system numbers

   o  endAutnum -- a number representing the ending number [RFC5396] in
      the block of autonomous system numbers

   o  name -- an identifier assigned to the autnum registration by the
      registration holder

   o  type -- a string containing an RIR-specific classification of the
      autnum

   o  status -- an array of strings indicating the state of the autnum

   o  country -- a string containing the name of the 2 character country
      code of the autnum

   o  remarks - see Section 5.3

   o  links - see Section 5.2

   o  events - see Section 5.5

7.  Error Response Body

   Some non-answer responses may return entity bodies with information
   that could be more descriptive.

   The basic structure of that response is an object class containing an
   error code number (corresponding to the HTTP response code) followed
   by a string named "title" followed by an array of strings named
   "description".

   This is an example of the common response body.  For illustrative
   purposes, it does not include rdapConformance or notices data
   structures.

   {
     "errorCode": 418,
     "title": "Your beverage choice is not available",
     "description":
     [
       "I know coffee has more ummppphhh.",
       "Sorry, dude!"
     ]
   }

                                 Figure 17



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   A client MAY simply use the HTTP response code as the server is not
   required to include error data in the response body.  However, if a
   client wishes to parse the error data, it SHOULD first check that the
   Content-Type header contains the appropriate media type.

   This is an example of the common response body with and
   rdapConformance and notices data structures:

   {
     "rdapConformance" :
     [
       "rdap_level_0"
     ],
     "notices" :
     [
       {
         "title" : "Beverage policy",
         "description" :
         [
           "Beverages with caffeine for keeping horses awake."
         ],
         "links" :
         [
           {
             "value" : "http://example.net/ip/192.0.2.0/24",
             "rel" : "alternate",
             "type" : "text/html",
             "href" : "http://www.example.com/redaction_policy.html"
           }
         ]
       }
     ],
     "lang" : "en",
     "errorCode": 418,
     "title": "Your beverage choice is not available",
     "description":
     [
       "I know coffee has more ummppphhh.",
       "Sorry, dude!"
     ]
   }

                                 Figure 18

8.  Responding to Help Queries






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   The appropriate response to /help queries as defined by
   [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query] is to use the notices structure as
   defined in Section 5.3.

   This is an example of a response to a /help query including the
   rdapConformance data structure.

   {
     "rdapConformance" :
     [
       "rdap_level_0"
     ],
     "notices" :
     [
       {
         "title" : "Authentication Policy",
         "description" :
         [
           "Access to sensitive data for users with proper credentials."
         ],
         "links" :
         [
           {
             "value" : "http://example.net/help",
             "rel" : "alternate",
             "type" : "text/html",
             "href" : "http://www.example.com/auth_policy.html"
           }
         ]
       }
     ]
   }

                                 Figure 19

9.  IANA Considerations

   This section requests that the IANA establish an RDAP JSON Values
   Registry for use in the status (Section 5.6), role (Section 6.1),
   event action (Section 5.5), and domain variant relation (Section 6.3)
   fields specified in RDAP.

   Each entry in the registry should contain the following fields:

   1.  Value - the string value being registered.

   2.  Type - the type of value being registered.  It should be one of
       the following:



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       *  'status' - denotes a value for the 'status' object member as
          defined by Section 5.6.

       *  'role' - denotes a value for the 'role' array as defined in
          Section 6.1.

       *  'event action' - denotes a value for an event action as
          defined in Section 5.5.

       *  'domain variant relation' - denotes a relationship between a
          domain and a domain variant as defined in Section 6.3.

   3.  Description - a one or two sentence description regarding the
       meaning of the value, how it might be used, and/or how it should
       be interpreted by clients.

   4.  Registrant Name - the name of the person registering the value.

   5.  Registrant Contact Information - an email address, postal
       address, or some other information to be used to contact the
       registrant.

   This registry should be governed by a designated expert or multiple
   designated experts.  Registration of values into this registry should
   be accomplished by providing the information above to the designated
   expert(s).

   Review of registrations into this registry by the designated
   expert(s) should be narrowly judged on the following criteria:

   1.  Values in need of being placed into multiple types must be
       assigned a separate registration for each type.

   2.  Values must be strings.  They can be multiple words separated by
       single space characters.  Every character should be lowercased.
       If possible, every word should be given in English and each
       character should be US ASCII.

   3.  Registrations should not duplicate the meaning of any existing
       registration.  That is, if a request for a registration is
       significantly similar in nature to an existing registration, the
       request should be denied.  For example, the terms 'maintainer'
       and 'registrant' are significantly similar in nature as they both
       denote a holder of a domain name or Internet number resource.  In
       cases where it may be reasonably argued that machine
       interpretation of two similar values may alter the operation of
       client software, designated experts should not judge the values
       to be of significant similarity.



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   4.  Registrations should be relevant to the common usages of RDAP.
       Designated experts may rely upon the serving of the value by a
       DNR or RIR to make this determination.

9.1.  Status

   This section registers the following values into the RDAP JSON Values
   Registry:

   1.

       *  Value: validated

       *  Type: status

       *  Description: Signifies that the data of the object instance
          has been found to be accurate.  This type of status is usually
          found on entity object instances to note the validity of
          identifying contact information.

       *  Registrant Name: Andrew Newton

       *  Registrant Contact Information: andy@hxr.us

   2.

       *  Value: update prohibited

       *  Type: status

       *  Description: Updates to the object instance are forbidden.

       *  Registrant Name: Andrew Newton

       *  Registrant Contact Information: andy@hxr.us

   3.

       *  Value: transfer prohibited

       *  Type: status

       *  Description: Transfers of the registration from one registrar
          to another are forbidden.  This type of status normally
          applies to DNR domain names.

       *  Registrant Name: Andrew Newton




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       *  Registrant Contact Information: andy@hxr.us

   4.

       *  Value: delete prohibited

       *  Type: status

       *  Description: Deletion of the registration of the object
          instance is forbidden.  This type of status normally applies
          to DNR domain names.

       *  Registrant Name: Andrew Newton

       *  Registrant Contact Information: andy@hxr.us

   5.

       *  Value: proxy

       *  Type: status

       *  Description: The registration of the object instance has been
          performed by a third party.  This is most commonly applied to
          entities.

       *  Registrant Name: Andrew Newton

       *  Registrant Contact Information: andy@hxr.us

   6.

       *  Value: private

       *  Type: status

       *  Description: The information of the object instance is not
          designated for public consumption.  This is most commonly
          applied to entities.

       *  Registrant Name: Andrew Newton

       *  Registrant Contact Information: andy@hxr.us

   7.

       *  Value: redacted




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       *  Type: status

       *  Description: Some of the information of the object instance
          has not been made available.  This is most commonly applied to
          entities.

       *  Registrant Name: Andrew Newton

       *  Registrant Contact Information: andy@hxr.us

   8.

       *  Value: obscured

       *  Type: status

       *  Description: Some of the information of the object instance
          has been altered for the purposes of not readily revealing the
          actual information of the object instance.  This is most
          commonly applied to entities.

       *  Registrant Name: Andrew Newton

       *  Registrant Contact Information: andy@hxr.us

9.2.  Event Actions

   This section registers the following values into the RDAP JSON Values
   Registry:

   1.

       *  Value: registration

       *  Type: event action

       *  Description: The object instance was initially registered.

       *  Registrant Name: Andrew Newton

       *  Registrant Contact Information: andy@hxr.us

   2.

       *  Value: reregistration

       *  Type: event action




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       *  Description: The object instance was registered subsequently
          to initial registration.

       *  Registrant Name: Andrew Newton

       *  Registrant Contact Information: andy@hxr.us

   3.

       *  Value: last changed

       *  Type: event action

       *  Description: An action noting when the information in the
          object instance was last changed.

       *  Registrant Name: Andrew Newton

       *  Registrant Contact Information: andy@hxr.us

   4.

       *  Value: expiration

       *  Type: event action

       *  Description: The object instance has been removed or will be
          removed at a pre-determined date and time from the registry.

       *  Registrant Name: Andrew Newton

       *  Registrant Contact Information: andy@hxr.us

   5.

       *  Value: deletion

       *  Type: event action

       *  Description: The object instance was removed from the registry
          at a point in time that was not pre-determined.

       *  Registrant Name: Andrew Newton

       *  Registrant Contact Information: andy@hxr.us

   6.




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       *  Value: reinstantiation

       *  Type: event action

       *  Description: The object instance was reregistered after having
          been removed from the registry.

       *  Registrant Name: Andrew Newton

       *  Registrant Contact Information: andy@hxr.us

   7.

       *  Value: transfer

       *  Type: event action

       *  Description: The object instance was transferred from one
          registrant to another.

       *  Registrant Name: Andrew Newton

       *  Registrant Contact Information: andy@hxr.us

9.3.  Roles

   This section registers the following values into the RDAP JSON Values
   Registry:

   1.

       *  Value: registrant

       *  Type: role

       *  Description: The entity object instance is the registrant of
          the registration.  In some registries, this is known as a
          maintainer.

       *  Registrant Name: Andrew Newton

       *  Registrant Contact Information: andy@hxr.us

   2.

       *  Value: tech

       *  Type: role



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       *  Description: The entity object instance is a technical contact
          for the registration.

       *  Registrant Name: Andrew Newton

       *  Registrant Contact Information: andy@hxr.us

   3.

       *  Value: administrative

       *  Type: role

       *  Description: The entity object instance is an administrative
          contact for the registration.

       *  Registrant Name: Andrew Newton

       *  Registrant Contact Information: andy@hxr.us

   4.

       *  Value: abuse

       *  Type: role

       *  Description: The entity object instance handles network abuse
          issues on behalf of the registrant of the registration.

       *  Registrant Name: Andrew Newton

       *  Registrant Contact Information: andy@hxr.us

   5.

       *  Value: billing

       *  Type: role

       *  Description: The entity object instance handles payment and
          billing issues on behalf of the registrant of the
          registration.

       *  Registrant Name: Andrew Newton

       *  Registrant Contact Information: andy@hxr.us

   6.



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       *  Value: registrar

       *  Type: role

       *  Description: The entity object instance represents the
          authority responsible for the registration in the registry.

       *  Registrant Name: Andrew Newton

       *  Registrant Contact Information: andy@hxr.us

   7.

       *  Value: reseller

       *  Type: role

       *  Description: The entity object instance represents a third
          party through which the registration was conducted (i.e. not
          the registry or registrar).

       *  Registrant Name: Andrew Newton

       *  Registrant Contact Information: andy@hxr.us

   8.

       *  Value: sponsor

       *  Type: role

       *  Description: The entity object instance represents a domain
          policy sponsor, such as an ICANN approved sponsor.

       *  Registrant Name: Andrew Newton

       *  Registrant Contact Information: andy@hxr.us

   9.

       *  Value: proxy

       *  Type: role

       *  Description: The entity object instance represents a proxy for
          another entity object, such as a registrant.

       *  Registrant Name: Andrew Newton



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       *  Registrant Contact Information: andy@hxr.us

9.4.  Variant Relations

   This section registers the following values into the RDAP JSON Values
   Registry:

   1.

       *  Value: registered

       *  Type: domain variant relation

       *  Description: The variant names are registered in the registry.

       *  Registrant Name: Andrew Newton

       *  Registrant Contact Information: andy@hxr.us

   2.

       *  Value: unregistered

       *  Type: domain variant relation

       *  Description: The variant names are not found in the registry.

       *  Registrant Name: Andrew Newton

       *  Registrant Contact Information: andy@hxr.us

   3.

       *  Value: registration restricted

       *  Type: domain variant relation

       *  Description: Registration of the variant names is restricted
          to certain parties or within certain rules.

       *  Registrant Name: Andrew Newton

       *  Registrant Contact Information: andy@hxr.us

   4.

       *  Value: open registration




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       *  Type: domain variant relation

       *  Description: Registration of the variant names is available to
          generally qualified registrants.

       *  Registrant Name: Andrew Newton

       *  Registrant Contact Information: andy@hxr.us

   5.

       *  Value: conjoined

       *  Type: domain variant relation

       *  Description: Registration of the variant names occurs
          automatically with the registration of the containing domain
          registration.

       *  Registrant Name: Andrew Newton

       *  Registrant Contact Information: andy@hxr.us

10.  Security Considerations

   This specification models information serialized in JSON format.  As
   JSON is a subset of Javascript, implementations are advised to follow
   the security considerations outlined in Section 6 of [RFC4627] to
   prevent code injection.

11.  Internationalization Considerations

11.1.  Character Encoding

   The default text encoding for JSON and XML responses in RDAP is UTF-8
   [RFC3629], and all servers and clients MUST support UTF-8.  Servers
   and clients MAY optionally support other character encodings.

11.2.  URIs and IRIs

   [I-D.ietf-weirds-using-http] defines the use of URIs and IRIs in
   RDAP.









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11.3.  Language Tags

   Section 5.4 defines the use of language tags in the JSON responses
   defined in this document.

11.4.  Internationalized Domain Names

   Internationalized Domain Names (IDNs) are denoted in this
   specification by the separation of DNS names in LDH form and Unicode
   form (see Section 4).  Representation of IDNs in registries is
   described by the "variants" object in Section 6.3 and the suggested
   values listed in Section 9.4.

12.  Privacy Considerations

   This specification suggests status values to denote contact and
   registrant information that has been marked as private and/or has
   been redacted or obscured.  See Section 9.1 for the list of status
   values.  See Appendix A.1 on guidance to apply those values to
   contacts and registrants.

13.  Contributing Authors and Acknowledgements

   This document is derived from original work on RIR responses in JSON
   by Byron J.  Ellacott, Arturo L. Servin, Kaveh Ranjbar, and Andrew L.
   Newton.  Additionally, this document incorporates word on DNR
   responses in JSON by Ning Kong, Linlin Zhou, Jiagui Xie, and Sean
   Shen.

   The components of the DNR object classes are derived from a
   categorization of WHOIS response formats created by Ning Kong, Linlin
   Zhou, and Guangqing Deng, Steve Sheng and Francisco Arias, Ray
   Bellis, and Frederico Neves.

   Ed Lewis contributed significant review comments and provided
   clarifying text.  James Mitchell provided text regarding the
   processing of unknown JSON attributes and identified issues leading
   to the remodeling of events.  Ernie Dainow and Francisco Obispo
   provided concrete suggestions that led to a better variant model for
   domain names.

   Ernie Dainow provided the background information on the secure DNSSEC
   attributes and objects for domains, informative text on DNSSEC, and
   many other attributes that appear throughout the object classes of
   this draft.

   The switch to and incorporation of JSON vCard was performed by Simon
   Perreault.



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14.  References

14.1.  Normative References

   [RFC0791]  Postel, J., "Internet Protocol", STD 5, RFC 791, September
              1981.

   [RFC1166]  Kirkpatrick, S., Stahl, M., and M. Recker, "Internet
              numbers", RFC 1166, July 1990.

   [RFC2616]  Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H.,
              Masinter, L., Leach, P., and T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1", RFC 2616, June 1999.

   [RFC3339]  Klyne, G., Ed. and C. Newman, "Date and Time on the
              Internet: Timestamps", RFC 3339, July 2002.

   [RFC3629]  Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
              10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003.

   [RFC3986]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66, RFC
              3986, January 2005.

   [RFC4034]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
              Rose, "Resource Records for the DNS Security Extensions",
              RFC 4034, March 2005.

   [RFC4343]  Eastlake, D., "Domain Name System (DNS) Case Insensitivity
              Clarification", RFC 4343, January 2006.

   [RFC4627]  Crockford, D., "The application/json Media Type for
              JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)", RFC 4627, July 2006.

   [RFC5322]  Resnick, P., Ed., "Internet Message Format", RFC 5322,
              October 2008.

   [RFC5396]  Huston, G. and G. Michaelson, "Textual Representation of
              Autonomous System (AS) Numbers", RFC 5396, December 2008.

   [RFC5646]  Phillips, A. and M. Davis, "Tags for Identifying
              Languages", BCP 47, RFC 5646, September 2009.

   [RFC5890]  Klensin, J., "Internationalized Domain Names for
              Applications (IDNA): Definitions and Document Framework",
              RFC 5890, August 2010.





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   [RFC5952]  Kawamura, S. and M. Kawashima, "A Recommendation for IPv6
              Address Text Representation", RFC 5952, August 2010.

   [RFC5988]  Nottingham, M., "Web Linking", RFC 5988, October 2010.

   [I-D.kewisch-vcard-in-json]
              Kewisch, P., "jCard: The JSON format for vCard", draft-
              kewisch-vcard-in-json-01 (work in progress), March 2013.

   [I-D.ietf-weirds-using-http]
              Newton, A., Ellacott, B., and N. Kong, "HTTP usage in the
              Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)", draft-ietf-
              weirds-using-http-05 (work in progress), May 2013.

   [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query]
              Newton, A. and S. Hollenbeck, "Registration Data Access
              Protocol Lookup Format", draft-ietf-weirds-rdap-query-05
              (work in progress), June 2013.

   [ISO.3166.1988]
              International Organization for Standardization, "Codes for
              the representation of names of countries, 3rd edition",
              ISO Standard 3166, August 1988.

14.2.  Informative References

   [RFC3912]  Daigle, L., "WHOIS Protocol Specification", RFC 3912,
              September 2004.

   [RFC3730]  Hollenbeck, S., "Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP)",
              RFC 3730, March 2004.

   [RFC5910]  Gould, J. and S. Hollenbeck, "Domain Name System (DNS)
              Security Extensions Mapping for the Extensible
              Provisioning Protocol (EPP)", RFC 5910, May 2010.

   [RFC6530]  Klensin, J. and Y. Ko, "Overview and Framework for
              Internationalized Email", RFC 6530, February 2012.

   [JSON_acendancy]
              MacVittie, ., "The Stealthy Ascendancy of JSON", 04 2011.

   [JSON_performance_study]
              Montana State University - Bozeman, Montana State
              University - Bozeman, Montana State University - Bozeman,
              Montana State University - Bozeman, "Comparison of JSON
              and XML Data Interchange Formats: A Case Study", 2009.




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Appendix A.  Suggested Data Modeling with the Entity Object Class

A.1.  Registrants and Contacts

   This document does not provide specific object classes for
   registrants and contacts.  Instead the entity object class may be
   used to represent a registrant or contact.  When the entity object is
   embedded inside a containing object such as a domain name or IP
   network, the 'roles' string array can be used to signify the
   relationship.  It is recommended that the values from Section 9.3 be
   used.

   The following is an example of an elided containing object with an
   embedded entity that is both a registrant and admin contact:


   {
     ...
     "entities" :
     [
       {
         "handle" : "XXXX",
         "vcardArray":[
           "vcard",
           [
             ["version", {}, "text", "4.0"],
             ["fn", {}, "text", "Joe User"],
             ["kind", {}, "text", "individual"],
             ["lang", {
               "pref":"1"
             }, "language-tag", "fr"],
             ["lang", {
               "pref":"2"
             }, "language-tag", "en"],
             ["org", {
               "type":"work"
             }, "text", "Example"],
             ["title", {}, "text", "Research Scientist"],
             ["role", {}, "text", "Project Lead"],
             ["adr",
               { "type":"work" },
               "text",
               [
                 "",
                 "Suite 1234",
                 "4321 Rue Somewhere",
                 "Quebec",
                 "QC",



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                 "G1V 2M2",
                 "Canada"
               ]
             ],
             ["tel",
               { "type":["work", "voice"], "pref":"1" },
               "uri", "tel:+1-555-555-1234;ext=102"
             ],
             ["email",
               { "type":"work" },
               "text", "joe.user@example.com"
             ],
           ]
         ],
         "roles" : [ "registrant", "admin" ],
         "remarks" :
         [
           {
             "description" :
             [
               "She sells sea shells down by the sea shore.",
               "Originally written by Terry Sullivan."
             ]
           }
         ],
         "events" :
         [
           {
             "eventAction" : "registration",
             "eventDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z"
           },
           {
             "eventAction" : "last changed",
             "eventDate" : "1991-12-31T23:59:60Z"
           }
         ]
       }
     ]
   }



   In many use cases, it is necessary to hide or obscure the information
   of a registrant or contact due to policy or other operational
   matters.  Registries can denote these situations with 'status' values
   (see Section 9.1).





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   The following is an elided example of a registrant with information
   changed to reflect that of a third party.


   {
     ...
     "entities" :
     [
       {
         "handle" : "XXXX",
         ...
         "roles" : [ "registrant", "admin" ],
         "status" : [ "proxy", "private", "obscured" ]
       }
     ]
   }



A.2.  Registrars

   This document does not provide a specific object class for
   registrars, but like registrants and contacts (see Appendix A.1) the
   'roles' string array maybe used.  Additionally, many registrars have
   publicly assigned identifiers.  The 'publicIds' structure
   (Section 5.8) represents that information.

   The following is an example of an elided containing object with an
   embedded entity that is a registrar:


   {
     ...
     "entities":[
       {
         "handle":"XXXX",
         "vcardArray":[
           "vcard",
           [
             ["version", {}, "text", "4.0"],
             ["fn", {}, "text", "Joe User"],
             ["kind", {}, "text", "individual"],
             ["lang", {
               "pref":"1"
             }, "language-tag", "fr"],
             ["lang", {
               "pref":"2"
             }, "language-tag", "en"],



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             ["org", {
               "type":"work"
             }, "text", "Example"],
             ["title", {}, "text", "Research Scientist"],
             ["role", {}, "text", "Project Lead"],
             ["adr",
               { "type":"work" },
               "text",
               [
                 "",
                 "Suite 1234",
                 "4321 Rue Somewhere",
                 "Quebec",
                 "QC",
                 "G1V 2M2",
                 "Canada"
               ]
             ],
             ["tel",
               {
                 "type":["work", "voice"],
                 "pref":"1"
               },
               "uri", "tel:+1-555-555-1234;ext=102"
             ],
             ["email",
               { "type":"work" },
               "text", "joe.user@example.com"
             ],
           ]
         ],
         "roles":[ "registrar" ],
         "publicIds":[
           {
             "type":"IANA Registrar ID",
             "identifier":"1"
           }
         ],
         "remarks":[
           {
             "description":[
               "She sells sea shells down by the sea shore.",
               "Originally written by Terry Sullivan."
             ]
           }
         ],
         "links":[
           {



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             "value":"http://example.net/entity/XXXX",
             "rel":"alternate",
             "type":"text/html",
             "href":"http://www.example.com"
           }
         ]
       }
     ]
   }



Appendix B.  Modeling Events

   Events represent actions that have taken place against a registered
   object at a certain date and time.  Events have three properties: the
   action, the actor, and the date and time of the event (which is
   sometimes in the future).  In some cases the identity of the actor is
   not captured.

   Events can be modeled in three ways:

   1.  events with no designated actor

   2.  events where the actor is only designated by an identifier

   3.  events where the actor can be modeled as an entity

   For the first use case, the 'events' data structure (Section 5.5) is
   used without the 'eventActor' object member.

   This is an example of an "events" array without the 'eventActor'.

   "events" :
   [
     {
       "eventAction" : "registration",
       "eventDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z"
     }
   ]

                                 Figure 20

   For the second use case, the 'events' data structure (Section 5.5) is
   used with the 'eventActor' object member.

   This is an example of an "events" array with the 'eventActor'.




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   "events" :
   [
     {
       "eventAction" : "registration",
       "eventActor" : "XYZ-NIC",
       "eventDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z"
     }
   ]

                                 Figure 21

   For the third use case, the 'asEventActor' array is used when an
   entity (Section 6.1) is embedded into another object class.  The
   'asEventActor' array follows the same structure as the 'events' array
   but does not have 'eventActor' attributes.

   The following is an elided example of a domain object with an entity
   as an event actor.


   {
     "handle" : "XXXX",
     "ldhName" : "foo.example",
     "status" : [ "locked", "transfer Prohibited" ],
     ...
     "entities" :
     [
       {
         "handle" : "XXXX",
         ...
         "asEventActor" :
         [
           {
             "eventAction" : "last changed",
             "eventDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z"
           }
         ]
       }
     ]
   }











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Appendix C.  Structured vs Unstructured Addresses

   The entity (Section 6.1) object class uses jCard
   [I-D.kewisch-vcard-in-json] to represent contact information,
   including postal addresses. jCard has the ability to represent
   multiple language preferences, multiple email address and phone
   numbers, and multiple postal addresses in both a structured and
   unstructured format.  This section describes the use of jCard for
   representing structured and unstructured addresses.

   The following is an example of a jCard.


   {
     "vcardArray":[
       "vcard",
       [
         ["version", {}, "text", "4.0"],
         ["fn", {}, "text", "Joe User"],
         ["n", {}, "text",
           ["User", "Joe", "", "", ["ing. jr", "M.Sc."]]
         ],
         ["bday", {}, "date-and-or-time", "--02-03"],
         ["anniversary",
           {}, "date-and-or-time", "2009-08-08T14:30:00-05:00"
         ],
         ["gender", {}, "text", "M"],
         ["kind", {}, "text", "individual"],
         ["lang", {
           "pref":"1"
         }, "language-tag", "fr"],
         ["lang", {
           "pref":"2"
         }, "language-tag", "en"],
         ["org", {
           "type":"work"
         }, "text", "Example"],
         ["title", {}, "text", "Research Scientist"],
         ["role", {}, "text", "Project Lead"],
         ["adr",
           { "type":"work" },
           "text",
           [
             "",
             "Suite 1234",
             "4321 Rue Somewhere",
             "Quebec",
             "QC",



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             "G1V 2M2",
             "Canada"
           ]
         ],
         ["adr",
           {
             "type":"home",
             "label":"123 Maple Ave\nSuite 90001\nVancouver\nBC\n1239\n"
           },
           "text",
           [
             "", "", "", "", "", "", ""
           ]
         ],
         ["tel",
           { "type":["work", "voice"], "pref":"1" },
           "uri", "tel:+1-555-555-1234;ext=102"
         ],
         ["tel",
           {
             "type":["work", "cell", "voice", "video", "text"]
           },
           "uri",
           "tel:+1-555-555-1234"
         ],
         ["email",
           { "type":"work" },
           "text", "joe.user@example.com"
         ],
         ["geo", {
           "type":"work"
         }, "uri", "geo:46.772673,-71.282945"],
         ["key",
           { "type":"work" },
           "uri", "http://www.example.com/joe.user/joe.asc"
         ],
         ["tz", {},
           "utc-offset", "-05:00"],
         ["url", { "type":"home" },
           "uri", "http://example.org"]
       ]
     ]
   }


                                 Figure 22





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   The arrays in Figure 22 with the first member of "adr" represent
   postal addresses.  In the first example, the postal address is given
   as a an array of strings and constitutes a structured address.  For
   components of the structured address that are not applicable, an
   empty string is given.  Each member of that array aligns with the
   positions of a vCard as given in [RFC6530].  In this example, the
   following data corresponds to the following positional meanings:

   1.  post office box - not applicable, empty string

   2.  extended address (e.g., apartment or suite number) - Suite 1234

   3.  street address - 4321 Rue Somewhere

   4.  locality (e.g., city) - Quebec

   5.  region (e.g., state or province) - QC

   6.  postal code - G1V 2M2

   7.  country name (full name) - Canada

   The second example is an unstructured address.  It uses the label
   attribute, which is a string containing a newline (\n) character to
   separate address components in an unordered, unspecified manner.
   Note that in this example the structured address array is still given
   but that each string is an empty string.

Appendix D.  Secure DNS

   Section 6.3 defines the "secureDNS" member to represent secure DNS
   information about domain names.

   DNSSEC provides data integrity for DNS through digital signing of
   resource records.  To enable DNSSEC, the zone is signed by one or
   more private keys and the signatures stored as RRSIG records.  To
   complete the chain of trust in the DNS zone hierarchy, a digest of
   each DNSKEY record (which contains the public key) must be loaded
   into the parent zone, stored as Delegation Signer (DS) records and
   signed by the parent's private key (RRSIG DS record), "Resource
   Records for the DNS Security Extensions" [RFC4034].  Creating the DS
   records in the parent zone can be done by the registration authority,
   "Domain Name System (DNS) Security Extensions Mapping for the
   Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP)" [RFC5910].







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   Only DS related information is provided by RDAP, since other
   information is not generally stored in the registration database.
   Other DNSSEC related information can be retrieved with other DNS
   tools such as dig.

   The domain object class (Section 6.3) can represent this information
   using either the 'dsData' or 'keyData' object arrays.  Client
   implementers should be aware that some registries do not collect or
   do not publish all of the secure DNS meta-information.

Appendix E.  Motivations for Using JSON

   This section addresses a common question regarding the use of JSON
   over other data formats, most notably XML.

   It is often pointed out that many DNRs and one RIR support the EPP
   [RFC3730] standard, which is an XML serialized protocol.  The logic
   is that since EPP is a common protocol in the industry it follows
   that XML would be a more natural choice.  While EPP does influence
   this specification quite a bit, EPP serves a different purpose which
   is the provisioning of Internet resources between registries and
   accredited registrars and serves a much narrower audience than that
   envisioned for RDAP.

   By contrast, RDAP has a broader audience and is designed for public
   consumption of data.  Experience from RIRs with first generation
   RESTful web services for Whois indicate a large percentage of clients
   operate within browsers and other platforms where full-blown XML
   stacks are not readily available and where JSON is a better fit.

   Additionally, while EPP is used in much of the DNR community it is
   not a universal constant in that industry.  And finally, EPP's use of
   XML predates the specification of JSON.  If EPP had been defined
   today, it may very well have used JSON instead of XML.

   Beyond the specific DNR and RIR communities, the trend in the broader
   Internet industry is also switching to JSON over XML, especially in
   the area of RESTful web services (see [JSON_acendancy]).  Studies
   have also found that JSON is generally less bulky and consequently
   faster to parse (see [JSON_performance_study]).

Appendix F.  Changelog

   Initial -00  Adopted as working group document 2012-September-18.

   -01





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         Minor spelling corrections.  Changed "Registry Data" to
         "Registration Data" for the sake of consistency.

         Transitioned to RFC 5988 links and relationship types from our
         own custom "uris" structure.

         Some examples had 'status' as a string.  Those have been
         corrected as 'status' is always an array of strings.

         Domain variants can now have a multi-valued relationship with
         domain registrations.

         "names" in the entity object class was changed to
         "entityNames".

         Some IP address examples change to IPv6.

         Change phone number examples and added reference to E.164.

         Added section on motivations for using JSON.

         Added error response body section.

         Added JSON naming section.

         Added common data structures section.

         Added the IANA Considerations section and the media type
         registration.

         Added 'lang' name/value.

         Added internationalization considerations section.

   -02

         Removed level from media type registration.

         Textual changes as given by Ed Lewis.

         Fixed object class linking example noted by Francisco Obispo

         Fixed a lot of other examples called out by Alex Sergeyev

         Added a note that JSON names are case sensitive

         Added 'status' to IP networks as suggested by Alex Sergeyev




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   -03

         Added jCard verbiage and examples and deleted overlapping
         contact information and the appendix on postal addresses

         Removed the IANA considerations as they have been moved to
         another document

         Changed the remarks structure to be like notices

         Reordering and rewording some of the sections so they flow
         better

         Added note about object class "self" links

         Changed ipAddresses in nameserver object class to separate out
         v6 from v4

         Changed IP network version identifier from integer to string to
         be more consistent with ipAddresses identifier in nameserver
         object classes

         Changed DNS names to LDH names and Unicode names

         Modified the definition of 'conjoined' variant relationship so
         it was circular

         Added 'proxy', 'private', 'redacted', and 'obscured' status
         values (most useful for entities).

         Added a privacy considerations section

         Added a security considerations section

         Added 'reseller' and 'sponsor' to the list of entity roles

         Added the 'events' common data structure

         Added 'asEventActor' to entities

         Added appendix on event modeling

         Removed the subclasses/superclassing between RIRs/DNRs for
         entity and domain object classes

         Change suggested status/relation/etc values to be case/spacing
         consistent




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         Normalized some of the definitions of object class members

         Modifying the JSON signaling section to reference the guidance
         in draft-ietf-weirds-using-http

         Changed the text regarding the process of unknown JSON
         attributes

   -04

         'description' removed from IP network and autnum because it is
         redundant with the remarks structure.

         Added 'entities' array to nameservers.

         Added 'status' to autnum.

         Added 'publicIds' to entity and domain.

         Added embedded entities to the entity object class.

         Added 'idnTable' to variants objects in domain object class.

         Changed the numbers for startNum and endNum in autnum to
         numbers instead of strings.

         Added an example for error response with full rdapConformance
         and notices.

         Added a section discussing help.

         Changed entities to use vcardArray and changed the examples to
         be current with jCard.

         Added a section on structured vs unstructured addresses.

         Added associated to the list of status values.

         Added a secure DNS section changed the 'delegationKey' object
         into the 'secureDNS' object.

         Changed the suggested values to an IANA registry.

         Added 'proxy' to the list of entity roles.

Authors' Addresses





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   Andrew Lee Newton
   American Registry for Internet Numbers
   3635 Concorde Parkway
   Chantilly, VA  20151
   US

   Email: andy@arin.net
   URI:   http://www.arin.net


   Scott Hollenbeck
   Verisign Labs
   12061 Bluemont Way
   Reston, VA  20190
   US

   Email: shollenbeck@verisign.com
   URI:   http://www.verisignlabs.com/

































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