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Versions: (draft-moffitt-xmpp-over-websocket) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 RFC 7395

XMPP Working Group                                         L. Stout, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                                      &yet
Intended status: Standards Track                              J. Moffitt
Expires: October 24, 2014                                        Mozilla
                                                              E. Cestari
                                                        cstar industries
                                                          April 22, 2014


                   An XMPP Sub-protocol for WebSocket
                      draft-ietf-xmpp-websocket-06

Abstract

   This document defines a binding for the XMPP protocol over a
   WebSocket transport layer.  A WebSocket binding for XMPP provides
   higher performance than the current HTTP binding for XMPP.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on October 24, 2014.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of




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   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  XMPP Sub-Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     3.1.  Handshake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     3.2.  WebSocket Messages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.3.  XMPP Framing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
       3.3.1.  Framed XML Stream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
       3.3.2.  Framed Stream Namespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       3.3.3.  Stream Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.4.  Stream Initiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.5.  Stream Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.6.  Closing the Connection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       3.6.1.  see-other-uri . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.7.  Stream Restarts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.8.  Pings and Keepalives  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.9.  Use of TLS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     3.10. Stream Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   4.  Discovering the WebSocket Connection Method . . . . . . . . .   9
   5.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     5.1.  WebSocket Subprotocol Name  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     5.2.  URN Sub-Namespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   7.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     7.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     7.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   Appendix A.  XML Schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14

1.  Introduction

   Applications using the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol
   (XMPP) (see [RFC6120] and [RFC6121]) on the Web currently make use of
   BOSH (see [XEP-0124] and [XEP-0206]), an XMPP binding to HTTP.  BOSH
   is based on the HTTP long polling technique, and it suffers from high
   transport overhead compared to XMPP's native binding to TCP.  In
   addition, there are a number of other known issues with long polling
   [RFC6202], which have an impact on BOSH-based systems.

   It would be much better in most circumstances to avoid tunneling XMPP
   over HTTP long polled connections and instead use the XMPP protocol
   directly.  However, the APIs and sandbox that browsers have provided
   do not allow this.  The WebSocket protocol [RFC6455] exists to solve
   these kinds of problems and is a bidirectional protocol that provides



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   a simple message-based framing layer over raw sockets, allowing for
   more robust and efficient communication in web applications.

   The WebSocket protocol enables two-way communication between a client
   and a server, effectively emulating TCP at the application layer and
   therefore overcoming many of the problems with existing long-polling
   techniques for bidirectional HTTP.  This document defines a WebSocket
   sub-protocol for XMPP.

2.  Terminology

   The basic unit of framing in the WebSocket protocol is called a
   message.  In XMPP, the basic unit is the stanza, which is a subset of
   the first-level children of each document in an XMPP stream (see
   Section 9 of [RFC6120]).  XMPP also has a concept of messages, which
   are stanzas with a top-level element of <message/>.  In this
   document, the word "message" will mean a WebSocket message, not an
   XMPP message stanza, unless otherwise noted.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   [RFC2119].

3.  XMPP Sub-Protocol

3.1.  Handshake

   The XMPP sub-protocol is used to transport XMPP over a WebSocket
   connection.  The client and server agree to this protocol during the
   WebSocket handshake (see Section 1.3 of [RFC6455]).

   During the WebSocket handshake, the client MUST include the
   value |xmpp| in the list of protocols for the |Sec-WebSocket-
   Protocol| header.  The reply from the server MUST also contain |xmpp|
   in its own |Sec-WebSocket-Protocol| header in order for an XMPP sub-
   protocol connection to be established.

   Once the handshake is complete, WebSocket messages sent or received
   will conform to the protocol defined in the rest of this document.











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   C:  GET /xmpp-websocket HTTP/1.1
       Host: example.com
       Upgrade: websocket
       Connection: Upgrade
       Sec-WebSocket-Key: dGhlIHNhbXBsZSBub25jZQ==
       Origin: http://example.com
       ...
       Sec-WebSocket-Protocol: xmpp
       Sec-WebSocket-Version: 13


   S:  HTTP/1.1 101 Switching Protocols
       Upgrade: websocket
       Connection: Upgrade
       ...
       Sec-WebSocket-Accept: s3pPLMBiTxaQ9kYGzzhZRbK+xOo=
       Sec-WebSocket-Protocol: xmpp

   [WebSocket connection established]

   C:  <open xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-framing"
             to="example.com"
             version="1.0" />

   S:  <open xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-framing"
             from="example.com"
             id="++TR84Sm6A3hnt3Q065SnAbbk3Y="
             xml:lang="en"
             version="1.0" />

3.2.  WebSocket Messages

   Data frame messages in the XMPP sub-protocol MUST be of the text type
   and contain UTF-8 encoded data.

3.3.  XMPP Framing

   The WebSocket XMPP sub-protocol deviates from the standard method of
   constructing and using XML streams as defined in [RFC6120] by
   adopting the message framing provided by WebSocket to delineate the
   stream open and close headers, stanzas, and other top-level stream
   elements.

3.3.1.  Framed XML Stream

   The start of a framed XML stream is marked by the use of an opening
   "stream header" which is an <open/> element with the appropriate
   attributes and namespace declarations (see Section 3.3.2).  The



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   attributes of the <open/> element are the same as those of the
   <stream/> element defined defined for the 'http://etherx.jabber.org/
   streams' namespace in [RFC6120] and with the same semantics and
   restrictions.

   The end of a framed XML stream is denoted by the closing "stream
   header" which is a <close/> element with its associated attributes
   and namespace declarations (see Section 3.3.2).

   The introduction of the <open/> and <close/> elements is motivated by
   the parsable XML document framing restriction in Section 3.3.3.  As a
   consequence, note that a framed XML stream does not provided a
   wrapping <stream:stream/> element encompassing the entirety of the
   XML stream, as in [RFC6120].

3.3.2.  Framed Stream Namespace

   The XML stream "headers" (the <open/> and <close/> elements) MUST be
   qualified by the namespace 'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-framing' (the
   "framed stream namespace").  If this rule is violated, the entity
   that receives the offending stream header MUST close the stream with
   an error, which MUST be <invalid-namespace> (see Section 4.9.3.10 of
   [RFC6120]).

3.3.3.  Stream Frames

   The individual frames of a framed XML stream have a one-to-one
   correspondence with WebSocket messages, and MUST be parsable as
   standalone XML documents, complete with all relevant namespace and
   language declarations.  The inclusion of XML declarations, however,
   is NOT RECOMMENDED as WebSocket messages are already mandated to be
   UTF-8 encoded and therefore would only add a constant size overhead
   to each message.

   The first character of each frame MUST be a '<' character.

   Every XMPP stanza or other XML element (including the stream open and
   close headers) sent directly over the XML stream MUST be sent in its
   own frame.

   Example of a WebSocket message that contains an independently
   parsable XML document:

   <message xmlns="jabber:client" xml:lang="en">
     <body>Every WebSocket message is parsable by itself.</body>
   </message>





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   Note that for stream features and errors, there is no parent context
   element providing the "stream" namespace prefix as in [RFC6120], and
   thus the stream prefix MUST be declared or use an unprefixed form:

   <stream:features xmlns:stream="http://etherx.jabber.org/streams">
     <bind xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-bind"/>
   </stream:features>

   -- OR --

   <error xmlns="http://etherx.jabber.org/streams">
     <host-unknown xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-streams'/>
   </error>

3.4.  Stream Initiation

   The first message sent after the WebSocket opening handshake MUST be
   from the initiating entity, and MUST be an <open/> element qualified
   by the "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-framing" namespace and with the
   same attributes mandated for the <stream> opening tag as described in
   Section 4.7 of [RFC6120].

   The receiving entity MUST respond with either an <open /> element
   (whose attributes match those described in Section 4.7 of [RFC6120])
   or a <close /> element (see Section 3.6.1).

   An example of a successful stream initiation exchange:

   C:  <open xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-framing"
             to="example.com"
             version="1.0" />

   S:  <open xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-framing"
             from="example.com"
             id="++TR84Sm6A3hnt3Q065SnAbbk3Y="
             xml:lang="en"
             version="1.0" />

   Clients MUST NOT multiplex XMPP streams over the same WebSocket.

3.5.  Stream Errors

   Stream level errors in XMPP are terminal.  Should such an error
   occur, the server MUST send the stream error as a complete element in
   a message to the client.

   If the error occurs during the opening of a stream, the server MUST
   send the initial open element response, followed by the stream level



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   error in a second WebSocket message frame.  The server MUST then
   close the connection as specified in Section 3.6.

3.6.  Closing the Connection

   The closing process for the XMPP sub-protocol mirrors that of the
   XMPP TCP binding as defined in Section 4.4 of [RFC6120], except that
   a <close/> element is used instead of the ending </stream:stream>
   tag.

   Either the server or the client may close the connection at any time.
   Before closing the connection, the closing party is expected to first
   close the XMPP stream (if one has been opened) by sending a message
   with the <close/> element, qualified by the "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns
   :xmpp-framing" namespace.  The stream is considered closed when a
   corresponding <close/> element is received from the other party, and
   the XMPP session is ended.

   To then close the WebSocket connection, the closing party MUST
   initiate the WebSocket closing handshake (see Section 7.1.2 of
   [RFC6455]).

   An example of ending an XMPP over WebSocket session by first closing
   the XMPP stream layer and then the WebSocket connection layer:

   Client                         (XMPP WSS)                      Server
   |  |                                                             |  |
   |  | <close xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-framing />        |  |
   |  |------------------------------------------------------------>|  |
   |  |       <close xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-framing" /> |  |
   |  |<------------------------------------------------------------|  |
   |  |                                                             |  |
   |  |                      (XMPP Stream Closed)                   |  |
   |  +-------------------------------------------------------------+  |
   |                                                                   |
   | WS CLOSE FRAME                                                    |
   |------------------------------------------------------------------>|
   |                                                    WS CLOSE FRAME |
   |<------------------------------------------------------------------|
   |                                                                   |
   |                         (Connection Closed)                       |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+

   If the WebSocket connection is closed or broken without the XMPP
   stream having been closed first, then the XMPP stream is considered
   implicitly closed and the XMPP session ended; however, if the use of
   stream management resumption was negotiated (see [XEP-0198]), the




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   server SHOULD consider the XMPP session still alive for a period of
   time based on server policy as specified in [XEP-0198].

3.6.1.  see-other-uri

   If the server (or a connection manager intermediary) wishes at any
   point to instruct the client to move to a different WebSocket
   endpoint (e.g. for load balancing purposes), the server MAY send a
   <close/> element and set the "see-other-uri" attribute to the URI of
   the new connection endpoint (which MAY be for a different transport
   method, such as BOSH (see [XEP-0124] and [XEP-0206]).

   Clients MUST NOT accept suggested endpoints with a lower security
   context (e.g. moving from a "wss://" endpoint to a "ws://" or "http:/
   /" endpoint).

   An example of the server closing a stream and instructing the client
   to connect at a different WebSocket endpoint:

   S: <close xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-framing"
             see-other-uri="wss://otherendpoint.example/xmpp-bind" />

3.7.  Stream Restarts

   Whenever a stream restart is mandated, both the server and client
   streams are implicitly closed and new streams MUST be opened, using
   the same process as in Section 3.4.  The client MUST send a new
   stream <open/> element and MUST NOT send a closing <close/> element.

   An example of restarting the stream after successful SASL
   negotiation:

   S: <success xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl" />

   [Streams implicitly closed]

   C: <open xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-framing"
            to="example.com"
            version="1.0" />

3.8.  Pings and Keepalives

   Traditionally, XMPP servers and clients often send "whitespace
   keepalives" (see Section 4.6.1 of [RFC6120]) between stanzas to
   maintain an XML stream.  However, for the XMPP sub-protocol, each
   message is required to start with a '<' character, and as such
   whitespace keepalives MUST NOT be used.




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   As alternatives, the XMPP Ping extension [XEP-0199] and the XMPP
   Stream Management extension [XEP-0198] provide pinging mechanisms.
   The use of either of these extensions (or both) MAY be used to
   determine the state of the connection.

   Clients and servers MAY also use WebSocket ping control frames for
   this purpose, but note that some environments, such as browsers, do
   not provide access for generating or monitoring ping control frames.

3.9.  Use of TLS

   TLS cannot be used at the XMPP sub-protocol layer because the sub-
   protocol does not allow for raw binary data to be sent.  Instead,
   when TLS is used, it MUST be enabled the WebSocket layer using secure
   WebSocket connections via the |wss| URI scheme.  (See Section 10.6 of
   [RFC6455].)

   Because TLS is to be provided outside of the XMPP sub-protocol layer,
   a server MUST NOT advertise TLS as a stream feature (see Section 4.6
   of [RFC6120]), and a client MUST ignore any advertised TLS stream
   feature, when using the XMPP sub-protocol.

3.10.  Stream Management

   In order to alleviate the problems of temporary disconnections, the
   XMPP Stream Management extension [XEP-0198] MAY be used to confirm
   when stanzas have been received by the server.

   In particular, the use of session resumption in [XEP-0198] MAY be
   used to allow for recreating the same stream session state after a
   temporary network unavailability or after navigating to a new URL in
   a browser.

4.  Discovering the WebSocket Connection Method

   Section 3 of [RFC6120] defines a procedure for connecting to an XMPP
   server, including ways to discover the TCP/IP address and port of the
   server.  When using the WebSocket binding as specified in this
   document (instead of the TCP binding as specified in [RFC6120]), a
   client needs an alternative way to discover information about the
   server's connection methods, since web browsers and other WebSocket-
   capable software applications typically cannot obtain such
   information from the Domain Name System.

   The alternative lookup process uses Web Host Metadata [RFC6415] and
   Web Linking [RFC5988], where the link relation type is "urn:xmpp:alt-
   connections:websocket" as described in Discovering Alternate XMPP
   Connection Methods [XEP-0156].  An example follows.



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   <XRD xmlns='http://docs.oasis-open.org/ns/xri/xrd-1.0'>
     <Link rel="urn:xmpp:alt-connections:websocket"
           href="wss://webcm.example.net:443/ws" />
   </XRD>

   Servers MAY expose discovery information using host-meta documents,
   and clients MAY use such information to determine the WebSocket
   endpoint for a server.

   Use of web-host metadata MAY be used to establish trust between the
   XMPP server domain and the WebSocket endpoint, particularly in multi-
   tenant situations where the same WebSocket endpoint is serving
   multiple XMPP domains.

5.  IANA Considerations

5.1.  WebSocket Subprotocol Name

   This specification requests IANA to register the WebSocket XMPP sub-
   protocol under the "WebSocket Subprotocol Name" Registry with the
   following data:

   Subprotocol Identifier:  xmpp

   Subprotocol Common Name:  WebSocket Transport for the Extensible
      Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP)

   Subprotocol Definition:  this document

5.2.  URN Sub-Namespace

   A URN sub-namespace for framing of Extensible Messaging and Presence
   Protocol (XMPP) streams is defined as follows.

   URI:  urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-framing

   Specification:  this document

   Description:  This is the XML namespace name for framing of
      Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) streams as
      defined by RFC XXXX.

   Registrant Contact:  IESG <iesg@ietf.org>








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6.  Security Considerations

   Since application level TLS cannot be used (see Section 3.9),
   applications need to protect the privacy of XMPP traffic at the
   WebSocket or other appropriate layer.

   Browser based applications are not able to inspect and verify at the
   application layer the certificate used for the WebSocket connection
   to ensure that it corresponds to the domain specified as the "to"
   address of the XMPP stream.  For hosts whose domain matches the
   origin for the WebSocket connection, that check is already performed
   by the browser.  However, in situations where the domain of the XMPP
   server might not match the origin for the WebSocket endpoint
   (especially multi-tenant hosting situations), the web host metadata
   method (see [RFC6415] and [XEP-0156]) MAY be used to delegate trust
   from the XMPP server domain to the WebSocket origin.

   When presented with a new WebSocket endpoint via the "see-other-uri"
   attribute of a <close/> element, clients MUST NOT accept the
   suggestion if the security context of the new endpoint is lower than
   the current one in order to prevent downgrade attacks from a "wss://"
   endpoint to "ws://".

   The Security Considerations for both WebSocket (see Section 10 of
   [RFC6455] and XMPP (see Section 13 of [RFC6120]) apply to the
   WebSocket XMPP sub-protocol.

7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC6120]  Saint-Andre, P., "Extensible Messaging and Presence
              Protocol (XMPP): Core", RFC 6120, March 2011.

   [RFC6455]  Fette, I. and A. Melnikov, "The WebSocket Protocol", RFC
              6455, December 2011.

7.2.  Informative References

   [RFC5988]  Nottingham, M., "Web Linking", RFC 5988, October 2010.

   [RFC6121]  Saint-Andre, P., "Extensible Messaging and Presence
              Protocol (XMPP): Instant Messaging and Presence", RFC
              6121, March 2011.




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   [RFC6202]  Loreto, S., Saint-Andre, P., Salsano, S., and G. Wilkins,
              "Known Issues and Best Practices for the Use of Long
              Polling and Streaming in Bidirectional HTTP", RFC 6202,
              April 2011.

   [RFC6415]  Hammer-Lahav, E. and B. Cook, "Web Host Metadata", RFC
              6415, October 2011.

   [XEP-0124]
              Paterson, I., Smith, D., Saint-Andre, P., Moffitt, J., and
              L. Stout, "Bidirectional-streams Over Synchronous HTTP
              (BOSH)", XSF XEP 0124, November 2013.

   [XEP-0156]
              Hildebrand, J., Saint-Andre, P., and L. Stout,
              "Discovering Alternative XMPP Connection Methods", XSF XEP
              0156, January 2014.

   [XEP-0198]
              Karneges, J., Saint-Andre, P., Hildebrand, J., Forno, F.,
              Cridland, D., and M. Wild, "Stream Management", XSF XEP
              0198, June 2011.

   [XEP-0199]
              Saint-Andre, P., "XMPP Ping", XSF XEP 0199, June 2009.

   [XEP-0206]
              Paterson, I., Saint-Andre, P., and L. Stout, "XMPP Over
              BOSH", XSF XEP 0206, November 2013.

   [XML-SCHEMA]
              Thompson, H., Maloney, M., Mendelsohn, N., and D. Beech,
              "XML Schema Part 1: Structures Second Edition", World Wide
              Web Consortium Recommendation REC-xmlschema-1-20041028,
              October 2004,
              <http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-xmlschema-1-20041028>.

Appendix A.  XML Schema

   The following schema formally defines the 'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns
   :xmpp-framing' namespace used in this document, in conformance with
   W3C XML Schema [XML-SCHEMA].  Because validation of XML streams and
   stanzas is optional, this schema is not normative and is provided for
   descriptive purposes only.

   <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>

   <xs:schema



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       xmlns:xs='http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema'
       targetNamespace='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-framing'
       xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-framing'
       elementFormDefault='unqualified'>

     <xs:element name='open'>
       <xs:complexType>
         <xs:simpleContent>
           <xs:extension base='empty'>
             <xs:attribute name='from' type='xs:string'
                           use='optional'/>
             <xs:attribute name='id' type='xs:string'
                           use='optional'/>
             <xs:attribute name='to' type='xs:string'
                           use='optional'/>
             <xs:attribute name='version' type='xs:decimal'
                           use='optional'/>
             <xs:attribute ref='xml:lang'
                           use='optional'/>
           </xs:extension>
         </xs:simpleContent>
       </xs:complexType>
     </xs:element>

     <xs:element name='close'>
       <xs:complexType>
         <xs:simpleContent>
           <xs:extension base='empty'>
             <xs:attribute name='from' type='xs:string'
                           use='optional'/>
             <xs:attribute name='id' type='xs:string'
                           use='optional'/>
             <xs:attribute name='see-other-uri' type='xs:anyURI'
                           use='optional'/>
             <xs:attribute name='to' type='xs:string'
                           use='optional'/>
             <xs:attribute name='version' type='xs:decimal'
                           use='optional'/>
             <xs:attribute ref='xml:lang'
                           use='optional'/>
           </xs:extension>
         </xs:simpleContent>
       </xs:complexType>
     </xs:element>

     <xs:simpleType name='empty'>
       <xs:restriction base='xs:string'>
         <xs:enumeration value=''/>



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Internet-Draft             XMPP over WebSocket                April 2014


       </xs:restriction>
     </xs:simpleType>

   </xs:schema>

Authors' Addresses

   Lance Stout (editor)
   &yet

   Email: lance@andyet.net


   Jack Moffitt
   Mozilla

   Email: jack@metajack.im


   Eric Cestari
   cstar industries

   Email: eric@cstar.io




























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