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Versions: 00 01 02

SAM Research Group                                            J. Buford
Internet-Draft                                               Avaya Labs
Intended Status: Informational                        February 25, 2008
Expires: August 18, 2008






                    Hybrid Overlay Multicast Framework
                draft-irtf-sam-hybrid-overlay-framework-02


Status of this Memo

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   Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008).






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Abstract

   We describe an experimental framework for constructing SAM sessions
   using hybrid combinations of Application Layer Multicast, native
   multicast, and multicast tunnels.  We leverage AMT relay and gateway
   elements for interoperation between native regions and ALM regions.
   The framework allows different overlay algorithms and different ALM
   control algorithms to be used.

Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119 [1].

Table of Contents


   1. Introduction...................................................3
   2. Definitions....................................................4
      2.1. Overlay Network...........................................4
      2.2. Overlay Multicast.........................................4
      2.3. Peer......................................................4
      2.4. Multi-Destination Routing.................................5
   3. Assumptions....................................................5
      3.1. Overlay...................................................5
      3.2. Overlay Multicast.........................................5
      3.3. NAT.......................................................6
      3.4. Regions...................................................6
      3.5. AMT.......................................................6
   4. ALM Tree Operations............................................7
   5. Hybrid Connectivity............................................8
   6. Scenarios......................................................9
      6.1. ALM-Only Tree - Algorithm 1...............................9
      6.2. ALM tree with peer at AMT site (AMT-GW)..................10
      6.3. ALM tree with NM peer using AMT-R........................10
      6.4. ALM tree with NM peer with P-AMT-R.......................11
      6.5. Mixed Region Scenarios...................................11
   7. Open Issues and Further Work..................................13
   8. Security Considerations.......................................13
   9. IANA Considerations...........................................13
   10. References...................................................13
      10.1. Normative References....................................13
      10.2. Informative References..................................14
   Author's Address.................................................15
   Full Copyright Statement.........................................16
   Intellectual Property............................................16


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   Acknowledgment...................................................16

1. Introduction

   The concept of scalable adaptive multicast [BUF2007] includes both
   scaling properties and adaptability properties.  Scalability is
   intended to cover:
   o  large group size

   o  large numbers of small groups

   o  rate of group membership change

   o  admission control for QoS

   o  use with network layer QoS mechanisms

   o  varying degrees of reliability

   o  trees connect nodes over global internet

   Adaptability includes
   o  use of different control mechanisms for different multicast trees
      depending on initial application parameters or application class

   o  changing multicast tree structure depending on changes in
      application requirements, network conditions, and membership

   o  use of different control mechanisms and tree structure in
      different regions of network depending on native multicast
      support, network characteristics, and node behavior

   In this document we describe an experimental framework for
   constructing SAM sessions using hybrid combinations of Application
   Layer Multicast, native multicast, and multicast tunnels.













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2. Definitions

2.1. Overlay Network

                       P    P    P   P     P

                     ..+....+....+...+.....+...
                    .                          +P
                  P+                            .
                    .                          +P
                     ..+....+....+...+.....+...
                       P    P    P   P     P
   Overlay network - An application layer virtual or logical network in
   which end points are addressable and that provides connectivity,
   routing, and messaging between end points. Overlay networks are
   frequently used as a substrate for deploying new network services, or
   for providing a routing topology not available from the underlying
   physical network.  Many peer-to-peer systems are overlay networks
   that run on top of the Internet.
   In the above figure, "P" indicates overlay peers, and peers are
   connected in a logical address space.  The links shown in the figure
   represent predecessor/successor links.  Depending on the overlay
   routing model, additional or different links may be present.
2.2. Overlay Multicast

   Overlay Multicast (OM): Hosts participating in a multicast session
   form an overlay network and utilize unicast connections among pairs
   of hosts for data dissemination. The hosts in overlay multicast
   exclusively handle group management, routing, and tree construction,
   without any support from Internet routers. This is also commonly
   known as Application Layer Multicast (ALM) or End System Multicast
   (ESM).
   We call systems which use proxies connected in an overlay multicast
   backbone "proxied overlay multicast" or POM.
2.3. Peer

   Peer: an autonomous end system that is connected to the physical
   network and participates in and contributes resources to overlay
   construction, routing and maintenance. Some peers may also perform
   additional roles such as connection relays, super nodes, NAT
   traversal, and data storage.



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2.4. Multi-Destination Routing

   Multi-Destination Routing (MDR): A type of multicast routing in which
   group member's addresses are explicitly listed in each packet
   transmitted from the sender [AGU1984].  XCAST [RFC5058] is an
   experimental MDR protocol.  A hybrid host group and MDR design is
   described in [HE2005].

3. Assumptions

3.1. Overlay

   Peers connect in a large-scale overlay, which may be used for a
   variety of peer-to-peer applications in addition to multicast
   sessions.

   Peers may assume additional roles in the overlay beyond participation
   in the overlay and in multicast trees.

   We assume a single structured overlay routing algorithm is used.  Any
   of a variety of multi-hop, one-hop, or variable-hop overlay
   algorithms could be used.

   Castro et al. [CAS2003] compared multi-hop overlays and found that
   tree-based construction in a single overlay out-performed using
   separate overlays for each multicast session.  We use a single
   overlay rather than separate overlays per multicast sessions.  We
   defer federated and hierarchical multi-overlay designs to later
   versions of this document.
   Peers may be distributed throughout the network, in regions where
   native multicast (NM) is available as well as regions where it is not
   available.
   An overlay multicast algorithm may leverage the overlay's mechanism
   for maintaining overlay state in the face of churn.  For example, a
   peer may hold a number of DHT (Distributed Hash Table) entries.  When
   the peer gracefully leaves the overlay, it transfers those entries to
   the nearest peer.  When another peers joins which is closer to some
   of the entries than the current peer which holds those entries, than
   those entries are migrated.  Overlay churn affects multicast trees as
   well; remedies include automatic migration of the tree state and
   automatic re-join operations for dislocated children nodes.
3.2. Overlay Multicast

   The overlay supports concurrent multiple multicast trees.  The limit
   on number of concurrent trees depends on peer and network resources


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   and is not an intrinsic property of the overlay.  Some multicast
   trees will contain peers use ALM only, i.e., the peers do not have NM
   connectivity.  Some multicast trees will contain peers with a
   combination of ALM and NM. Although the overlay could be used to form
   trees of NM-only peers, if such peers are all in the same region we
   expect native mechanisms to be used for such tree construction, and
   if such peers are in different regions we expect AMT to handle most
   cases of interest.
   Peers are able to determine, through configuration or discovery:
   o  Can they connect to a NM router

   o  Is an AMT gateway accessible

   o  Can the peer support the AMT-GW functionality locally

   o  Is MDR supported in the region

3.3. NAT

   Some peers in the overlay may be in a private address space and
   behind firewalls.  We assume that mechanisms are available for the
   following, and that the mechanisms scale as the ratio of NATed peers
   to public address (public) peers grows, to a limit.

   o  Connectivity establishment between NATed peers and public peers

   o  Routing of overlay control messages to/from NATed and public
      peers.

   o  Routing of data messages over the topology of the tree

   NAT traversal solutions developed elsewhere in IETF will be used, and
   new NAT traversal mechanisms are out of scope to this framework.

3.4. Regions

   A region is a contiguous internetwork such that if native multicast
   is available, all routers and end systems can connect to native
   multicast groups available in that region.

   A region may include end systems.

3.5. AMT

   We use AMT [THA2007] to connect peers in ALM region with peers in NM
   region. AMT permits AMT-R and AMT-GW functionality to be embedded in


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   hosts or specially configured routers.  We assume AMT-R and AMT-GW
   can be implemented in peers.

   AMT has certain restrictions: 1) isolated sites/hosts can receive
   SSM, 2) isolated non-NAT sites/hosts can send SSM, 3) isolated
   sites/hosts can receive general multicast.  AMT does not permit
   isolated sites/hosts to send general multicast.

4. ALM Tree Operations

   Peers use the overlay to support ALM operations such as:

   o  Create tree

   o  Join

   o  Leave

   o  Re-Form or optimize tree

   There are a variety of algorithms for peers to form multicast trees
   in the overlay.  We permit multiple such algorithms to be supported
   in the overlay, since different algorithms may be more suitable for
   certain application requirements, and since we wish to support
   experimentation.  Therefore, overlay messaging corresponding to the
   set of overlay multicast operations must carry algorithm
   identification information.
   For example, for small groups, the join point might be directly
   assigned by the rendezvous point, while for large trees the join
   request might be propagated down the tree with candidate parents
   forwarding their position directly to the new node.
   In addition to these overlay level tree operations, some peers may
   implement additional operations to map tree operations to native
   multicast and/or AMT [THA2007] connections.














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   +---------------+                            +---------------+
   | AMT Site      |   P    P    P   P     P    | Native MCast  |
   |     ..........+...+....+....+...+.....+....+.......        |
   |     .     +---++                          ++---+  +P       |
   |    P+     |AMT |                          |AMT |  .        |
   |     .     |GW  |                          |RLY |  +P       |
   |     .     +---++                          ++---+  .        |
   +-----+---------+                            +------+--------+
         .                                             .
         .                                      +------+--------+
         .                                      |      . Native |
         .                                      |      .  MDR   |
        P+....+P                           .....+...+..+P       |
            .                              .    |   P           |
   +--------+------+                       .    +---------------+
   | Native . MCast|                       .
   |        .      |                       .    +---------------+
   | P-AMT-R+      |                      P+    |Native Mcast   |
   |        .      |                       .   ++---+           |
   | P-AMT-R+      |               P-AMT-GW+===|AMT |           |
   |        ...+...+..                     .   |RLY |           |
   |           P   |  .+....+........+.....+   ++---+           |
   +---------------+   P    P        P     P    +---------------+

5. Hybrid Connectivity

   In the above figure we show the hybrid architecture in six regions of
   the network.  All peers are connected in an overlay, and the figure
   shows the predecessor/successor links between peers.  The peers may
   have other connections in the overlay.
   o  No native multicast:  Peers (P) in this region connect to the
      overlay



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   o  Native multicast (NM) with a local AMT gateway (AMT GW).  There
      are one or more peers (P) connected to the overlay in this region.

   o  Native multicast with a local AMT relay (AMT RLY).  There are one
      or more peers (P) connected to the overlay in this region.

   o  Native multicast with one or more peers which emulate the AMT
      relay behavior (P-AMT-R) which also connect to the overlay.  There
      may be other peers (P) which also connect to the overlay.

   o  Native MDR is a native multicast region using multi-destination
      routing, in which one or more peers reside in the region.

   o  Native multicast with no peers that connect to the overlay, but
      for which there is at least one peer in the unicast-only part of
      the network which can behave as an AMT-GW (P-AMT-GW) to connect to
      multicast sources through an AMT-R for that region.  It may be
      feasible to also allow non-peer hosts in such a region to
      participate as receivers of overlay multicast; for this version,
      we prefer to require all hosts to join the overlay as peers.

6. Scenarios

6.1. ALM-Only Tree - Algorithm 1

   Here is a simplistic algorithm for forming a multicast tree in the
   overlay. Its main advantage is use of the overlay routing mechanism
   for routing both control and data messages. The group creator doesn't
   have to be the root of the tree or even in the tree. It doesn't
   consider per node load, admission control, or alternative paths.

   As stated earlier, multiple algorithms will co-exist in the overlay.

   1. Peer which initiates multicast group:

     groupID = create();  // allocate a unique groupId

                       // the root is the nearest peer in the overlay

     // out of band advertisement/distribution of groupID, perhaps by
       publishing in DHT

   2. Any joining peer:

     // out of band discovery of groupID, perhaps by lookup in DHT

     joinTree(groupID); // sends "join groupID" message


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     The overlay routes the join request using the overlay routing
       mechanism toward the peer with the nearest id to the groupID.
       This peer is the root.  Peers on the path to the root join the
       tree as forwarding points.

   3. Leave Tree:

      leaveTree(groupID) // removes this node from the tree

      Propagates a leave message to each child node and to the parent
       node.  If the parent node is a forwarding node and this is its
       last child, then it propagates a leave message to its parent.  A
       child node receiving a leave message from a parent sends a join
       message to the groupID.

   4. Message forwarding:

       multicastMsg(groupID, msg);

   o  SSM tree - The creator of the tree is the source.  It sends data
      messages to the tree root which are forwarded down the tree.

   o  ASM tree - A node sending a data message sends the message to its
      parent and its children. Each node receiving a data message from
      one edge forwards it to remaining tree edges it is connected to.

6.2. ALM tree with peer at AMT site (AMT-GW)

   The joining peer connects to the tree using the ALM protocol, or, if
   the tree includes a peer in an NM region, then the peer can use the
   AMT GW to connect to the NM peer through the AMT relay. The peer can
   choose the delivery path based on latency and throughput.

   If the peer is not a joining peer and is on the overlay path of a
   join request:

   o  If its next hop is a peer in an NM region with AMT-R, then it can
      select either overlay routed multicast messages or AMT delivered
      multicast messages.

   o  If its next hop is a peer outside of an NM region, then it could
      use either ALM only or use AMT delivery as an alternate path

6.3. ALM tree with NM peer using AMT-R

   There are these cases:



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   o  There is no peer in the tree which has an AMT-GW

       The NM peer uses ALM routing

   o  There is at least one peer in the tree which can function as P-
      AMT-GW

       The NM peer can join the tree using ALM routing and/or
          connecting to the P-AMT-GW.

   o  There is at least one peer in the tree which is in an AMT-GW
      region

       The NM peer can join the tree using ALM routing and/or
          connecting to the AMT-GW.

6.4. ALM tree with NM peer with P-AMT-R

   Either the NM peer supports P-AMT-R or another peer in the multcast
   tree in the same region is P-AMT-R capable.

   The three cases above apply here, replacing AMT-R with P-AMT-R.

6.5. Mixed Region Scenarios

   In version 2 of this document we elaborate on:

   o  ALM tree topology vs NM topology and NM-ALM edges

   o  Single NM-ALM edge nodes vs multi NM peers from same region in the
      tree

   o  Initial tree membership is ALM vs initial tree membership is NM

   For ALM tree topology vs NM topology, all peers belong to the
   overlay, but only P-ALM peers use overlay routing for multicast data
   transmission. As a default behavior, a P-NM peer should generally
   prefer to join the tree via an AMT-GW node. But there may be special
   cases (small trees, short multicast sessions, trees where most of the
   members are known to be P-ALM) in which the peer can override this to
   specify an ALM-only join. A P-NM peer may also accept P-ALM children
   which don't use the AMT tunnel path to participate in the multicast
   tree.

   Consider 3 types of tree links: P-ALM to P-ALM, P-NM to P-NM and P-
   ALM to/from P-NM:



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   o  P-ALM to P-ALM - This is a normal ALM tree path with management
      strictly in the overlay

   o  P-NM to P-NM - If the peers are in the same region, then the data
      path use native multicast capability in that region, and control
      occurs in ALM layer for ALM tree coordination and NM layer for
      native multicast purposes.  If the peers are in different NM
      regions, then, if AMT gateways are available and configured to
      support an AMT tunnel between the regions, a tunnel is created
      using the AMT protocol (or already exists for this multicast
      group).  The peers connect to their respective AMT gateways using
      the AMT procedure.

   o  P-ALM to/from P-NM - The connection can be either ALM or AMT
      tunnel depending on the context.

   We expect two new functions are needed to build hybrid trees:

   o  joinViaAMTGateway(peer, AMT-GW, group_id) where 'Peer' is the peer
      requesting to join the ALM group identified by group_id, and AMT-
      GW is the ip address of the AMT gateway that the peer uses in its
      native multicast region. Request is transmitted to one or more
      parent peer candiates and/or rendezvous peers for the specified
      group id, according to the usual join protocol in this overlay. If
      the parent peer is a P-AMT-GW, then a tunnel is formed using the
      AMT protocol from the P-AMT-GW to the specified AMT-GW. If parent                                                      peer is a peer  P-NM in native multicast region, then the tunnel                                            is created between P-NM's AMT-GW and the specified AMT-GW, using
      the AMT protocol. If parent peer is a P-ALM, then the requested is
      propagated to other peers in the tree according to the join rules.

   o  leaveViaAMTGateway(peer, AMT-GW, group_id)where 'Peer' is the peer
      requesting to leave the ALM group identified by group_id, and AMT-
      GW is the ip address of the AMT gateway that the peer uses in its
      native multicast region. Request is transmitted the parent peer
      which is associated with the AMT-GW or provides that role. If the
      parent peer is a P-AMT-GW, then it removes the child from its AMT
      children list and may tear down the AMT tunnel P-AMT-GW to the                                                                               specified AMT-GW if no other children are using it. If parent peer
      is a peer  P-NM in native multicast region, then the tunnel is                                       created between P-NM's AMT-GW and the specified AMT-GW, using the
      AMT protocol.

   Regarding initial tree membership being either P-NM or P-ALM node(s),
   we expect the general case should be that hybrid tree formation is
   supported transparently regardless.



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7. Open Issues and Further Work

   o  AMT [THA2007] has some restrictions on connecting isolated
      sites/hosts as SSM/ASM sources and receivers.  Further analysis is
      needed to insure that OM data path is consistent with these
      constraints and whether additional operating restrictions between
      the overlay and AMT need be specified.

   o  For NM regions with no AMT support, specifics of how peers self-
      select as P-AMT-GW and P-AMT-RLY, and what additional behavior if
      any is needed beyond that specified in [THA2007].

   o  We expect that the evolution of this document will lead to
      protocol specification related to the interopation points of the
      hybrid interfaces of the network.

8. Security Considerations

   Overlays are vulnerable to DOS and collusion attacks.  We are not
   solving overlay security issues.
   For this version we assume centralized peer authentication model
   similar to what is proposed for P2P-SIP.
9. IANA Considerations

   This document has no actions for IANA.
10. References

10.1. Normative References

   [1]   Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
         Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 199

   [RFC0792] Postel, J., "Internet Control Message Protocol", STD 5,RFC
             792, September 1981.

   [RFC3376] Cain, B., Deering, S., Kouvelas, I., Fenner, B., and A.
             Thyagarajan, "Internet Group Management Protocol, Version
             3", RFC 3376, October 2002.

   [RFC3810] Vida, R. and L. Costa, "Multicast Listener Discovery
             Version 2 (MLDv2) for IPv6", RFC 3810, June 2004.






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   [RFC4605] Fenner, B., He, H., Haberman, B., and H. Sandick, "Internet
             Group Management Protocol (IGMP) / Multicast Listener
             Discovery (MLD)-Based Multicast Forwarding ("IGMP/MLD
             Proxying")", RFC 4605, August 2006.

   [RFC4607] Holbrook, H. and B. Cain, "Source-Specific Multicast for
             IP", RFC 4607, August 2006.

   [RFC5058] R. Boivie, N. Feldman , Y. Imai , W. Livens , D. Ooms,
             "Explicit Multicast (Xcast) Concepts and Options", IETF RFC
             5058. November 2007.

10.2. Informative References

   [AGU1984] L. Aguilar, Datagram Routing for Internet Multicasting,
             Sigcomm 84, March 1984.



   [BUF2007] J. Buford, S. Kadadi.  SAM Problem Statement.  Dec 2006.
             Internet Draft draft-irtf-sam-problem-statement-01.txt,
             work in progress.

   [CAS2002] M. Castro, P. Druschel, A.-M. Kermarrec, An. Rowstron,
             Scribe: A large-scale and decentralized application-level
             multicast infrastructure IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in
             Communications, Vol.20, No.8. October 2002.

   [CAS2003] M. Castro, M. Jones, A. Kermarrec, A. Rowstron, M. Theimer,
             H. Wang and A. Wolman, "An Evaluation of Scalable
             Application-level Multicast Built Using Peer-to-peer
             overlays," in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM 2003, April 2003.

   [HE2005]  Q. He, M. Ammar. Dynamic Host-Group/Multi-Destination
             Routing for Multicast Sessions. J. of Telecommunication
             Systems, vol. 28, pp. 409-433, 2005.

   [MUR2006] E. Muramoto, Y. Imai, N. Kawaguchi. Requirements for
             Scalable Adaptive Multicast Framework in Non-GIG Networks.
             November 2006.  Internet Draft draft-muramoto-irtf-sam-
             generic-require-01.txt, work in progress.

   [THA2007] D. Thale, M. Talwar, A. Aggarwal, L. Vicisano, T. Pusateri.
             Automatic IP Multicast Without Explicit Tunnels (AMT).
             Internet Draft draft-ietf-mboned-auto-multicast-08, Work
             in progress. Oct. 2007.



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Author's Address

   John Buford
   Avaya Labs
   307 Middletown-Lincroft Road
   Lincroft, NJ 07738
   USA

   Email: buford@samrg.org








































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