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Network Working Group                                           J. Jeong
Internet-Draft                                                    E. Kim
Intended status: Standards Track                 Sungkyunkwan University
Expires: January 18, 2018                                         T. Ahn
                                                           Korea Telecom
                                                                R. Kumar
                                                        Juniper Networks
                                                                S. Hares
                                                                  Huawei
                                                           July 17, 2017


            I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface YANG Data Model
           draft-jeong-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-dm-03

Abstract

   This document describes a YANG data model for the Consumer-Facing
   Interface between an Interface to Network Security Functions (I2NSF)
   User and Security Controller in an I2NSF system in a Network
   Functions Virtualization (NFV) environment.  The data model is
   required for enabling different users of a given I2NSF system to
   define, manage, and monitor security policies for specific flows
   within an administrative domain.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
   Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 18, 2018.




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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Requirements Language  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   4.  Data Modeling for Consumer-Facing Interface  . . . . . . . . .  3
   5.  YANG Data Model for Consumer-Facing Interface  . . . . . . . .  8
   6.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
   7.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
   8.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
     8.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
     8.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
   Appendix A.  Changes from
                draft-jeong-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-dm-01 . . 36
   Appendix B.  Use Case: Policy Instance Example for VoIP/VoLTE
                Security Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
   Appendix C.  Policy Instance YANG Example for VoIP/VoLTE
                Security Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38


















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1.  Introduction

   This document provides a YANG [RFC6020] data model that defines the
   required data for the Consumer-Facing Interface between an Interface
   to Network Security Functions (I2NSF) User and Security Controller in
   an I2NSF system [i2nsf-framework] in a Network Functions
   Virtualization (NFV) environment.  The data model is required for
   enabling different users of a given I2NSF system to define, manage
   and monitor security policies for specific flows within an
   administrative domain.  This document defines a YANG data model based
   on the information model of I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface
   [client-facing-inf-im].

   Data models are defined at a lower level of abstraction and provide
   many details.  They provide details about the implementation of a
   protocol's specification, e.g., rules that explain how to map managed
   objects onto lower-level protocol constructs.  Since conceptual
   models can be implemented in different ways, multiple data models can
   be derived by a single information model.

   The efficient and flexible provisioning of network functions by NFV
   leads to a rapid advance in the network industry.  As practical
   applications, network security functions (NSFs), such as firewall,
   intrusion detection system (IDS)/intrusion protection system (IPS),
   and attack mitigation, can also be provided as virtual network
   functions (VNF) in the NFV system.  By the efficient virtual
   technology, these VNFs might be automatically provisioned and
   dynamically migrated based on real-time security requirements.  This
   document presents a YANG data model to implement security functions
   based on NFV.

2.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC3444].

3.  Terminology

   This document uses the terminology described in
   [i2nsf-terminology][client-facing-inf-im][client-facing-inf-req].

4.  Data Modeling for Consumer-Facing Interface

   The main objective of this data model is to fully transform the
   information model [client-facing-inf-im] into a YANG data model that
   can be used for delivering control and management messages via the
   Consumer-Facing Interface between an I2NSF User and Security



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   Controller for the I2NSF User's high-level security policies.

   The semantics of the data model must be aligned with the information
   model of the Consumer-Facing Interface.  The transformation of the
   information model was performed so that this YANG data model can
   facilitate the efficient delivery of the control or management
   messages.

   This data model is designed to support the I2NSF framework that can
   be extended according to the security needs.  In other words, the
   model design is independent of the content and meaning of specific
   policies as well as the implementation approach.  This document
   suggests a VoIP/VoLTE security service as a use case for policy rule
   generation.

   module: ieft-i2nsf-cf-interface
     +--rw ietf-i2nsf-cf-interface
         +--rw multi-tenancy
         |  +--rw policy-domain* [policy-domain-id]
         |  |  +--rw policy-domain-id                 uint16
         |  |  +--rw name                             string
         |  |  +--rw address                          string
         |  |  +--rw contact                          string
         |  |  +--rw date                             yang:date-and-time
         |  |  +--rw authentication-method            string
         |  +--rw policy-tenant* [policy-tenant-id]
         |  |  +--rw policy-tenant-id                 uint16
         |  |  +--rw name                             string
         |  |  +--rw date                             yang:date-and-time
         |  |  +--rw domain                           string
         |  +--rw policy-role* [policy-role-id]
         |  |  +--rw policy-role-id                   uint16
         |  |  +--rw name                             string
         |  |  +--rw date                             yang:date-and-time
         |  |  +--rw access-profile                   string
         |  +--rw policy-user* [policy-user-id]
         |  |  +--rw policy-user-id                   uint16
         |  |  +--rw name                             string
         |  |  +--rw date                             yang:date-and-time
         |  |  +--rw password                         string
         |  |  +--rw email                            string
         |  |  +--rw scope-type?                      string
         |  |  +--rw scope-reference?                 string
         |  |  +--rw role                             string
         |  +--rw policy-mgmt-auth-method* [policy-mgnt-auth-method-id]
         |     +--rw policy-mgnt-auth-method-id       uint16
         |     +--rw name                             string
         |     +--rw date                             yang:date-and-time



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         |     +--rw authentication-method            string
         |     +--rw mutual-authentication            boolean
         |     +--rw token-server                     string
         |     +--rw certificate-server               string
         |     +--rw single-sing-on-server            string
         +--rw policy-endpoint-groups
         |  +--rw meta-data-source* [meta-data-source-id]
         |  |  +--rw meta-data-source-id              uint16
         |  |  +--rw name                             string
         |  |  +--rw date                             yang:date-and-time
         |  |  +--rw tag-type?                        boolean
         |  |  +--rw tag-server-information?          string
         |  |  +--rw tag-application-protocol?        string
         |  |  +--rw tag-server-credential?           string
         |  +--rw user-group* [user-group-id]
         |  |  +--rw user-group-id                    uint16
         |  |  +--rw name?                            string
         |  |  +--rw date?                            yang:date-and-time
         |  |  +--rw group-type?                      string
         |  |  +--rw meta-data-server?                string
         |  |  +--rw group-member?                    string
         |  |  +--rw risk-level?                      uint16
         |  +--rw device-group* [device-group-id]
         |  |  +--rw device-group-id                  uint16
         |  |  +--rw name?                            string
         |  |  +--rw date?                            yang:date-and-time
         |  |  +--rw group-type?                      string
         |  |  +--rw meta-data-server?                string
         |  |  +--rw group-member?                    string
         |  |  +--rw risk-level?                      uint16
         |  +--rw application-group* [application-group-id]
         |  |  +--rw application-group-id             uint16
         |  |  +--rw name?                            string
         |  |  +--rw date?                            yang:date-and-time
         |  |  +--rw group-type?                      string
         |  |  +--rw meta-data-server?                string
         |  |  +--rw group-member?                    string
         |  |  +--rw risk-level?                      uint16
         |  +--rw location-group* [location-group-id]
         |     +--rw location-group-id                uint16
         |     +--rw name?                            string
         |     +--rw date?                            yang:date-and-time
         |     +--rw group-type?                      string
         |     +--rw meta-data-server?                string
         |     +--rw group-member?                    string
         |     +--rw risk-level?                      uint16
         +--rw threat-prevention
         |  +--rw threat-feed* [threat-feed-id]



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         |  |  +--rw threat-feed-id                   uint16
         |  |  +--rw name?                            string
         |  |  +--rw date?                            yang:date-and-time
         |  |  +--rw feed-type?                       enumeration
         |  |  +--rw feed-server?                     string
         |  |  +--rw feed-priority?                   uint16
         |  +--rw custom-list* [custom-list-id]
         |  |  +--rw custom-list-id                   uint16
         |  |  +--rw name?                            string
         |  |  +--rw date?                            yang:date-and-time
         |  |  +--rw list-type?                       enumeration
         |  |  +--rw list-property?                   enumeration
         |  |  +--rw list-content?                    string
         |  +--rw malware-scan-group* [malware-scan-group-id]
         |  |  +--rw malware-scan-group-id            uint16
         |  |  +--rw name?                            string
         |  |  +--rw date?                            yang:date-and-time
         |  |  +--rw signature-server?                string
         |  |  +--rw file-types?                      string
         |  |  +--rw malware-signatures?              string
         |  +--rw event-map-group* [event-map-group-id]
         |     +--rw event-map-group-id               uint16
         |     +--rw name?                            string
         |     +--rw date?                            yang:date-and-time
         |     +--rw security-events?                  string
         |     +--rw threat-map?                      string
         +--rw telemetry-data
         |  +--rw telemetry-data* [telemetry-data-id]
         |  |  +--rw telemetry-data-id                uint16
         |  |  +--rw name?                            string
         |  |  +--rw date?                            yang:date-and-time
         |  |  +--rw logs?                            boolean
         |  |  +--rw syslogs?                         boolean
         |  |  +--rw snmp?                            boolean
         |  |  +--rw sflow?                           boolean
         |  |  +--rw netflow?                         boolean
         |  |  +--rw interface-stats?                 boolean
         |  +--rw telemetry-source* [telemetry-source-id]
         |  |  +--rw telemetry-source-id              uint16
         |  |  +--rw name?                            string
         |  |  +--rw date?                            yang:date-and-time
         |  |  +--rw source-type?                     string
         |  |  +--rw nsf-access-parameters?           string
         |  |  +--rw nsf-access-credentials?          string
         |  |  +--rw collection-interval?             uint16
         |  |  +--rw collection-method?               enumeration
         |  |  +--rw heartbeat-interval?              uint16
         |  |  +--rw qos-marking?                     uint8



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         |  +--rw telemetry-destination* [telemetry-destination-id]
         |     +--rw telemetry-destination-id         uint16
         |     +--rw name?                            string
         |     +--rw date?                            yang:date-and-time
         |     +--rw collector-state?                 string
         |     +--rw collector-access-parameters?     string
         |     +--rw collector-access-credentials?    string
         |     +--rw data-encoding?                   string
         |     +--rw data-transport?                  string
         +--rw policy-instance
            +--rw policy-calendar* [policy-calendar-id]
            |  +--rw policy-calendar-id               uint16
            |  +--rw name?                            string
            |  +--rw date?                            yang:date-and-time
            |  +--rw enforcement-type?                enumeration
            |  +--rw time-information?                string
            |  +--rw event-map?                       string
            +--rw policy-action* [policy-action-id]
            |  +--rw policy-action-id                 string
            |  +--rw name?                            string
            |  +--rw date?                            yang:date-and-time
            |  +--rw primary-action?                  string
            |  +--rw secondary-action?                string
            +--rw policy-rule* [policy-rule-id]
            |  +--rw policy-rule-id                   string
            |  +--rw name?                            string
            |  +--rw date?                            yang:date-and-time
            |  +--rw source?                          string
            |  +--rw destination?                     string
            |  +--rw exception?                       string
            |  +--rw action?                          string
            |  +--rw precedence?                      uint8
            +--rw policy-instance* [policy-instance-id]
               +--rw policy-instance-id               string
               +--rw name?                            string
               +--rw date?                            yang:date-and-time
               +--rw rules?                           string
               +--rw scheduling-type?                 enumeration
               +--rw scheduling-information?          string
               +--rw owner?                           string


               Figure 1: Generic Data Model for cf Interface








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5.  YANG Data Model for Consumer-Facing Interface

   This section describes a YANG data model for Consumer-Facing
   Interface, based on the information model of Consumer-Facing
   Interface to security controller [client-facing-inf-im].

   <CODE BEGINS> file "ietf-i2nsf-cf-interface.yang"
   module ietf-i2nsf-cf-interface {
     namespace
       "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-cf-interface";
     prefix
       capability-interface;

     import ietf-yang-types {
       prefix yang;
     }

     organization
       "IETF I2NSF (Interface to Network Security Functions)
        Working Group";

     contact
       "WG Web: <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/i2nsf>
        WG List: <mailto:i2nsf@ietf.org>

        WG Chair: Adrian Farrel
        <mailto:Adrain@olddog.co.uk>

        WG Chair: Linda Dunbar
        <mailto:Linda.duhbar@huawei.com>

        Editor: Jaehoon Paul Jeong
        <mailto:pauljeong@skku.edu>";

     description
       "This module defines a YANG data module for consumer-facing
        interface to security controller.";

     revision "2017-07-17"{
       description "Initial revision";
       reference
         "draft-kumar-i2nsf-client-facing-interface-im-02";
     }

     //Groupings
     container ietf-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface {
     description
     "grouping container";



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       container multi-tenancy {
           description
             "The descriptions of multi-tenancy.";

           list policy-domain {
             key "policy-domain-id";
             leaf policy-domain-id {
               type uint16;
               mandatory true;
               description
                 "This represents the list of domains.";
             }
             description
             "this represent the list of policy domains";
             leaf name {
               type string;
               mandatory true;
               description
                 "Name of the organization or customer representing
                 this domain.";
             }

             leaf address {
               type string;
               description
                 "address of an organization or customer.";
             }

             leaf contact {
               type string;
               mandatory true;
               description
                 "contact information of the organization
                  or customer.";
             }

             leaf date {
               type yang:date-and-time;
               mandatory true;
               description
                 "The date when this account was created
                 or last modified.";
             }

             leaf authentication-method {
               type string;
               mandatory true;
               description



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                 "The description of authentication method;
                 token-based, password, certificate,
                 single-sign-on";
             }
           }

           list policy-tenant {
             key "policy-tenant-id";
             leaf policy-tenant-id {
               type uint16;
               mandatory true;
               description
                 "The policy tenant id.";
             }
             description
             "This represents the list of tenants";
             leaf name {
               type string;
               mandatory true;
               description
                 "Name of the Department or Division within
                  an organization.";
             }

             leaf date {
               type yang:date-and-time;
               mandatory true;
               description
                 "Date this account was created or last modified.";
             }

             leaf domain {
               type string;
               mandatory true;
               description
               "This field identifies the domain to which this
               tenant belongs. This should be reference to a
               'Policy-Domain' object.";
             }
           }

           list policy-role {
             key "policy-role-id";
             leaf policy-role-id {
             type uint16;
             mandatory true;
             description
               "This defines a set of permissions assigned



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               to a user in an organization that want to manage
               its own Security Policies.";
             }
             description
             "This represents the list of policy roles.";
             leaf name {
               type string;
               mandatory true;
               description
                 "This field identifies name of the role.";
             }

             leaf date {
               type yang:date-and-time;
               mandatory true;
               description
                 "Date this role was created or last modified.";
             }

             leaf access-profile {
               type string;
               mandatory true;
               description
                 "This field identifies the access profile for the
                 role. The profile grants or denies access to policy
                 objects.  Multiple access profiles can be
                 concatenated together.";
             }
           }

           list policy-user {
             key "policy-user-id";
             leaf policy-user-id {
             type uint16;
             description
               "This represents the policy-user-id.";
             }
             description
             "This represents the list of policy users.";
             leaf name {
               type string;
               mandatory true;
               description
                 "The name of a user.";
             }

             leaf date {
               type yang:date-and-time;



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               mandatory true;
               description
                 "Date this user was created or last modified";
             }

             leaf password {
               type string;
               mandatory true;
               description
                 "User password for basic authentication";
             }

             leaf email {
               type string;
               mandatory true;
               description
                 "The email account of a user";
             }

             leaf scope-type {
               type string;
               description
                 "identifies whether a user has domain-wide
                 or tenant-wide privileges";
             }

             leaf scope-reference {
               type string;
               description
                 "This references policy-domain or policy-tenant
                 to identify the scope.";
             }

             leaf role {
               type string;
               mandatory true;
               description
                 "This references policy-role to define specific
                 permissions";
             }
           }

           list policy-mgmt-auth-method {
             key "policy-mgnt-auth-method-id";
             leaf policy-mgnt-auth-method-id {
             type uint16;
             description
               "This represents the authentication method id.";



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             }
             description
             "The descriptions of policy management
               authentication methods.";
             leaf name {
               type string;
               mandatory true;
               description
                 "name of the authentication method";
             }

             leaf date {
               type yang:date-and-time;
               mandatory true;
               description
                 "date when the authentication method
                 was created";
             }

             leaf authentication-method {
               type string;
               mandatory true;
               description
                 "The description of authentication method;
                 token-based, password, certificate,
                 single-sign-on";
             }

             leaf mutual-authentication {
               type boolean;
               mandatory true;
               description
                 "To identify whether the authentication
                  is mutual";
             }

            leaf token-server {
               type string;
               mandatory true;
               description
                 "The token-server information if the
                 authentication method is token-based";
             }

             leaf certificate-server {
               type string;
               mandatory true;
               description



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                 "The certificate-server information if
                 the authentication method is certificate-based";
             }

             leaf single-sing-on-server {
               type string;
               mandatory true;
               description
                 "The single-sign-on-server information
                 if the authentication method is
                 single-sign-on-based";
             }
           }
         }

       container policy-endpoint-groups {
           description
             "A logical entity in their business
             environment, where a security policy
             is to be applied.";

           list meta-data-source {
             key "meta-data-source-id";
             leaf meta-data-source-id {
             type uint16;
             mandatory true;
             description
               "This represents the meta-data source id.";
             }
             description
             "This represents the meta-data source.";
             leaf name {
               type string;
               mandatory true;
               description
                 "This identifies the name of the
                 meta-datas-ource.";
             }
             leaf date {
               type yang:date-and-time;
               mandatory true;
               description
                 "This identifies the date this object was
                 created or last modified.";
             }

             leaf tag-type {
               type boolean;



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               description
                 "This identifies the group type; user group,
                 app group or device group.";
             }

             leaf tag-server-information {
               type string;
               description
                 "The description of suthentication method;
                 token-based, password, certificate,
                 single-sign-on";
             }
             leaf tag-application-protocol {
               type string;
               description
                 "This filed identifies the protocol e.g. LDAP,
                 Active Directory, or CMDB";
             }
             leaf tag-server-credential {
               type string;
               description
                 "This field identifies the credential
                 information needed to access the tag server";
             }
           }

           list user-group{
             key "user-group-id";
             leaf user-group-id {
             type uint16;
             mandatory true;
             description
               "This represents the the user group id.";
             }
             description
             "This represents the user group.";
             leaf name {
               type string;
               description
                 "This field identifies the name of user-group.";
             }

             leaf date {
               type yang:date-and-time;
               description
                 "when this user-group was created or last modified.";
             }
             leaf group-type {



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               type string;
               description
                 "This describes the group type; User-tag,
                 User-name or IP-address.";
             }

             leaf meta-data-server {
               type string;
               description
                 "This references metadata source";
             }

             leaf group-member {
               type string;
               description
                 "This describes the user-tag information";
             }

             leaf risk-level {
               type uint16;
               description
                 "This represents the threat level; valid range
                  may be 0 to 9.";
             }
           }

           list device-group{
             key "device-group-id";
             leaf device-group-id {
             type uint16;
              description
               "This represents a device group id.";
             }
             description
               "This represents a device group.";
             leaf name {
               type string;
             description
                 "This field identifies the name of
                 a device-group.";
             }
             leaf date {
               type yang:date-and-time;
               description
               "The date when this group was create or
               last modified.";
             }




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             leaf group-type {
               type string;
               description
                 "This describes the group type; device-tag,
                 device-name or IP-address.";
             }

             leaf meta-data-server {
               type string;
               description
                 "This references meta-data-source
                 object.";
             }

             leaf group-member {
               type string;
               description
                 "This describes the device-tag, device-name or
                 IP-address information";
             }

             leaf risk-level {
               type uint16;
               description
                 "This represents the threat level; valid range
                 may be 0 to 9.";
             }
          }

          list application-group{
             key "application-group-id";
             leaf application-group-id {
             type uint16;
             description
             "This represents an application group id.";
             }
             description
             "This represents an application group.";
             leaf name {
               type string;
               description
               "This field identifies the name of
               an application group";
             }

             leaf date {
               type yang:date-and-time;
               description



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               "The date when this group was created or
               last modified.";
             }

             leaf group-type {
               type string;
               description
                 "This identifies the group type;
                 application-tag, application-name or
                 IP-address.";
             }

             leaf meta-data-server {
               type string;
               description
                 "This references meta-data-source
                 object.";
             }

             leaf group-member {
               type string;
               description
                 "This describes the application-tag,
                 application-name or IP-address information";
             }

             leaf risk-level {
               type uint16;
               description
                 "This represents the threat level; valid range
                  may be 0 to 9.";
             }
          }

          list location-group{
             key "location-group-id";
             leaf location-group-id {
             type uint16;
             description
             "This represents a location group id.";
             }
             description
             "This represents a location group.";
             leaf name {
               type string;
               description
               "This field identifies the name of
               a location group";



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             }

             leaf date {
               type yang:date-and-time;
               description
               "The date when this group was created or
               last modified.";
             }

             leaf group-type {
               type string;
               description
                 "This identifies the group type;
                 location-tag, location-name or
                 IP-address.";
             }

             leaf meta-data-server {
               type string;
               description
                 "This references meta-data-source
                 object.";
             }

             leaf group-member {
               type string;
               description
                 "This describes the location-tag,
                 location-name or IP-address information";
             }

             leaf risk-level {
               type uint16;
               description
                 "This represents the threat level; valid range
                  may be 0 to 9.";
             }
          }
       }

       container threat-prevention {
         description
         "this describes the list of threat-preventions.";

           list threat-feed {
             key "threat-feed-id";
             leaf threat-feed-id {
             type uint16;



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             mandatory true;
             description
               "This represents the threat-feed-id.";
             }
             description
               "This represents the threat feed within the
               threat-prevention-list.";
             leaf name {
               type string;
               description
                 "Name of the theat feed.";
             }

             leaf date {
               type yang:date-and-time;
               description
                 "when the threat-feed was created.";
             }

             leaf feed-type {
               type enumeration {
                 enum unknown {
                   description
                     "feed-type is unknown.";
                 }
                 enum ip-address {
                   description
                     "feed-type is IP address.";
                 }
                 enum url {
                   description
                     "feed-type is URL.";
                 }
               }
               mandatory true;
               description
                 "This determined whether the feed-type is IP address
                 based or URL based.";
             }

             leaf feed-server {
               type string;
               description
                 "this contains threat feed server information.";
             }

             leaf feed-priority {
               type uint16;



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               description
                 "this describes the priority of the threat from
                 0 to 5, where 0 means the threat is minimum and
                 5 meaning the maximum.";
             }
         }

         list custom-list {
             key "custom-list-id";
             leaf custom-list-id {
             type uint16;
             description
             "this describes the custom-list-id.";
             }
             description
             "this describes the threat-prevention custom list.";
             leaf name {
               type string;
               description
                 "Name of the custom-list.";
             }

             leaf date {
               type yang:date-and-time;
               description
                 "when the custom list was created.";
             }

             leaf list-type {
               type enumeration {
                 enum unknown {
                   description
                     "list-type is unknown.";
                 }
                 enum ip-address {
                   description
                     "list-type is IP address.";
                 }
                 enum url {
                   description
                     "list-type is URL.";
                 }
               }
               mandatory true;
               description
                 "This determined whether the feed-type is IP address
                 based or URL based.";
             }



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            leaf list-property {
               type enumeration {
                 enum unknown {
                   description
                     "list-property is unknown.";
                 }
                 enum blacklist {
                   description
                     "list-property is blacklist.";
                 }
                 enum whitelist {
                   description
                     "list-property is whitelist.";
                 }
               }
               mandatory true;
               description
                 "This determined whether the list-type is blacklist
                 or whitelist.";
             }

             leaf list-content {
               type string;
               description
                 "This describes the contents of the custom-list.";
             }
         }
         list malware-scan-group {
             key "malware-scan-group-id";
             leaf malware-scan-group-id {
             type uint16;
             mandatory true;
             description
             "This is the malware-scan-group-id.";
             }
             description
             "This represents the malware-scan-group.";
             leaf name {
               type string;
               description
                 "Name of the malware-scan-group.";
             }

             leaf date {
               type yang:date-and-time;
               description
                 "when the malware-scan-group was created.";
             }



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             leaf signature-server {
               type string;
               description
                 "This describes the signature server of the
                 malware-scan-group.";
             }

             leaf file-types {
               type string;
               description
                 "This contains a list of file types needed to
                 be scanned for the virus.";
             }

             leaf malware-signatures {
               type string;
               description
                 "This contains a list of malware signatures or hash.";
             }
         }

         list event-map-group {
             key "event-map-group-id";
             leaf event-map-group-id {
             type uint16;
             mandatory true;
             description
             "This is the event-map-group-id.";
             }
             description
             "This represents the event map group.";

             leaf name {
               type string;
               description
                 "Name of the event-map.";
             }

             leaf date {
               type yang:date-and-time;
               description
                 "when the event-map was created.";
             }

             leaf security-events {
               type string;
               description
                 "This contains a list of security events.";



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             }

             leaf threat-map {
               type string;
               description
                 "This contains a list of threat levels.";
             }
           }
         }

         container telemetry-data {
             description
             "Telemetry provides visibility into the network
             activities which can be tapped for further
             security analytics, e.g., detecting potential
             vulnerabilities, malicious activities, etc.";

           list telemetry-data {
             key "telemetry-data-id";
             leaf telemetry-data-id {
             type uint16;
             mandatory true;
             description
             "This is ID for telemetry-data-id.";
             }
             description
             "This is ID for telemetry-data.";
             leaf name {
               type string;
               description
                 "Name of the telemetry-data object.";
             }

             leaf date {
               type yang:date-and-time;
               description
                 "This field states when the telemery-data
                 object was created.";
             }

             leaf logs {
               type boolean;
               description
                 "This field identifies whether logs
                 need to be collected.";
             }

             leaf syslogs {



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               type boolean;
               description
                 "This field identifies whether System logs
                 need to be collected.";
             }

             leaf snmp {
               type boolean;
               description
                 "This field identifies whether 'SNMP traps' and
                 'SNMP alarms' need to be collected.";
             }

             leaf sflow {
               type boolean;
               description
                 "This field identifies whether 'sFlow' data
                 need to be collected.";
             }

             leaf netflow {
               type boolean;
               description
                 "This field identifies whether 'NetFlow' data
                 need to be collected.";
             }

             leaf interface-stats {
               type boolean;
               description
                 "This field identifies whether 'Interface' data
                 such as packet bytes and counts need to be
                 collected.";
             }
           }

           list telemetry-source {
             key "telemetry-source-id";
             leaf telemetry-source-id {
             type uint16;
             mandatory true;
             description
             "This is ID for telemetry-source-id.";
             }
             description
             "This is ID for telemetry-source.";
             leaf name {
               type string;



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               description
                 "This identifies the name of this object.";
             }

             leaf date {
               type yang:date-and-time;
               description
                 "Date this object was created or last modified";
             }

             leaf source-type {
               type string;
               description
                 "This should have one of the following type of
                 the NSF telemetry source: NETWORK-NSF,
                 FIREWALL-NSF, IDS-NSF, IPS-NSF,
                 PROXY-NSF, VPN-NSF, DNS, ACTIVE-DIRECTORY,
                 IP Reputation Authority, Web Reputation
                 Authority, Anti-Malware Sandbox, Honey Pot,
                 DHCP, Other Third Party, ENDPOINT";
             }

             leaf nsf-access-parameters {
               type string;
               description
                 "This field contains information such as
                 IP address and protocol (UDP or TCP) port
                 number of the NSF providing telemetry data.";
             }

             leaf nsf-access-credentials {
               type string;
               description
                 "This field contains username and password
                 to authenticate with the NSF.";
             }

             leaf collection-interval {
               type uint16;
               units seconds;
               default 5000;
               description
               "This field contains time in milliseconds
                between each data collection. For example,
                a value of 5000 means data is streamed to
                collector every 5 seconds. Value of 0 means
                data streaming is event-based";
             }



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             leaf collection-method {
               type enumeration {
                 enum unknown {
                   description
                     "collection-method is unknown.";
                 }
                 enum push-based {
                   description
                     "collection-method is PUSH-based.";
                 }
                 enum pull-based {
                   description
                     "collection-method is PULL-based.";
                 }
               }
               description
               "This field contains a method of collection,
               i.e., whether it is PUSH-based or PULL-based.";
             }

             leaf heartbeat-interval {
               type uint16;
               units seconds;
               description
               "time in seconds the source sends telemetry
               heartbeat.";
             }

             leaf qos-marking {
               type uint8;
               description
               "DSCP value must be contained in this field.";
             }
         }
         list telemetry-destination {
             key "telemetry-destination-id";
             leaf telemetry-destination-id {
             type uint16;
             description
             "this represents the telemetry-destination-id";
             }
             description
             "This object contains information related to
             telemetry destination. The destination is
             usually a collector which is either a part of
             Security Controller or external system
             such as Security Information and Event
             Management (SIEM).";



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             leaf name {
               type string;
               description
                 "This identifies the name of this object.";
             }

             leaf date {
               type yang:date-and-time;
               description
                 "Date this object was created or last
                 modified";
             }

             leaf collector-state {
               type string;
               description
                 "This describes collector state information.";
             }
             leaf collector-credentials {
               type string;
               description
                 "iThis field contains the username and
                password for the collector.";
             }

             leaf collector-source {
               type string;
               description
                 "This field contains information such as
                 IP address and protocol (UDP or TCP) port
                 number for the collector's destination.";
             }

             leaf data-encoding {
               type string;
               description
               "This field contains the telemetry data encoding
               in the form of schema.";
             }

             leaf data-transport {
               type string;
               description
               "This field contains streaming telemetry data
               protocols. This could be gRPC, protocol
               buffer over UDP, etc.";
             }
         }



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       }

       container policy-instance {
             description
               "This object is a policy instance to have
               complete information such as where and when
               a policy need to be applied.";

           list policy-calendar {
             key "policy-calendar-id";
             leaf policy-calendar-id {
             type uint16;
             description
             "this represents the policy-calendar-id.";
             }
             description
               "This object contains information related to
               scheduling a policy. The policy could be
               activated based on a time calendar or security
               event including threat level changes.";

             leaf name {
               type string;
               description
                 "Name of the policy-calendar object.";
             }

             leaf date {
               type yang:date-and-time;
               description
                 "The date when this object was created or
                 last modified.";
             }

             leaf enforcement-type {
               type enumeration {
                 enum unknown {
                   description
                     "enforcement-type is unknown.";
                 }
                 enum admin-enforced {
                   description
                     "enforcement-type is ADMIN-ENFORCED.";
                 }
                 enum time-enforced {
                   description
                     "enforcement-type is TIME-ENFORCED.";
                 }



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                 enum event-enforced {
                   description
                     "enforcement-type is EVENT-ENFORCED.";
                 }
               }
               description
                 "This field identifies whether the policy
                 enforcement is 'ADMIN-ENFORCED' or
                 'TIME-ENFORCED', or 'EVENT-ENFORCED'.";
             }

             leaf time-information {
               type string;
               description
                 "This field contains time calendar such as
                 'BEGIN-TIME' and 'END-TIME' for one time
                 enforcement or recurring time calendar for
                 periodic enforcement.";
             }

             leaf event-map {
               type string;
               description
                 "This field contains security events and
                 threat map in order to determine when a
                 policy need to be activated.";
             }
           }

           list policy-action {
             key "policy-action-id";
             leaf policy-action-id {
             type string;
             mandatory true;
             description
               "this represents the policy-action-id.";
             }
             description
               "This object represents actions that a
               Security Admin wants to perform based on
               a certain traffic class.";
             leaf name {
               type string;
               description
                 "The name of the policy-action object.";
             }

             leaf date {



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               type yang:date-and-time;
               description
                 "When the object was created or last
                 modified.";
             }

             leaf primary-action {
               type string;
               description
                 "This field identifies the action when a rule
                 is matched by NSF. The action could be one of
                 'PERMIT', 'DENY', 'RATE-LIMIT', 'TRAFFIC-CLASS',
                 'AUTHENTICATE-SESSION', 'IPS, 'APP-FIREWALL', etc.";
             }

             leaf secondary-action {
               type string;
               description
                 "This field identifies additional actions if
                 a rule is matched. This could be one of 'LOG',
                 'SYSLOG', 'SESSION-LOG', etc.";
             }
           }

           list policy-rule {
             key "policy-rule-id";
             leaf policy-rule-id {
             type string;
             mandatory true;
             description
             "this represents the policy-rule-id";
             }
             description
               "This object represents rules that a
               Security Admin want to define in order
               to express its business objectives in
               a Security Policy.";
             leaf name {
               type string;
               description
                 "This field identifies the name of
                 this object.";
             }

             leaf date {
               type yang:date-and-time;
               description
                 "When the object was created or last



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                 modified.";
             }

             leaf source {
               type string;
               description
                 "This field identifies the source of
                 the traffic. This could be reference to
                 either 'Policy Endpoint Group' or
                 'Threat-Feed' or 'Custom-List' if Security
                 Admin wants to specify the source; otherwise,
                 the default is to match all traffic.";
             }

             leaf destination {
               type string;
               description
                 "This field identifies the destination of
                 the traffic. This could be reference to
                 either 'Policy Endpoint Group' or
                 'Threat-Feed' or 'Custom-List' if Security
                 Admin wants to specify the destination;
                 otherwise, the default is to match all
                 traffic.";
             }

             leaf exception {
               type string;
               description
                 "This field identifies the exception
                 consideration when 'Source' and
                 'Destination' are matched for a given
                 communication.  This should be reference
                 to 'Policy Endpoint Group' object.";
             }

             leaf action {
               type string;
               description
                 "This field identifies the action taken
                 when 'Source' and 'Destination' are matched
                 for a given communication.";
             }

             leaf precedence {
               type uint8;
               description
                 "This field identifies the precedence



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                 assigned to this rule by Security Admin.
                 This is helpful in conflict resolution
                 when two or more rules match a given
                 traffic class.";
             }
           }

           list policy-instance {
             key "policy-instance-id";
             leaf policy-instance-id {
             type string;
             mandatory true;
             description
             "this represents the policy-instance-id";
             }
             description
               "This object represents a mechanism to
               express a Security Policy by Security Admin
               to Security Controller via Consumer-Facing
               Interface. The policy would be enforced by
               an NSF.";
             leaf name {
               type string;
               description
                 "This field identifies the name of this
                 object.";
             }

             leaf date {
               type yang:date-and-time;
               description
                 "Date this object was created or last
                 modified.";
             }

             leaf rules {
               type string;
               description
                 "This field contains a list of rules.
                 If the rule does not have a user-defined
                 precedence, then any conflict must be
                 manually resolved.";
             }

             leaf scheduling-type {
               type enumeration {
                 enum unknown {
                   description



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                     "scheduling-type is unknown.";
                 }
                 enum time-calendar {
                   description
                     "scheduling-type is time-calendar.";
                 }
                 enum event-map {
                   description
                     "scheduling-type is event-map.";
                 }
               }
               description
                 "This field specifies when this policy
                 should be scheduled. The policy could be
                 scheduled based on time calendar or
                 event-map.";
             }

             leaf scheduling-information {
               type string;
               description
                 "This field contains either the 'Calendar'
                 or 'Event-map' based on 'Schedule type'.";
             }

             leaf owner {
               type string;
               description
                 "This field defines the owner of this
                 policy. Only the owner is authorized to
                 modify the contents of the policy.";
             }
           }
         }
       }
     }
   <CODE ENDS>

                      Figure 2: YANG for cf_interface

6.  Security Considerations

   The data model for the I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface is derived
   from the I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface Information Model
   [client-facing-inf-im], so the same security considerations with the
   information model should be included in this document.  The data
   model needs to support a mechanism to protect Consumer-Facing
   Interface to Security Controller.



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7.  Acknowledgements

   This work was supported by Institute for Information & communications
   Technology Promotion(IITP) grant funded by the Korea government(MSIP)
   (No.R-20160222-002755, Cloud based Security Intelligence Technology
   Development for the Customized Security Service Provisioning).

   This document has greatly benefited from inputs by Hyoungshick Kim,
   Hoon Ko, Mahdi F. Dachmehchi, Seungjin Lee, Jinyong Tim Kim, and
   Daeyoung Hyun.

8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC3444]                Pras, A., "On the Difference between
                            Information Models and Data Models",
                            RFC 3444, January 2003.

8.2.  Informative References

   [i2nsf-framework]        Lopez, D., Lopez, E., Dunbar, L., Strassner,
                            J., and R. Kumar, "Framework for Interface
                            to Network Security Functions",
                            draft-ietf-i2nsf-framework-05 (work in
                            progress), May 2017.

   [client-facing-inf-req]  Kumar, R., Lohiya, A., Qi, D., Bitar, N.,
                            Palislamovic, S., and L. Xia, "Requirements
                            for Client-Facing Interface to Security
                            Controller", draft-ietf-i2nsf-client-facing-
                            interface-req-01 (work in progress),
                            April 2017.

   [client-facing-inf-im]   Kumar, R., Lohiya, A., Qi, D., Bitar, N.,
                            Palislamovic, S., and L. Xia, "Information
                            model for Client-Facing Interface to
                            Security Controller", draft-kumar-i2nsf-
                            client-facing-interface-im-02 (work in
                            progress), April 2017.

   [i2nsf-terminology]      Hares, S., Strassner, J., Lopez, D.,
                            Birkholz, H., and L. Xia, "Information model
                            for Client-Facing Interface to Security
                            Controller", draft-ietf-i2nsf-terminology-03
                            (work in progress), March 2017.

   [RFC6020]                Bjorklund, M., "YANG - A Data Modeling



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                            Language for the Network Configuration
                            Protocol (NETCONF)", RFC 6020, October 2010.

Appendix A.  Changes from
             draft-jeong-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-dm-01

   The following changes have been made from
   draft-jeong-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-dm-01:

   o  The block diagram representing the overall architecture of
      security management system has been remove in this draft (Section
      5 in draft-jeong-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-dm-01) as it is
      more suitable to be included in the information model draft than
      the data model.

   o  Sections 4 and 5 have been revised to produce a data tree model
      and YANG data model according to the information model suggested
      in the draft about the I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface Information
      Model [client-facing-inf-im].

   o  Overall editorial errors are corrected.

Appendix B.  Use Case: Policy Instance Example for VoIP/VoLTE Security
             Services

   The following shows the example data tree model for the VoIP/VoLTE
   services.  Multi-tenancy, endpoint groups, threat prevention, and
   telemetry data components are general part of the tree model, so we
   can just modify the policy instance in order to generate and enforce
   high-level policies.

   The policy-calendar can act as a scheduler to set the star and end
   time to block calls which uses suspicious ids, or calls from other
   countries.

















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      module ietf-i2nsf-cf-interface-policy-instance
       +--rw policy-instance
          +--rw policy-rule* [policy-rule-id]
          |  +--rw policy-rule-id        uint16
          |  +--rw name?                 string
          |  +--rw date?                 yang:date-and-time
          |  +--rw source?               string
          |  +--rw destination?          string
          |  +--rw exception?            boolean
          |  +--rw exception-detail?     string
          +--rw action* [action-id]
          |  +--rw action-id             string
          |  +--rw name?                 string
          |  +--rw date?                 yang:date-and-time
          |  +--rw primary-action?       string
          |  +--rw secondary-action?     string
          +--rw precedence* [precedence-id]
          |  +--rw precedence-id         string
          |  +--rw rule-exist?           boolean
          +--rw event* [event-id]
          |  +--rw event-id              string
          |  +--rw security-event?       string
          |  +--rw threat-map?           string
          |  +--rw enable?               boolean
          +--rw condition* [condition-id]
          |  +--rw condition-id          string
          |  +--rw caller* [caller-id]
          |  |  +--rw caller-id          uint16
          |  |  +--rw caller-id-id?      string
          |  |  +--rw caller-country?    string
          |  |  +--rw caller-city?       string
          |  +--rw callee* [callee-id]
          |     +--rw callee-id          uint16
          |     +--rw callee-id-id?      string
          |     +--rw callee-country?    string
          |     +--rw callee-city?       string
          +--rw policy-calendar* [policy-calendar-id]
             +--rw policy-calendar-id    uint16
             +--rw name?                 string
             +--rw date?                 yang:date-and-time
             +--rw enforcement-type?     string
             +--rw begin-time?           yang:date-and-time
             +--rw end-time?             yang:date-and-time


    Figure 3: Policy Instance Example for VoIP/VoLTE Security Services





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Appendix C.  Policy Instance YANG Example for VoIP/VoLTE Security
             Services

   The following YANG data model is a policy instance for VoIP/VoLTE
   security services.  The policy-calendar can act as a scheduler to set
   the start time and end time to block malicious calls which use
   suspicious IDs, or calls from other countries.

   <CODE BEGINS> file "ietf-i2nsf-cf-interface-voip.yang"

   module ietf-i2nsf-cf-interface-voip{
     namespace
       "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-cf-interface-voip";
     prefix
       cf-interface;


     import ietf-yang-types {
       prefix yang;
     }

     organization
       "IETF I2NSF (Interface to Network Security Functions)
        Working Group";

     contact
       "WG Web: <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/i2nsf>
        WG List: <mailto:i2nsf@ietf.org>

        WG Chair: Adrian Farrel
        <mailto:Adrain@olddog.co.uk>

        WG Chair: Linda Dunbar
        <mailto:Linda.duhbar@huawei.com>

        Editor: Jaehoon Paul Jeong
        <mailto:pauljeong@skku.edu>";

     description
       "This module defines a YANG data module for consumer-facing
        interface to security controller.";

     revision "2017-07-17"{
       description "Initial revision";
       reference
         "draft-kumar-i2nsf-client-facing-interface-im-02";
     }




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     //Groupings
     container policy-instance {
        description
        "this describes the policy instances.";

           list policy-rule {
             key "policy-rule-id";
             description
             "This represents the policy-rule of a
             policy instance.";

             leaf policy-rule-id {
               type uint16;
               description
               "policy rule id.";
             }

             leaf name {
               type string;
               description
                 "Name of the policy-rule.";
             }

             leaf date {
               type yang:date-and-time;
               description
                 "The date when the rule was created.";
             }

             leaf source {
               type string;
               description
                 "This references either end-point-group,
                 threat-feed, or custom-list.";
             }

             leaf destination {
               type string;
               description
                 "This references either end-point-group,
                 threat-feed, or custom-list.";
             }

             leaf exception {
               type boolean;
               description
                 "This describes whether an exception has
                 occurred or not.";



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             }

             leaf exception-detail{
               type string;
               description
                 "This includes detailed information about
                 source and destination of
                 an exception.";
             }
           }
           list action {
             key "action-id";
             description
                 "This represents the action of a policy-rule.";
             leaf action-id {
               type string;
               mandatory true;
               description
                 "This represents the action-id of a policy-rule.";
             }
             leaf name {
               type string;
               description
                 "The action name.";
             }
             leaf date {
               type yang:date-and-time;
               description
                 "When the action was taken.";
             }

             leaf primary-action {
               type string;
               description
                 "This includes actions such as permit,
                 mirroring, rate-limit, ips, app-firewall,
                 auth-session, and etc";
             }

             leaf secondary-action {
               type string;
               description
                 "This includes optional actions such as
                 logging, system logging and session logging.";
             }
           }
           list precedence {
             key "precedence-id";



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             description
             "This describes whether there is a preceeding
               rule and causes problems.";
             leaf precedence-id{
               type string;
               mandatory true;
               description
               "This represent the precedence-id of
               a policy-rule.";
             }
             leaf rule-exist {
               type boolean;
               description
               "This determines whether there is a preceeding.";
             }
           }
           list event {
             key "event-id";
             description
             "This represents the security event of a
                 policy-rule.";
             leaf event-id {
               type string;
               mandatory true;
               description
                 "This represents the event-id.";
             }
             leaf security-event {
               type string;
               description
                 "This references the security event in the
                 threat-prevention .";
             }
             leaf threat-map {
               type string;
               description
                 "This references the threat-map in the
                 threat-prevention.";
             }
             leaf enable {
               type boolean;
               description
                 "This determines whether the condition
                 matches the security event or not.";
             }
           }
           list condition {
             key "condition-id";



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             description
             "This represents the condition of a
                 policy-rule.";
             leaf condition-id {
               type string;
               description
                 "This represents the condition-id.";
             }
             list caller {
               key "caller-id";
               description
               "this represents the list of callers.";
               leaf caller-id {
                 type uint16;
                 description
                 "the id of the caller.";
               }
               leaf caller-id-id{
                 type string;
                 description
                   "The caller's number.";
               }
               leaf caller-country {
                 type string;
                 description
                   "This determines the country of the caller.";
               }
               leaf caller-city {
                 type string;
                 description
                   "This determines the city of the caller.";
               }
             }

             list callee {
               key "callee-id";
               description
               "this represents the list of callees";
               leaf callee-id {
                 type uint16;
                 description
                 "The id of the callee.";
               }
               leaf callee-id-id {
                 type string;
                 description
                   "The callee's number.";
               }



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               leaf callee-country {
                 type string;
                 description
                   "This determines the country of the callee.";
               }
               leaf callee-city {
                 type string;
                 description
                   "This determines the city of the callee.";
               }
             }
           }
           list policy-calendar {
               key "policy-calendar-id";
               description
               "this represents the policy calendar list.";
               leaf policy-calendar-id {
               type uint16;
               description
               "The id of the policy calendar.";
               }
               leaf name {
                 type string;
                 description
                   "The name of the policy-calendar.";
               }
               leaf date {
                 type yang:date-and-time;
                 description
                   "The date when this calender was
                   created or last modified.";
               }
               leaf enforcement-type {
                 type string;
                 description
                   "Whether the policy enforcement is
                   admin-enforced, time-enforced, or
                   event-enforced.";
               }
               leaf begin-time {
                 type yang:date-and-time;
                 description
                   "The starting time for blocking
                   suspicious calls.";
               }
               leaf end-time {
                 type yang:date-and-time;
                 description



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                   "The time when blocking ends.";
               }
            }
         }
      }
   <CODE ENDS>

      Figure 4: Policy Instance YANG Example for VoIP/VoLTE Security
                                 Services

Authors' Addresses

   Jaehoon Paul Jeong
   Department of Software
   Sungkyunkwan University
   2066 Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu
   Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do  16419
   Republic of Korea

   Phone: +82 31 299 4957
   Fax:   +82 31 290 7996
   EMail: pauljeong@skku.edu
   URI:   http://iotlab.skku.edu/people-jaehoon-jeong.php


   Eunsoo Kim
   Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
   Sungkyunkwan University
   2066 Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu
   Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do  16419
   Republic of Korea

   Phone: +82 31 299 4104
   EMail: eskim86@skku.edu
   URI:   http://seclab.skku.edu/people/eunsoo-kim/


   Tae-Jin Ahn
   Korea Telecom
   70 Yuseong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu
   Daejeon  305-811
   Republic of Korea

   Phone: +82 42 870 8409
   EMail: taejin.ahn@kt.com






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   Rakesh Kumar
   Juniper Networks
   1133 Innovation Way
   Sunnyvale, CA  94089
   USA

   Phone:
   EMail: rkkumar@juniper.net


   Susan Hares
   Huawei
   7453 Hickory Hill
   Saline, MI  48176
   USA

   Phone: +1-734-604-0332
   EMail: shares@ndzh.com

































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