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Versions: 00 01

IPWAVE Working Group                                            J. Jeong
Internet-Draft                                                   Y. Shen
Intended status: Standards Track                                Z. Xiang
Expires: January 9, 2020                         Sungkyunkwan University
                                                            July 8, 2019


     Vehicular Mobility Management for IP-Based Vehicular Networks
          draft-jeong-ipwave-vehicular-mobility-management-01

Abstract

   This document specifies a Vehicular Mobility Management (VMM) scheme
   for IP-based vehicular networks.  The VMM scheme takes advantage of a
   vehicular link model based on a multi-link subnet.  With a vehicle's
   mobility information (e.g., position, speed, and direction) and
   navigation path (i.e., trajectory), it can provide a moving vehicle
   with proactive and seamless handoff along with its trajectory.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
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   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 9, 2020.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
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   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of



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   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   4.  Vehicular Network Architecture  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     4.1.  Vehicular Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   5.  Mobility Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     5.1.  Network Attachment of a Vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     5.2.  Handoff within One Prefix Domain  . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     5.3.  Handoff between Multiple Prefix Domains . . . . . . . . .  10
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   7.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     7.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     7.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   Appendix A.  Changes from draft-jeong-ipwave-vehicular-mobility-
                management-00  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   Appendix B.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14

1.  Introduction

   This document proposes a mobility management scheme for IP-based
   vehicular networks, which is called Vehicular Mobility Management
   (VMM).  The VMM is tailored for a vehicular network architecture and
   a vehicular link model described in the IPWAVE problem statement
   document [I-D.IPWAVE-PS].

   To support the interaction between vehicles or between vehicles and
   Rode-Side Units (RSUs), Vehicular Neighbor Discovery (VND) is
   proposed as an enhanced IPv6 Neighbor Discovery (ND) for IP-based
   vehicular networks [I-D.IPWAVE-VND].  For an efficient IPv6 Stateless
   Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC) [RFC4862], VND adopts an optimized
   Address Registration using a multihop Duplicate Address Detection
   (DAD).  This multihop DAD enables a vehicle to have a unique IP
   address in a multi-link subnet that consists of multiple wireless
   subnets with the same IP prefix, which corresponds to wireless
   coverage of multiple RSUs.  Also, VND supports IP packet routing via
   a connected Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) by letting vehicles
   exchange the prefixes of their internal networks through their
   external wireless interface.

   The mobility management in this multi-link subnet needs a new
   approach from legacy mobility management schemes.  This document aims
   at an efficient mobility management scheme called VMM to support



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   efficient V2V, V2I, and V2X communications in a road network.  The
   VMM takes advantage of the mobility information (e.g., a vehicle's
   speed, direction, and position) and trajectory (i.e., navigation
   path) of each vehicle registered into a Traffic Control Center (TCC)
   in the vehicular cloud.

2.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

3.  Terminology

   This document uses the terminology described in [RFC4861] and
   [RFC4862].  In addition, the following new terms are defined as
   below:

   o  DMM: Acronym for "Distributed Mobility Management"
      [RFC7333][RFC7429].

   o  Mobility Anchor (MA): A node that maintains IP addresses and
      mobility information of vehicles in a road network to support
      their address autoconfiguration and mobility management with a
      binding table.  It has end-to-end connections with RSUs under its
      control.

   o  On-Board Unit (OBU): A node that has a network interface (e.g.,
      IEEE 802.11-OCB and Cellular V2X (C-V2X) [TS-23.285-3GPP]) for
      wireless communications with other OBUs and RSUs, and may be
      connected to in-vehicle devices or networks.  An OBU is mounted on
      a vehicle.  It is assumed that a radio navigation receiver (e.g.,
      Global Positioning System (GPS)) is included in a vehicle with an
      OBU for efficient navigation.

   o  OCB: Acronym for "Outside the Context of a Basic Service Set"
      [IEEE-802.11-OCB].

   o  Road-Side Unit (RSU): A node that has physical communication
      devices (e.g., IEEE 802.11-OCB and C-V2X) for wireless
      communications with vehicles and is also connected to the Internet
      as a router or switch for packet forwarding.  An RSU is typically
      deployed on the road infrastructure, either at an intersection or
      in a road segment, but may also be located in car parking areas.

   o  Traffic Control Center (TCC): A node that maintains road
      infrastructure information (e.g., RSUs, traffic signals, and loop
      detectors), vehicular traffic statistics (e.g., average vehicle



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      speed and vehicle inter-arrival time per road segment), and
      vehicle information (e.g., a vehicle's identifier, position,
      direction, speed, and trajectory as a navigation path).  TCC is
      included in a vehicular cloud for vehicular networks.

   o  Vehicular Cloud: A cloud infrastructure for vehicular networks,
      having compute nodes, storage nodes, and network nodes.

   o  WAVE: Acronym for "Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments"
      [WAVE-1609.0].

4.  Vehicular Network Architecture

   This section describes a vehicular network architecture for V2V and
   V2I communication.  A vehicle and an RSU have their internal networks
   including in-vehicle devices or servers, respectively.

4.1.  Vehicular Network

   A vehicular network architecture for V2I and V2V is illustrated in
   Figure 1.  In this figure, there is a vehicular cloud having a TCC.
   The TCC has Mobility Anchors (MAs) for the mobility management of
   vehicles under its control.  Each MA is in charge of the mobility
   management of vehicles under its prefix domain, which is a multi-link
   subnet of RSUs sharing the same prefix [I-D.IPWAVE-PS].  A vehicular
   network is a wireless network consisting of RSUs and vehicles.  RSUs
   are interconnected with each other through a wired network, and
   vehicles can construct VANETs via V2V and V2I communications.























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                      *-----------------------------------------*
                     *          TCC in Vehicular Cloud           *
                    *   +-------------------------------------+   *
  +--------+       *    |   +---------+         +---------+   |    *
  |  CN1   |<---->*     |   |   MA1   |<------->|   MA2   |   |     *
  +--------+      *     |   +---------+         +---------+   |     *
                   *    +-------------------------------------+    *
                    *           ^                    ^            *
                     *          |      INTERNET      |           *
                      *---------v--------------------v----------*
                       ^               ^                     ^
                       | Ethernet      |                     |
                       |               |                     |
                       v               v                     v
                  +--------+ Ethernet +--------+ Ethernet +--------+
                  |  RSU1  |<-------->|  RSU2  |<-------->|  RSU3  |
                  +--------+          +--------+          +--------+
                     ^                   ^                   ^
                     :                   :                   :
              +-----------------------------------+  +-----------------+
              |      : V2I           V2I :        |  |   V2I :         |
              |      v                   v        |  |       v         |
 +--------+   |   +--------+       +--------+     |  |  +--------+     |
 |Vehicle1|===>   |Vehicle2|===>   |Vehicle3|===> |  |  |Vehicle4|===> |
 |        |<.....>|        |<.....>|        |     |  |  |        |     |
 +--------+  V2V  +--------+  V2V  +--------+     |  |  +--------+     |
              |                                   |  |                 |
              +-----------------------------------+  +-----------------+
                             Subnet1                       Subnet2

       <----> Wired Link   <....> Wireless Link   ===> Moving Direction

   Figure 1: A Vehicular Network Architecture for V2I and V2V Networking

   In Figure 1, three RSUs are deployed either at intersections or along
   roadways.  They are connected to an MA through wired networks.  In
   the vehicular network, there are two subnets such as Subnet1 and
   Subnet2.  Subnet1 is a multi-link subnet consisting of multiple
   wireless coverage areas of multiple RSUs, and those areas share the
   same IPv6 prefix to construct a single logical subnet
   [I-D.IPWAVE-PS].  That is, the wireless links of RSU1 and RSU2 belong
   to Subnet1.  Thus, since Vehicle2 and Vehicle3 use the same prefix
   for Subnet1 and they are within the wireless communication range,
   they can communicate directly with each other.  Note that in a multi-
   link subnet, a vehicle (e.g., Vehicle2 and Vehicle3 in Figure 1) can
   configure its global IPv6 address through an address registration
   procedure including a multihop DAD, which is specified in VND
   [I-D.IPWAVE-VND].



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   On the other hand, Subnet2 uses a prefix different from Subnet1's.
   Vehicle4 residing in Subnet2 cannot talk to Vehicle3 directly because
   they belong to different subnets.  Vehicles can construct a connected
   VANET, so they can communicate with each other without the relaying
   of an RSU, but the forwarding over the VANET.  In the case where two
   vehicles belong to the same multi-link subnet, but they are not
   connected in the same VANET, they can use RSUs.  In Figure 1, even
   though Vehicle1 are disconnected from Vehicle3, they can communicate
   indirectly with each other through RSUs such as RSU1 and RSU2.

   In Figure 1, it is assumed that Vehicle2 communicates with the
   corresponding node denoted as CN1 where Vehicle2 is moving in the
   wireless coverage of RSU1.  When Vehicle2 moves out of the coverage
   of RSU1 and moves into the coverage of RSU2 where RSU1 and RSU2 share
   the same prefix, the packets sent by CN1 should be routed toward
   Vehicle2.  Also, when Vehicle2 moves out of the coverage of RSU2 and
   moves into the coverage of RSU3 where RSU2 and RSU3 use two different
   prefixes, the packets of CN1 should be delivered to Vehicle2.  With a
   handoff procedure, a sender's packets can be delivered to a
   destination vehicle which is moving in the wireless coverage areas.
   Thus, this document specifies a mobility management scheme in the
   vehicular network architecture, as shown in Figure 1.

5.  Mobility Management

   This section explains the detailed procedure of mobility management
   of a vehicle in a vehicular network as shown in Figure 1.

5.1.  Network Attachment of a Vehicle

   A mobility management is required for the seamless communication of
   vehicles moving between the RSUs.  When a vehicle moves into the
   coverage of another RSU, a different IP address is assigned to the
   vehicle, resulting in the re-configuration of transport-layer session
   information (i.e., an end-point's IP address) to avoid service
   disruption.  Considering this issue, this document proposes a handoff
   mechanism for seamless communication.

   In [VIP-WAVE], the authors constructed a network-based mobility
   management scheme using Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) [RFC5213], which
   is highly suitable for vehicular networks.  This document uses a
   mobility management procedure similar to PMIPv6 along with prefix
   discovery.








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             Vehicle                    RSU                MA
                |                        |                  |
                |-RS with Mobility Info->|                  |
                |         [VMI]          |                  |
                |                        |                  |
                |                        |--------PBU------>|
                |                        |                  |
                |                        |                  |
                |                        |<-------PBA-------|
                |                        |                  |
                |                        |                  |
                |                        |===Bi-Dir Tunnel==|
                |                        |                  |
                |                        |                  |
                |<----RA with prefix-----|                  |
                |                        |                  |


     Figure 2: Message Interaction for a Vehicle's Network Attachment

   Figure 2 shows the binding update flow when a vehicle entered the
   subnet of an RSU.  RSUs act as Mobility Anchor Gateway (MAG) defined
   in [VIP-WAVE].  When it receives an RS message from a vehicle
   containing its mobility information (e.g., position, speed, and
   direction), an RSU sends its MA a Proxy Binding Update (PBU) message
   [RFC5213][RFC3775], which contains a Mobility Option for the
   vehicle's mobility information.  The MA receives the PBU and sets up
   a Binding Cache Entry (BCE) as well as a bi-directional tunnel
   (denoted as Bi-Dir Tunnel in Figure 2) between the serving RSU and
   itself.  Through this tunnel, all traffic packets to the vehicle are
   encapsulated toward the RSU.  Simultaneously, the MA sends back a
   Proxy Binding Acknowledgment (PBA) message to the serving RSU.  This
   serving RSU receives the PBA and sets up a bi-directional tunnel with
   the MA.  After this binding update, the RSU sends back an RA message
   to the vehicle, which includes the RSU's prefix for the address
   autoconfiguration of the vehicle.

   When the vehicle receives the RA message, it performs the address
   registration procedure including a multihop DAD for its global IP
   address based on the prefix announced by the RA message according to
   the VND [I-D.IPWAVE-VND].

   In PMIPv6, a unique prefix is allocated to each vehicle by an MA
   (i.e., LMA) to guarantee the uniqueness of each address, but in this
   document, a unique IP address is allocated to each vehicle with the
   same prefix by an MA in its domain through the multihop-DAD-based
   address registration.  This unique IP address allocation ensures that




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   vehicles own unique IP addresses in a multi-link subnet and can
   reduce the waste of IP prefixes in legacy PMIPv6.

5.2.  Handoff within One Prefix Domain

   When the vehicle changes its location and its current RSU (denoted as
   c-RSU) detects that the vehicle is moving out of its coverage, c-RSU
   needs to report the leaving of the vehicle to the MA and de-register
   the binding via PBU.

      Vehicle            c-RSU                MA               n-RSU
         |                  |                  |                  |
         |                  |===Bi-Dir Tunnel==|                  |
         |                  |                  |                  |
         |                  |                  |                  |
         |                  |----DeReg PBU---->|                  |
         |                  |                  |                  |
         |                  |                  |                  |
         |                  |<-------PBA-------|                  |
         |                  |                  |                  |
         |                  |                  |                  |
         |                  |                  |                  |
         |                  |                  |                  |
         |                  |                  |                  |
         |(------------------RS with Mobility Info-------------->)|
         |                          [VMI]      |                  |
         |                                     |<-------PBU-------|
         |                                     |                  |
         |                                     |                  |
         |                                     |--------PBA------>|
         |                                     |                  |
         |                                     |                  |
         |                                     |===Bi-Dir Tunnel==|
         |                                     |                  |
         |                                     |                  |
         |<--------------------RA with prefix---------------------|
         |                                                        |


    Figure 3: Handoff of a Vehicle within One Prefix Domain with PMIPv6

   With this report, the MA can figure out the new RSU (denoted as
   n-RSU) based on the vehicle's trajectory and change the end-point of
   the tunnel into n-RSU's IP address for the vehicle or get ready to
   detect new binding requests.

   Figure 3 shows the handoff of a vehicle within one prefix domain
   (i.e., a multi-link subnet) with PMIPv6.  As shown in the figure,



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   when the MA receives a new PBU from the n-RSU, it changes the
   tunnel's end-point from the c-RSU to n-RSU.  If there are ongoing IP
   packets toward the vehicle, the MA encapsulates the packets and then
   forwards them towards n-RSU.  Through this network-based mobility
   management, the vehicle is not aware of any changes at its network
   layer and can maintain its transport-layer sessions without any
   disruption.

           Vehicle               c-RSU              n-RSU
              |                     |                  |
              |---------------------|                  |
              |c-RSU detects leaving|                  |
              |---------------------|                  |
              |                     |--------PBU------>|
              |                     |                  |
              |                     |===Bi-Dir Tunnel==|
              |                     |                  |
              |                     |<-------PBA-------|
              |                     |                  |
              |                     |                  |
              |(--------RS with Mobility Info-------->)|
              |                 [VMI]                  |
              |                                        |
              |<------------RA with prefix-------------|
              |                                        |

     Figure 4: Handoff of a Vehicle within One Prefix Domain with DMM

   If c-RSU and n-RSU are adjacent, that is, vehicles are moving in
   specified routes with fixed RSU allocation, the procedure can be
   simplified by constructing the bidirectional tunnel directly between
   them (cancel the intervention of MA) to alleviate the traffic flow in
   MA as well as reduce handoff delay.

   Figure 4 shows the handoff of a vehicle within one prefix domain (as
   a multi-link subnet) with DMM [I-D.DMM-PMIPv6].  RSUs are in charge
   of detecting when a node joins or moves through its domain.  If c-RSU
   detects that the vehicle is going to leave its coverage and to enter
   the area of an adjacent RSU, it sends a PBU message to inform n-RSU
   of the handoff of the vehicle.  If n-RSU receives the PBU message, it
   constructs a bidirectional tunnel between c-RSU and itself, and then
   sends back a PBA message as an acknowledgment to c-RSU.  If there are
   ongoing IP packets toward the vehicle, c-RSU encapsulates the packets
   and then forwards them to n-RSU.  When n-RSU detects the entrance of
   the vehicle, it directly sends an RA message to the vehicle so that
   the vehicle can assure that it is still connected to a router with
   its current prefix.  If the vehicle sends an RS message to n-RSU,
   n-RSU responds to the RS message by sending an RA to the vehicle.



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5.3.  Handoff between Multiple Prefix Domains

   When the vehicle moves from a prefix domain to another prefix domain,
   a handoff between multiple prefix domains is required.  As shown in
   Figure 1, when Vehicle3 moves from the subnet of RSU2 (i.e., Subnet1)
   to the subnet of RSU3 (i.e., Subnet2), a multiple domain handoff is
   performed through the cooperation of RSU2, RSU3, MA1 and MA2.

  Vehicle     c-RSU               MA1              MA2             n-RSU
    |            |                 |                |                 |
    |            |==Bi-Dir Tunnel==|                |                 |
    |            |                 |                |                 |
    |            |                 |                |                 |
    |            |---DeReg PBU---->|                |                 |
    |            |                 |-------PBU----->|                 |
    |            |                 |                |                 |
    |            |<------PBA-------|                |-------PBA------>|
    |            |                 |                |                 |
    |            |                 |                |==Bi-Dir Tunnel==|
    |            |                 |                |                 |
    |            |                 |                |                 |
    |(----------------------RS with Mobility Info------------------->)|
    |            |                 |[VMI]           |                 |
    |            |                 |                |                 |
    |            |                 |                |                 |
    |<----------------------RA with prefix1 (c-RSU)-------------------|
    |            |                 |                |                 |
    |<----------------------RA with prefix2 (n-RSU)-------------------|
    |            |                 |                |                 |

    Figure 5: Handoff of a Vehicle between Multiple Prefix Domains with
                                  PMIPv6

   Figure 5 shows the handoff of a vehicle between two prefix domains
   (i.e., two multi-link subnets) with PMIPv6.  When the vehicle moves
   out of its c-RSU belonging to Subnet1, and moves into the n-RSU
   belonging to Subnet2, c-RSU detects the vehicle's leaving and reports
   to MA1.  MA1 figures out that the vehicle will get into the coverage
   of the n-RSU based on its trajectory and sends MA2 a PBU message to
   inform MA2 that the vehicle will enter the coverage of n-RSU
   belonging to MA2.  MA2 sends n-RSU a PBA message to inform n-RSU that
   the vehicle will enter the coverage of n-RSU along with handoff
   context such as c-RSU's context information (e.g., c-RSU's link-local
   address and prefix called prefix1), and the vehicle's context
   information (e.g., the vehicle's global IP address and MAC address).
   After n-RSU receives the PBA message including the handoff context
   from MA2, it sets up a bi-directional tunnel with MA2, and generates
   RA messages with c-RSU's context information.  That is, n-RSU



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   pretends to be a router belonging to Subnet1.  When the vehicle
   receives RA from n-RSU, it can maintain its connection with its
   corresponding node (i.e., CN1).  Note that n-RSU also sends RA
   messages with its domain prefix called prefix2.  The vehicle
   configures another global IP address with prefix2, and can use it for
   communication with neighboring vehicles under the coverage of n-RSU.

   If c-RSU and n-RSU are adjacent, that is, vehicles are moving in
   specified routes with fixed RSU allocation, the procedure can be
   simplified by constructing the bidirectional tunnel directly between
   them (cancel the intervention of MAs) to alleviate the traffic flow
   in MA as well as reduce handoff delay.

           Vehicle               c-RSU              n-RSU
              |                     |                  |
              |---------------------|                  |
              |c-RSU detects leaving|                  |
              |---------------------|                  |
              |                     |--------PBU------>|
              |                     |                  |
              |                     |===Bi-Dir Tunnel==|
              |                     |                  |
              |                     |<-------PBA-------|
              |                     |                  |
              |                     |                  |
              |(--------RS with Mobility Info-------->)|
              |                 [VMI]                  |
              |                                        |
              |<--------RA with prefix1 (c-RSU)--------|
              |                                        |
              |<--------RA with prefix2 (n-RSU)--------|
              |                                        |

    Figure 6: Handoff of a Vehicle within Multiple Prefix Domains with
                                    DMM

   Figure 6 shows the handoff of a vehicle within two prefix domains (as
   two multi-link subnets) with DMM [I-D.DMM-PMIPv6].  If c-RSU detects
   that the vehicle is going to leave its coverage and to enter the area
   of an adjacent RSU (n-RSU) belonging to a different prefix domain, it
   sends a PBU message to inform n-RSU that the vehicle will enter the
   coverage of n-RSU along with handoff context such as c-RSU's context
   information (e.g., c-RSU's link-local address and prefix called
   prefix1), and the vehicle's context information (e.g., the vehicle's
   global IP address and MAC address).  After n-RSU receives the PBA
   message including the handoff context from c-RSU, it sets up a bi-
   directional tunnel with c-RSU, and generates RA messages with c-RSU's
   context information.  That is, n-RSU pretends to be a router



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   belonging to Subnet1.  When the vehicle receives RA from n-RSU, it
   can maintain its connection with its corresponding node (i.e., CN1).
   Note that n-RSU also sends RA messages with its domain prefix called
   prefix2.  The vehicle configures another global IP address with
   prefix2, and can use it for communication with neighboring vehicles
   under the coverage of n-RSU.

6.  Security Considerations

   This document shares all the security issues of Vehicular ND
   [I-D.IPWAVE-VND], Proxy MIPv6 [RFC5213], and DMM
   [RFC7333][RFC7429][I-D.DMM-PMIPv6].

7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3775]  Johnson, D., Perkins, C., and J. Arkko, "Mobility Support
              in IPv6", RFC 3775, June 2004.

   [RFC4861]  Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
              "Neighbor Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
              September 2007.

   [RFC4862]  Thomson, S., Narten, T., and T. Jinmei, "IPv6 Stateless
              Address Autoconfiguration", RFC 4862, September 2007.

   [RFC5213]  Gundavelli, S., Leung, K., Devarapalli, V., and K.
              Chowdhury, "Proxy Mobile IPv6", RFC 5213, August 2008.

   [RFC7333]  Chan, H., Liu, D., Seite, P., Yokota, H., and J. Korhonen,
              "Requirements for Distributed Mobility Management",
              RFC 7333, August 2014.

   [RFC7429]  Liu, D., Zuniga, JC., Seite, P., Chan, H., and CJ.
              Bernardos, "Distributed Mobility Management: Current
              Practices and Gap Analysis", RFC 7429, January 2015.

7.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.DMM-PMIPv6]
              Bernardos, CJ., Oliva, A., Giust, F., Zuniga, JC., and A.
              Mourad, "Proxy Mobile IPv6 extensions for Distributed
              Mobility Management", draft-ietf-dmm-pmipv6-dlif-04 (work
              in progress), January 2019.



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   [I-D.IPWAVE-PS]
              Jeong, J., Ed., "IP Wireless Access in Vehicular
              Environments (IPWAVE): Problem Statement and Use Cases",
              draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking-09 (work in
              progress), May 2019.

   [I-D.IPWAVE-VND]
              Jeong, J., Ed., Shen, Y., and Z. Xiang, "Vehicular
              Neighbor Discovery for IP-Based Vehicular Networks",
              draft-jeong-ipwave-vehicular-neighbor-discovery-07 (work
              in progress), July 2019.

   [IEEE-802.11-OCB]
              "Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and
              Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications", IEEE Std
              802.11-2016, December 2016.

   [TS-23.285-3GPP]
              3GPP, "Architecture Enhancements for V2X Services", 3GPP
              TS 23.285, June 2018.

   [VIP-WAVE]
              Cespedes, S., Lu, N., and X. Shen, "VIP-WAVE: On the
              Feasibility of IP Communications in 802.11p Vehicular
              Networks", IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation
              Systems, vol. 14, no. 1, March 2013.

   [WAVE-1609.0]
              IEEE 1609 Working Group, "IEEE Guide for Wireless Access
              in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) - Architecture", IEEE Std
              1609.0-2013, March 2014.




















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Appendix A.  Changes from draft-jeong-ipwave-vehicular-mobility-
             management-00

   The following changes are made from draft-jeong-ipwave-vehicular-
   mobility-management-00:

   o  In Section 4.1, the description of the vehicular network
      architecture is clarified.

   o  In Section 5.2, the description on the handoff procedure within
      one prefix domain is clarified.

   o  In Section 5.3, the decription on the the handoff procedure within
      multiple prefix domains is clarified.

   o  Some typo errors are corrected and the repeated acronyms are
      removed.

Appendix B.  Acknowledgments

   This work was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the
   National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of
   Education (2017R1D1A1B03035885).

   This work was supported by the MSIT (Ministry of Science and ICT),
   Korea, under the ITRC (Information Technology Research Center)
   support program (IITP-2019-2017-0-01633) supervised by the IITP
   (Institute for Information & communications Technology Promotion).

Authors' Addresses

   Jaehoon Paul Jeong
   Department of Computer Science and Engineering
   Sungkyunkwan University
   2066 Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu
   Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do  16419
   Republic of Korea

   Phone: +82 31 299 4957
   Fax:   +82 31 290 7996
   EMail: pauljeong@skku.edu
   URI:   http://iotlab.skku.edu/people-jaehoon-jeong.php









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   Yiwen Chris Shen
   Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
   Sungkyunkwan University
   2066 Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu
   Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do  16419
   Republic of Korea

   Phone: +82 31 299 4106
   Fax:   +82 31 290 7996
   EMail: chrisshen@skku.edu


   Zhong Xiang
   Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
   Sungkyunkwan University
   2066 Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu
   Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do  16419
   Republic of Korea

   Phone: +82 10 9895 1211
   Fax:   +82 31 290 7996
   EMail: xz618@skku.edu





























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