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Versions: 00 01 02

Network Working Group                                           J. Jeong
Internet-Draft                                   Sungkyunkwan University
Intended status: Standards Track                                   T. Oh
Expires: August 18, 2016               Rochester Institute of Technology
                                                       February 15, 2016


       Problem Statement for Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Networking
                draft-jeong-its-v2i-problem-statement-00

Abstract

   This document specifies the problem statement for IPv6-based vehicle-
   to-infrastructure networking.  Dedicated Short-Range Communications
   (DSRC) is standardized as IEEE 802.11p for the wireless media access
   in vehicular networks.  This document addresses the extension of IPv6
   as the network layer protocol in vehicular networks and is focused on
   the networking issues in one-hop communication between a Road-Side
   Unit (RSU) and vehicle.  The RSU is connected to the Internet and
   allows vehicles to have the Internet access if connected.  The major
   issues of including IPv6 in vehicular networks are neighbor discovery
   protocol, stateless address autoconfiguration, and DNS configuration
   for the Internet connectivity over DSRC.  Also, when the vehicle and
   the RSU have an internal network, respectively, the document
   discusses the issues of internetworking between the vehicle's
   internal network and the RSU's internal network.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 18, 2016.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
   2.  Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
   3.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
   4.  Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
   5.  Internetworking between the Vehicle and RSU Networks  . . . . . 6
   6.  IPv6 Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
   7.  Neighbor Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
   8.  IP Address Autoconfiguration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
   9.  DNS Naming Service  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
   10. IP Mobility Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
   11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
   12. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
   13. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
     13.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
     13.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

















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1.  Introduction

   Recently, Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) have been focusing on
   intelligent services in road networks, such as driving safety,
   efficient driving, and entertainment.  For this VANET, Dedicated
   Short-Range Communications (DSRC) [DSRC-WAVE] has been standardized
   as IEEE 802.11p [IEEE-802.11p], which is an extension of IEEE 802.11a
   [IEEE-802.11a] with a consideration of the vehicular network's
   characteristics such as a vehicle's velocity and collision avoidance.

   Now the deployment of VANET is demanded into real road environments
   along with the popularity of smart devices (e.g., smartphone and
   tablet).  Many automobile vendors (e.g., Benz, BMW, Ford, Honda, and
   Toyota) started to consider automobiles as computers instead of
   mechanical machines since many current vehicles are operating with
   many sensors and software.  Also, Google made a great advancement in
   self-driving vehicles with many special software modules and hardware
   devices to support computer-vision-based object recognition, machine-
   learning-based decision-making, and GPS navigation.

   With this trend, vehicular networking needs to be enabled on top of
   TCP/IP technologies in order to interoperate with the Internet.  IPv6
   [RFC2460] is suitable for vehicular networks since the protocol has
   abundant address space, autoconfiguration features, and protocol
   extension ability through extension headers.

   This document specifies the problem statement of IPv6-based vehicle-
   to-infrastructure (V2I) networking, such as IPv6 addressing
   [RFC4291], neighbor discovery [RFC4861], address autoconfiguration
   [RFC4862], and DNS naming service [RFC6106][RFC3646][ID-DNSNA].
   Also, the document analyzes the characteristics of vehicular networks
   to consider the design of V2I networking.

2.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

3.  Terminology

   This document uses the terminology described in [RFC4861] and
   [RFC4862].  In addition, four new terms are defined below:

   o  Road-Side Unit (RSU): A node that has a Dedicated Short-Range
      Communications (DSRC) device for wireless communications with the
      vehicles and is connected to the Internet.  Every RSU is usually
      deployed at an intersection so that it can provide vehicles with



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      the Internet connectivity.

   o  Vehicle: A node that has the DSRC device for wireless
      communications with vehicles and RSUs.  Every vehicle may also
      have a GPS-navigation system for efficient driving.

   o  Traffic Control Center (TCC): A node that maintains road
      infrastructure information (e.g., RSUs and traffic signals),
      vehicular traffic statistics (e.g., average vehicle speed and
      vehicle inter-arrival time per road segment), and vehicle
      information (e.g., a vehicle's identifier, position, direction,
      speed, and trajectory).  TCC is included in a vehicular cloud for
      vehicular networks.

4.  Overview

   This document specifies the problem statement of vehicle-to-
   infrastructure (V2I) networking based on IPv6.  The main focus is
   one-hop networking between a vehicle and an RSU or between vehicles
   via an RSU.  However, this document does not address multi-hop
   networking scenarios of vehicles and RSUs.  Also, the problems focus
   on the network layer (i.e., IPv6 protocol stack) rather than the
   media access control (MAC) layer and the transport layer (e.g., TCP,
   UDP, and SCTP).

                               *-------------*
                              *               *         .-------.
                             * Vehicular Cloud *<------>|  TCC  |
                              *               *         ._______.
                               *-------------*
                              ^               ^
                              |               |
                              |               |
                              v               v
                      .--------.             .--------.
                      |  RSU1  |<----------->|  RSU2  |
                      .________.             .________.
                      ^        ^                  ^
                      .        .                  .
                      .        .                  .
                      v        v                  v
               .--------.    .--------.         .--------.
               |Vehicle1|=>  |Vehicle2|=>       |Vehicle3|=>
               .________.    .________.         .________.

      <----> Wired Link   <....> Wireless Link   => Moving Direction

          Figure 1: The Network Configuration for V2I Networking



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   Figure 1 shows the network configuration for V2I networking in a road
   network.  The two RSUs (RSU1 and RSU2) are deployed in the road
   network and are connected to the Vehicular Cloud through the
   Internet.  The TCC is connected to the Vehicular Cloud and the two
   vehicles (Vehicle1 and Vehicle2) are wirelessly connected to RSU1,
   and the last vehicle (Vehicle3) is wirelessly connected to RSU2.
   Vehicle1 can communicate with Vehicle2 via RSU1.  Vehicle1 can
   communicate with Vehicle3 via RSU1 and RSU2.

                           (*)<..........>(*)
                            |              | 2001:3000:1::/64
   .------------------------------.  .---------------------------------.
   |                        |     |  |     |                           |
   | .-------. .------. .-------. |  | .-------. .------. .-------.    |
   | | Host1 | |RDNSS1| |Router1| |  | |Router3| |RDNSS2| | Host3 |    |
   | ._______. .______. ._______. |  | ._______. .______. ._______.    |
   |     ^        ^         ^     |  |     ^         ^        ^        |
   |     |        |         |     |  |     |         |        |        |
   |     v        v         v     |  |     v         v        v        |
   | ---------------------------- |  | ------------------------------- |
   |  2001:1000:1::/64 ^          |  |     ^ 2001:2000:1::/64          |
   |                   |          |  |     |                           |
   |                   v          |  |     v                           |
   | .-------.     .-------.      |  | .-------. .-------.   .-------. |
   | | Host2 |     |Router2|      |  | |Router4| |Server1|...|ServerN| |
   | ._______.     ._______.      |  | ._______. ._______.   ._______. |
   |     ^             ^          |  |     ^         ^           ^     |
   |     |             |          |  |     |         |           |     |
   |     v             v          |  |     v         v           v     |
   | ---------------------------- |  | ------------------------------- |
   |  2001:1000:2::/64            |  |       2001:2000:2::/64          |
   .______________________________.  ._________________________________.
      Vehicle1 (Mobile Network1)        RSU1 (Infra-node Network1)

      <----> Wired Link   <....> Wireless Link   (*) Antenna

     Figure 2: Internetworking between Vehicle Network and RSU Network

   Figure 2 shows internetworking between the vehicle's mobile network
   and the RSU's infra-node network.  There exists an internal network
   (Mobile Network1), which is located inside Vehicle1.  Vehicle1 has
   the DNS Server (RDNSS1), the two hosts (Host1 and Host2), and the two
   routers (Router1 and Router2).  The internal network (Infra-node
   Network1) is located inside RSU1.  RSU1 has the DNS Server (RDNSS2),
   one host (Host3), the two routers (Router3 and Router4), and the
   collection of servers (Server1 to ServerN) for various services in
   the road networks, such as the emergency notification and navigation.
   Vehicle1's Router1 and RSU1's Router3 use 2001:3000:1::/64 for an



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   external link (e.g., DSRC) for I2V networking.

   This document addresses the internetworking between the vehicle's
   mobile network and the RSU's infra-node network in Figure 2 and the
   required enhancement of IPv6 protocol suite for the V2I networking
   service.

5.  Internetworking between the Vehicle and RSU Networks

   This section discusses the internetworking between the vehicle's
   mobile network and the RSU's infra-node network.  As shown in Figure
   2, it is assumed that the prefix assignment for each subnet inside
   the vehicle's mobile network and the RSU's infra-node network through
   a prefix delegation protocol.  Problems are a prefix discovery and
   prefix exchange.  The prefix discovery is defined as how routers in a
   mobile network discover prefixes in the mobile network.  The prefix
   exchange is defined as how the vehicle and the RSU exchange their
   prefixes with each other.  Once these prefix discovery and prefix
   exchange are established, the unicast of packets should be supported
   between the vehicle's mobile network and the RSU's infra-node
   network.  Also, the DNS naming service should be supported for the
   DNS name resolution for a host or server in either the vehicle's
   mobile network or the RSU's infra-node network.

6.  IPv6 Addressing

   This section discusses IP addressing for V2I networking.  There are
   two policies for IPv6 addressing in vehicular networks.  The one
   policy is to use site-local IPv6 addresses for vehicular networks
   [RFC4291].  The other policy is to use global IPv6 addresses for the
   interoperability with the Internet [RFC4291].  The former approach is
   usually used by Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) for a separate multi-
   link subnet.  This approach can support the emergency notification
   service and navigation service in road networks.  However, for
   general Internet services (e.g., email access, web surfing and
   entertainment services), the latter approach is required.

   For the global IP addresses, there are two policies, which are a
   multi-link subnet approach for multiple RSUs and a single subnet
   approach per RSU.  In the multi-link subnet approach, which is
   similar to a site-local IPv6 address for MANET, RSUs play a role of
   L2 switches and the router interconnected with the RSUs is required.
   The router maintains the location of each vehicle belonging to an RSU
   for L2 switching.  In the single subnet approach per RSU, which is
   similar to the legacy subnet in the Internet, RSUs play a role of L3
   router.





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7.  Neighbor Discovery

   The Neighbor Discovery (ND) is a core part of IPv6 protocol suite
   [RFC4861].  This section discusses the extension of ND for V2I
   networking.  The vehicles are moving fast within the communication
   coverage of an RSU.  For the external link between the vehicle and
   the RSU for V2I networking, as shown in Figure 2, ND time-related
   parameters such as router lifetime and Neighbor Advertisement
   interval should be adjusted for high-speed vehicles.

8.  IP Address Autoconfiguration

   This section discusses the IP address autoconfiguration for V2I
   networking.  For the IP address autoconfiguration, the high-speed
   vehicles should also be considered.  The legacy IPv6 stateless
   address autoconfiguration [RFC4862], as shown in Figure 1, may not
   perform well because vehicles can pass through the communication
   coverage of the RSU before the address autoconfiguration with the
   Router Advertisement and Duplicate Address Detection procedures.
   DHCPv6 (or Stateless DHCPv6) can be used for the IP address
   autoconfiguration [RFC3315][RFC3736].  In the case of a single subnet
   per RSU, the delay to change IPv6 address through DHCPv6 procedure is
   not suitable since vehicles move fast.  Some modifications are
   required for the high-speed vehicles that quickly crosses the
   communication coverages of multiple RSUs.  Some modifications are
   required for both stateless address autoconfiguration and DHCPv6.

9.  DNS Naming Service

   This section discusses a DNS naming service for V2I networking.  The
   DNS naming service can consist of the DNS name resolution and DNS
   name autoconfiguration.

   The DNS name resolution translates a DNS name into the corresponding
   IPv6 address through a recursive DNS server (RDNSS) within the
   vehicle's mobile network and DNS servers in the Internet
   [RFC1034][RFC1035], which are distributed in the world.  The RDNSSes
   can be advertised by RA DNS Option or DHCP DNS Option into the
   subnets within the vehicle's mobile network.

   The DNS name autoconfiguration makes a unique DNS name for hosts
   within a vehicle's mobile network and registers it into a DNS server
   within the vehicle's mobile network [ID-DNSNA].  With Vehicle
   Identification Number (VIN), a unique DNS suffix can be constructed
   as a DNS domain for the vehicle's mobile network.  Each host can
   generate its DNS name and register it into the local RDNSS in the
   vehicle's mobile network.




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10.  IP Mobility Support

   This section discusses an IP mobility support in V2I networking.  In
   a single subnet per RSU, vehicles keep crossing the communication
   coverages of adjacent RSUs.  During this crossing, TCP/UDP sessions
   can be maintained through IP mobility support, such as Mobile IPv6
   [RFC6275].  Since vehicles move fast along roadways, this high speed
   should be configured for a parameter configuration in Mobile IPv6.

   To support the mobility of a vehicle's mobile network, Network
   Mobility (NEMO) protocol can be used [RFC3963].  Like Mobile IPv6,
   the high speed of vehicles should be considered for a parameter
   configuration in NEMO.

11.  Security Considerations

   The security is very important in vehicular networks for V2I
   networking.  Only valid vehicles should be allowed to use V2I
   networking in vehicular networks.  VIN and a user certificate can be
   used to authenticate a vehicle and the user.

   This document shares all the security issues of the neighbor
   discovery protocol.  This document can get benefits from secure
   neighbor discovery (SEND) [RFC3971]

12.  Acknowledgements

   This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through
   the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the
   Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (2014006438).  This
   research was supported in part by Global Research Laboratory Program
   (2013K1A1A2A02078326) through NRF, and the ICT R&D program of MSIP/
   IITP (14-824-09-013, Resilient Cyber-Physical Systems Research) and
   the DGIST Research and Development Program (CPS Global Center) funded
   by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning.

13.  References

13.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]       Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
                   Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2460]       Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol,
                   Version 6 (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460,
                   December 1998.

   [RFC4291]       Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing



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                   Architecture", RFC 4291, February 2006.

   [RFC4861]       Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H.
                   Soliman, "Neighbor Discovery for IP Version 6
                   (IPv6)", RFC 4861, September 2007.

   [RFC4862]       Thomson, S., Narten, T., and T. Jinmei, "IPv6
                   Stateless Address Autoconfiguration", RFC 4862,
                   September 2007.

   [RFC6106]       Jeong, J., Park, S., Beloeil, L., and S. Madanapalli,
                   "IPv6 Router Advertisement Options for DNS
                   Configuration", RFC 6106, November 2010.

   [RFC3646]       Droms, R., Ed., "DNS Configuration options for
                   Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6
                   (DHCPv6)", RFC 3646, December 2003.

   [RFC3315]       Droms, R., Ed., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T.,
                   Perkins, C., and M. Carney, "Dynamic Host
                   Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6)", RFC 3315,
                   July 2003.

   [RFC3736]       Droms, R., "Stateless Dynamic Host Configuration
                   Protocol (DHCP) Service for IPv6", RFC 3736,
                   April 2004.

   [RFC6275]       Perkins, C., Ed., Johnson, D., and J. Arkko,
                   "Mobility Support in IPv6", RFC 6275, July 2011.

   [RFC3963]       Devarapalli, V., Wakikawa, R., Petrescu, A., and P.
                   Thubert, "Network Mobility (NEMO) Basic Support
                   Protocol", RFC 3963, January 2005.

   [RFC1034]       Mockapetris, P., "Domain Names - Concepts and
                   Facilities", RFC 1034, November 1987.

   [RFC1035]       Mockapetris, P., "Domain Names - Implementation and
                   Specification", RFC 1035, November 1987.

13.2.  Informative References

   [DSRC-WAVE]     Morgan, Y., "Notes on DSRC & WAVE Standards Suite:
                   Its Architecture, Design, and Characteristics",
                   IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 12(4), 2012.

   [IEEE-802.11p]  IEEE Std 802.11p, "Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium
                   Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY)



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                   Specifications Amendment 6: Wireless Access in
                   Vehicular Environments", June 2010.

   [IEEE-802.11a]  IEEE Std 802.11a, "Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium
                   Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY)
                   specifications: High-speed Physical Layer in the 5
                   GHZ Band", September 1999.

   [ID-DNSNA]      Jeong, J., Ed., Lee, S., and J. Park, "DNS Name
                   Autoconfiguration for Internet of Things Devices",
                   draft-jeong-6man-iot-dns-autoconf (work in progress),
                   October 2015.

   [RFC3971]       Arkko, J., Ed., "SEcure Neighbor Discovery (SEND)",
                   RFC 3971, March 2005.

Authors' Addresses

   Jaehoon Paul Jeong
   Department of Software
   Sungkyunkwan University
   2066 Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu
   Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do  440-746
   Republic of Korea

   Phone: +82 31 299 4957
   Fax:   +82 31 290 7996
   EMail: pauljeong@skku.edu
   URI:   http://iotlab.skku.edu/people-jaehoon-jeong.php


   Tae (Tom) Oh
   Department of Information Sciences and Technologies
   Rochester Institute of Technology
   One Lomb Memorial Drive
   Rochester, NY  14623-5603
   USA

   Phone: +1 585 475 7642
   EMail: Tom.Oh@rit.edu











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