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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 draft-ietf-softwire-map-radius

Network Working Group                             Sheng Jiang (Editor)
Internet Draft                                                   Yu Fu
Intended status: Standards Track                              Bing Liu
Expires: October 29, 2013                 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd
                                                          Peter Deacon
                                                    IEA Software, Inc.
                                                        April 27, 2013



                        RADIUS Attribute for MAP

                 draft-jiang-softwire-map-radius-04.txt


Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
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   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on October 29, 2013.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors. All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   described in the Simplified BSD License.







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Abstract

   Mapping of Address and Port (MAP) is a stateless mechanism for
   running IPv4 over IPv6-only infrastructure. It provides both IPv4 and
   IPv6 connectivity services simultaneously during the IPv4/IPv6 co-
   existing period. The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6
   (DHCPv6) MAP options has been defined to configure MAP Customer Edge
   (CE). However, in many networks, the configuration information may be
   stored in Authentication Authorization and Accounting (AAA) servers
   while user configuration is mainly from Broadband Network Gateway
   (BNG) through DHCPv6 protocol. This document defines a Remote
   Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS) attribute that carries
   MAP configuration information from AAA server to BNG. The MAP RADIUS
   attribute are designed following the simplify principle. It provides
   just enough information to form the correspondent DHCPv6 MAP option.



Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ................................................. 3
   2. Terminology .................................................. 3
   3. MAP Configuration process with RADIUS ........................ 3
   4. Attributes ................................................... 6
      4.1. MAP-Configuration Attribute ............................. 6
      4.2. MAP Rule Options ........................................ 6
      4.3. Sub Options for MAP Rule Option ......................... 7
         4.3.1. Rule-IPv6-Prefix Sub Option ........................ 7
         4.3.2. Rule-IPv4-Prefix Sub Option ........................ 8
         4.3.3. Encapsulation/Translation Flag Sub Option........... 9
         4.3.4. PSID Sub Option ................................... 10
         4.3.5. PSID Length Sub Option ............................ 10
         4.3.6. PSID Offset Sub Option ............................ 11
      4.4. Table of attributes .................................... 11
   5. Diameter Considerations ..................................... 12
   6. Security Considerations ..................................... 12
   7. IANA Considerations ......................................... 12
   8. Acknowledgments ............................................. 12
   9. References .................................................. 13
      9.1. Normative References ................................... 13
      9.2. Informative References ................................. 13






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1. Introduction

   Recently providers start to deploy IPv6 and consider how to transit
   to IPv6. Mapping of Address and Port (MAP)
   [I-D.ietf-softwire-map] is a stateless mechanism for running IPv4
   over IPv6-only infrastructure. It provides both IPv4 and IPv6
   connectivity services simultaneously during the IPv4/IPv6 co-existing
   period. MAP has adopted Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6
   (DHCPv6) [RFC3315] as auto-configuring protocol. The MAP Customer
   Edge (CE) uses the DHCPv6 extension options
   [I-D.mdt-softwire-map-dhcp-option] to discover MAP Border Relay (in
   tunnel model only) and to configure relevant MAP rules.

   In many networks, user configuration information may be managed by
   AAA (Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting) servers. Current
   AAA servers communicate using the Remote Authentication Dial In User
   Service (RADIUS) [RFC2865] protocol. In a fixed line broadband
   network, the Broadband Network Gateways (BNGs) act as the access
   gateway of users. The BNGs are assumed to embed a DHCPv6 server
   function that allows them to locally handle any DHCPv6 requests
   initiated by hosts.

   Since the MAP configuration information is stored in AAA servers and
   user configuration is mainly through DHCPv6 protocol between BNGs and
   hosts/CEs, new RADIUS attributes are needed to propagate the
   information from AAA servers to BNGs. The MAP RADIUS attribute are
   designed following the simplify principle, while providing enough
   information to form the correspondent DHCPv6 MAP option.
   [I-D.mdt-softwire-map-dhcp-option].

2. Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC2119 [RFC2119].

   The terms MAP CE and MAP Border Relay are defined in
   [I-D.ietf-softwire-map].

3. MAP Configuration process with RADIUS

   The below Figure 1 illustrates how the RADIUS protocol and DHCPv6
   cooperate to provide MAP CE with MAP configuration information.





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      MAP CE                       BNG                       AAA Server
         |                          |                             |
         |------DHCPv6 Solicit----->|                             |
         |(Option Request w/ MAP option)                          |
         |                          |--Access-Request(MAP Attr)-->|
         |                          |                             |
         |                          |<--Access-Accept(MAP Attr)---|
         |<---DHCPv6 Advertisement--|                             |
         |                          |                             |
         |------DHCPv6  Request---->|                             |
         |      (MAP Option)        |                             |
         |<---- -DHCPv6 Reply-------|                             |
         |      (MAP option)        |                             |
         |                          |                             |
                   DHCPv6                        RADIUS
             Figure 1: the cooperation between DHCPv6 and RADIUS
                       combining with RADIUS authentication

   BNGs act as a RADIUS client and as a DHCPv6 server. First, the MAP CE
   MAY initiate a DHCPv6 Solicit message that includes an Option Request
   option (6) [RFC3315] with the MAP option
   [draft-ietf-softwire-map-dhcp] from the MAP CE. But note that the ORO
   (Option Request option) with the MAP option could be optional if the
   network was planned as MAP-enabled as default. When BNG receives the
   SOLICIT, it SHOULD initiates radius Access-Request message, in which
   the User-Name attribute (1) SHOULD be filled by the MAP CE MAC
   address, to the RADIUS server and the User-password attribute (2)
   SHOULD be filled by the shared MAP password that has been
   preconfigured on the DHCPv6 server, requesting authentication as
   defined in [RFC2865] with MAP-Configuration attribute, defined in the
   next Section. If the authentication request is approved by the AAA
   server, an Access-Accept message MUST be acknowledged with the IPv6-
   MAP-Configuration Attribute. After receiving the Access-Accept
   message with MAP-Configuration Attribute, the BNG SHOULD respond the
   user an Advertisement message. Then the user can requests for a MAP
   Option, the BNG SHOULD reply the user with the message containing the
   MAP option. The recommended format of the MAC address is as defined
   in Calling-Station-Id (Section 3.20 in [RFC3580]) without the SSID
   (Service Set Identifier) portion.

   Figure 2 describes another scenario, in which the authorization
   operation is not coupled with authentication. Authorization relevant
   to MAP is done independently after the authentication process. As
   similar to above scenario, the ORO with the MAP option in the initial
   DHCPv6 request could be optional if the network was planned as MAP-
   enabled as default.



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      MAP CE                       BNG                       AAA Server
         |                          |                             |
         |------DHCPv6  Request---->|                             |
         |(Option Request w/ MAP option)                          |
         |                          |--Access-Request(MAP Attr)-->|
         |                          |                             |
         |                          |<--Access-Accept(MAP Attr)---|
         |                          |                             |
         |<-----DHCPv6 Reply--------|                             |
         |      (MAP option)        |                             |
         |                          |                             |
                  DHCPv6                         RADIUS
               Figure 2: the cooperation between DHCPv6 and RADIUS
                         decoupled with RADIUS authentication

   In the abovementioned scenario, the Access-Request packet SHOULD
   contain a Service-Type attribute (6) with the value Authorize Only
   (17); thus, according to [RFC5080], the Access-Request packet MUST
   contain a State attribute that obtained from the previous
   authentication process.

   In both above-mentioned scenarios, Message-authenticator (type 80)
   [RFC2865] SHOULD be used to protect both Access-Request and Access-
   Accept messages.

   After receiving the MAP-Configuration Attribute in the initial
   Access-Accept, the BNG SHOULD store the received MAP configuration
   parameters locally. When the MAP CE sends a DHCPv6 Request message to
   request an extension of the lifetimes for the assigned address, the
   BNG does not have to initiate a new Access-Request towards the AAA
   server to request the MAP configuration parameters. The BNG could
   retrieve the previously stored MAP configuration parameters and use
   them in its reply.

   If the BNG does not receive the MAP-Configuration Attribute in the
   Access-Accept it MAY fallback to a pre-configured default MAP
   configuration, if any. If the BNG does not have any pre-configured
   default MAP configuration or if the BNG receives an Access-Reject,
   the tunnel cannot be established.

   As specified in [RFC3315], section 18.1.4, "Creation and Transmission
   of Rebind Messages ", if the DHCPv6 server to which the DHCPv6 Renew
   message was sent at time T1 has not responded by time T2, the MAP CE
   (DHCPv6 client) SHOULD enters the Rebind state and attempt to contact
   any available server. In this situation, the secondary BNG receiving
   the DHCPv6 message MUST initiate a new Access-Request towards the AAA



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   server. The secondary BNG MAY include the MAP-Configuration Attribute
   in its Access-Request.

4. Attributes

   This section defines MAP-Rule Attribute which is used in the MAP
   scenario. The attribute design follows [RFC6158] and referring to [I-
   D.ietf-radext-radius-extensions].

   The MAP RADIUS attribute are designed following the simplify
   principle. The sub options are organized into two categories: the
   necessary and the optional.

4.1. MAP-Configuration Attribute

   The MAP-Configuration Attribute is structured as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      Type     |    Length     |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                       MAP Rule Option(s)                      +
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

       Type

         TBD

       Length

         2 + the length of the Rule option(s)

       MAP Rule Option (s)

         A variable field that may contains one or more Rule option(s),
         defined in Section 4.2.

4.2. MAP Rule Options

   Depending on deployment scenario, one Default Mapping rule and zero
   or more other type Mapping Rules MUST be included in one
   MAP-Configuration Attribute.




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    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      Type     |    Length     |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                         Sub Options                           +
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

       Type

         1 Basic Mapping Rule (Not Forwarding Mapping Rule)

         2 Forwarding Mapping Rule (Not Basic Mapping Rule)

         3 Default Mapping Rule

         4 Basic & Forwarding Mapping Rule

       Length

         2 + the length of the sub options

       Sub Option

         A variable field that contains necessary sub options defined in
         Section 4.3 and zero or several optional sub options, defined
         in Section 4.4.

4.3. Sub Options for MAP Rule Option

   The sub options do not include EA-Len Embedded-Address length ,
   because it can be calculated by the combine of prefix4len, prefix6-
   len, PSID and offset bits.

4.3.1. Rule-IPv6-Prefix Sub Option

   The Rule-IPv6-Prefix Sub Option is necessary for every MAP Rule
   option. It should appear for once and only once.

   The IPv6 Prefix sub option is follow the framed IPv6 prefix designed
   in [RFC3162].






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    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    SubType    |    SubLen     |   Reserved    |  prefix6-len  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   |                        rule-ipv6-prefix                       |
   |                                                               |
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      SubType

         1 (SubType number, for the Rule-IPv6-Prefix6 sub option)

      SubLen

         20 (the length of the Rule-IPv6-Prefix6 sub option)

      Reserved

         Reserved for future usage. It should be set to all zero.

      prefix6-len

         length of the IPv6 prefix, specified in the rule-ipv6-prefix
         field, expressed in bits

      rule-ipv6-prefix

         a 128-bits field that specifies an IPv6 prefix that appears in
         a MAP rule

   "For the encapsulation mode the Rule IPv6 prefix can be the full IPv6
   address of the BR." [I-D.ietf-softwire-map]

4.3.2. Rule-IPv4-Prefix Sub Option

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    SubType    |    SubLen     |   Reserved    |  prefix4-len  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                       rule-ipv4-prefix                        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+




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      SubType

         2 (SubType number, for the Rule-IPv4-Prefix6 sub option)

      SubLen

         8 (the length of the Rule-IPv4-Prefix6 sub option)

      Reserved

         Reserved for future usage. It should be set to all zero.

      Prefix4-len

         length of the IPv6 prefix, specified in the rule-ipv6-prefix
         field, expressed in bits

      rule-ipv4-prefix

         a 32-bits field that specifies an IPv4 prefix that appears in
         a MAP rule

4.3.3. Encapsulation/Translation Flag Sub Option

   0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    SubType    |    SubLen     |            E/T Flag           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      SubType

         3 (SubType number, for the E/T flag sub option)

      SubLen

         4 (the length of the E/T flag sub option)

      E/T Flag

         indicate the MAP transport mode: encapsulation or translation.
         all 0 for encapsulation, all 1 for translation.

   If this sub option is not present, the default is to be assumed as
   encapsulation mode.




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4.3.4. PSID Sub Option

   0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    SubType    |    SubLen     |              PSID             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


      SubType

         4 (SubType number, for the PSID Sub Option sub option)

      SubLen

         4 (the length of the PSID Sub Option sub option)

      PSID (Port-set ID)
         Explicit 16-bit (unsigned word) PSID value.  The PSID value
         algorithmically identifies a set of ports assigned to a CE. The
         first k-bits on the left of this 2-octets field is the PSID
         value. The remaining (16-k) bits on the right are padding zeros.

4.3.5. PSID Length Sub Option

   0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    SubType    |    SubLen     |            PSID-len           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


      SubType

         5 (SubType number, for the PSID Length sub option)

      SubLen

         4 (the length of the PSID Length sub option)

      PSID-len

         Bit length value of the number of significant bits in the PSID
         field. (also known as 'k'). When set to 0, the PSID field is to
         be ignored. After the first 'a' bits, there are k bits in the
         port number representing valid of PSID. Subsequently, the
         address sharing ratio would be 2 ^k.


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4.3.6. PSID Offset Sub Option

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    SubType    |    SubLen     |           PSID Offset         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


      SubType

         6 (SubType number, for the PSID Offset sub option)

      SubLen

         4 (the length of the PSID Offset sub option)

      PSID Offset

         4 bits long field that specifies the numeric value for the MAP
         algorithm's excluded port range/offset bits (A-bits), as per
         section 5.1.1 in [I-D.ietf-softwire-map]. Default must be set
         to 4.

4.4. Table of attributes

   The following table provides a guide to which attributes may be found
   in which kinds of packets, and in what quantity.

   Request Accept Reject Challenge Accounting  #  Attribute
                                    Request
    0-1     0-1     0      0         0-1      TBD1 MAP-
                                                   Configuration
    0-1     0-1     0      0         0-1      1    User-Name
    0-1     0       0      0         0-1      2    User-Password
    0-1     0-1     0      0         0-1      6    Service-Type
    0-1     0-1     0-1    0-1       0-1      80   Message-Authenticator

   The following table defines the meaning of the above table entries.

   0     This attribute MUST NOT be present in packet.
   0+    Zero or more instances of this attribute MAY be present in
         packet.
   0-1   Zero or one instance of this attribute MAY be present in
         packet.
   1     Exactly one instance of this attribute MUST be present in
         packet.


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5. Diameter Considerations

   This attribute is usable within either RADIUS or Diameter [RFC6733].
   Since the Attributes defined in this document will be allocated from
   the standard RADIUS type space, no special handling is required by
   Diameter entities.

6. Security Considerations

   In MAP scenarios, both CE and BNG are within a provider network,
   which can be considered as a closed network and a lower security
   threat environment. A similar consideration can be applied to the
   RADIUS message exchange between BNG and the AAA server.

   Known security vulnerabilities of the RADIUS protocol are discussed
   in RFC 2607 [RFC2607], RFC 2865 [RFC2865], and RFC 2869 [RFC2869].
   Use of IPsec [RFC4301] for providing security when RADIUS is carried
   in IPv6 is discussed in RFC 3162 [RFC3162].

   A malicious user may use MAC address proofing and/or dictionary
   attack on the shared MAP password that has been preconfigured on the
   DHCPv6 server to get unauthorized MAP configuration information.

   Security considerations for MAP specific between MAP CE and BNG are
   discussed in [I-D.ietf-softwire-map]. Furthermore, generic DHCPv6
   security mechanisms can be applied DHCPv6 intercommunication between
   MAP CE and BNG.

   Security considerations for the Diameter protocol are discussed in
   [RFC6733].

7. IANA Considerations

   This document requires the assignment of two new RADIUS Attributes
   Types in the "Radius Types" registry (currently located at
   http://www.iana.org/assignments/radius-types for the following
   attributes:

      o  MAP-Configuration     TBD1

   IANA should allocate the numbers from the standard RADIUS Attributes
   space using the "IETF Review" policy [RFC5226].

8. Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to thank for valuable comments from Peter
   Lothberg, Wojciech Dec, and Suresh Krishnan .etc.


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9. References

9.1. Normative References

   [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
             Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2865] Rigney, C., Willens, S., Rubens, A., and W. Simpson,
             "Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)", RFC
             2865, June 2000.

   [RFC3162] Aboba, B., Zorn, G., and D. Mitton, "RADIUS and IPv6", RFC
             3162, August 2001.

   [RFC3315] Droms, R., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins, C., and
             M. Carney, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6
             (DHCPv6)", RFC 3315, July 2003.

   [RFC4301] Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the
             Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, December 2005.

   [RFC5080] Nelson, D. and DeKok A., "Common Remote Authentication Dial
             In User Service (RADIUS) Implementation Issues and
             Suggested Fixes", RFC 5080, December 2007.

   [RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
             IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", RFC 5226, May 2008.

   [RFC6158] DeKok, A. and G. Weber, "RADIUS Design Guidelines", RFC
             6158, March 2011.

   [RFC6733] V. Fajardo, Ed., J. Arkko, J. Loughney, G. Zorn, Ed.,
             "Diameter Base Protocol", RFC 6733, October 2012.

   [I-D.ietf-softwire-map]
             O. Troan, et al., "Mapping of Address and Port (MAP)",
             draft-ietf-softwire-map, working in progress.

   [I-D.mdt-softwire-map-dhcp-option]
             T. Mrugalski, et al., "DHCPv6 Options for Mapping of
             Address and Port", draft-mdt-softwire-map-dhcp-option,
             working in progress.

9.2. Informative References

   [RFC2607] Aboba, B. and J. Vollbrecht, "Proxy Chaining and Policy
             Implementation in Roaming", RFC 2607, June 1999.


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   [RFC2869] Rigney, C., Willats, W., and P. Calhoun, "RADIUS
             Extensions", RFC 2869, June 2000.

   [I-D.ietf-radext-radius-extensions]
             DeKok, A. and A. Lior, "Remote Authentication Dial In User
             Service (RADIUS) Protocol Extensions", draft-ietf-radext-
             radius-extensions, work in process.









































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   Author's Addresses

   Sheng Jiang
   Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd
   Huawei Building, 156 Beiqing Rd.
   Hai-Dian District, Beijing 100095
   P.R. China
   Email: jiangsheng@huawei.com

   Yu Fu
   Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd
   Huawei Building, 156 Beiqing Rd.
   Hai-Dian District, Beijing 100095
   P.R. China
   Email: eleven.fuyu@huawei.com

   Bing Liu
   Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd
   Huawei Building, 156 Beiqing Rd.
   Hai-Dian District, Beijing 100095
   P.R. China
   Email: leo.liubing@huawei.com

   Peter Deacon
   IEA Software, Inc.
   P.O. Box 1170
   Veradale, WA 99037
   USA
   EMail: peterd@iea-software.com


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