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lmap                                                       J. Brzozowski
Internet-Draft                                             Comcast Cable
Intended status: Informational                                 V. Gehlot
Expires: April 21, 2016                                      S. Kulkarni
                                                    Villanova University
                                                        October 19, 2015

  Software Architecture and Guidelines for Creating an LMAP Reference


   This document describes a software architecture and reference
   implementation guidelines for the framework for Large-Scale
   Measurement of Broadband Performance (LMAP).  The IETF-LMAP working
   group proposed a draft that details a logical architecture for
   performance measurements in broadband networks on a large scale.  The
   IETF-LMAP proposal contains the operational concepts for such a
   platform.  However, since the standardization is in the initial
   stages with no official existing implementation, the proposal leaves
   many details of the specification up to the implementer to discover.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
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   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 21, 2016.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents

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   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
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   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Background  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Implementation Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   4.  Implementation Details  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     4.1.  Probes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     4.2.  Configuration Management Servers  . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.3.  Plugin Servers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.4.  Update Servers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.5.  Probe Cache Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.6.  Refined Data Servers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   5.  Relationship to LMAP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   8.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   9.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7

1.  Introduction

   Network performance and its related quality of service (QoS) have a
   significant impact on packet latencies and packet drop rates.  High
   packet latencies and drop rates adversely affect loss-sensitive and
   delay-sensitive applications such as online games and real-time
   packetized voice and video.  In addition, the latency imposed by
   Domain Name Servers (DNS) [RFC1034] for host name lookups also
   further degrades a customers web browsing experience.  Network path
   variability between the consumer and destinations on the Internet
   also play a significant role in overall performance and customer
   experience.  Finally, inadequate or an unstable downstream bandwidth
   can adversely affect the quality of streaming video, an increasingly
   popular resource-heavy service.  Therefore, it is essential that the
   end to end capacity and performance fall within a quantifiably
   "acceptable" range during most times of expected network usage.

   Unfortunately, the QoS and quality of experience (QoE) can be quite
   fluid and extremely dependent on the time of day/night and on planned
   or unplanned network events across wide geographical areas.  If the
   QoE falls outside of the "acceptable" range, the customer is likely

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   to perceive the service provided by the ISP as being deficient.  This
   adverse perception results in either a telephone call or some form of
   an inquiry to the ISP's customer service department thereby adding to
   the business cost of operation.

   Thus, direct measurement of every customer's network performance
   metrics such as latency, latency jitter, packet drop ratio, path, and
   upstream and downstream bandwidth is essential.  Since the number of
   customers of an ISP can be in the millions, the architecture of such
   a real-time data collection and analysis system must be both scalable
   and extensible.  Therefore, we need an appropriate framework within
   which to design and deploy such a large-scale and (potentially)
   geographically diverse solution.  Such considerations are the
   motivation behind our work.

2.  Background

   The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has a working group that
   is drafting standards for Large-Scale Measurement of Broadband
   Performance (LMAP) [RFC7594].  The IETF-LMAP group's efforts on
   standardization of performance measurements span home and enterprise
   edge routers, personal computers, mobile devices and set top boxes.
   The work described in this paper started in 2012, and precedes the
   formation of the IETF-LMAP working group by almost a year.  Our work
   complements the LMAP framework by adding crucial implementation
   details to its three components that are largely incomplete and
   thereby advances the IETF's standardization effort in this area.
   Although the work that we present in this paper precedes the IETF-
   LMAP proposal, our work nevertheless fits neatly within this
   framework and expands the discovery process so as to aid in the
   creation of functional models, performance models, and simulation-
   based architectural experimentation.

3.  Implementation Architecture

   The Network Measurement and Monitoring Architecture (NMMA) that was
   designed and implemented by our team consists of six major components
   (or modules) [Kulkarni2016].  These six modules are: the Probe, the
   Configuration Manager, the Probe Cache Server, the Update Sever, the
   Plugins Server and the Refined Data Server.  Figure 1 below gives the

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   -----------       ------------       ------------        ------------
   |         |       |          |       | Probe    |        | Refined  |
   | Update  |<----->|          |------>| Cache    |<------>| Data     |
   | Servers |       |          |       | Servers  |        | Servers  |
   -----------       |          |       ------------        ------------
                     |  Probes  |
   -----------       |          |       -----------------
   |         |       |          |       | Configuration |
   |  Plugin |<----->|          |<----->| Management    |
   | Servers |       |          |       | Servers       |
   -----------       ------------       -----------------

   Figure 1: Software implementation architecture for network
   measurement and monitoring

   A desirable property of a network measurement and monitoring system
   is that it be extensible and scalable.  For example, future tests
   should be easily integrable into existing framework and any
   replication needed to handle increase in volume and velocity of
   measurement data should be (semi) automatic.

4.  Implementation Details

   This section elaborates on the requirements imposed on each of the
   software component that makes up the measurement and monitoring
   system depicted in Figure 1.

4.1.  Probes

   From design perspective these are intended to be light-weight
   components as these may typically reside in small devices such as
   end-user premise routers or customer premise equipment (CPE).  In
   particular, these are devoid of any intelligent logic or
   interpretation/processing of data/result.  From extensibility
   perspective, these are implemented as an array or list of plugins
   (functions), whereby each plugin is responsible for collecting and
   reporting data for a specific test scenario.  Every probe knows its
   Configuration Server.  Periodically, it contacts the Configuration
   Server for tests to run if any.  Upon receiving test details, the
   probe component checks whether any plugins are missing and, if
   needed, fetches those from the Plugin Servers.  The period of
   execution of a probe is dynamically configurable under the control of
   Configuration Server.  The probe sends the collected raw data to
   Probe Cache Servers.  A separate background process checks for any
   major software updates.  Updates can also be governed by the
   Configuration Management Servers.  Individual tests may be run in
   separate threads or independent processes depending on the hardware/
   software capabilities of the device and its impact on end user.

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4.2.  Configuration Management Servers

   These are the brains of the measurement system.  Service operators
   may distribute these geographically.  These servers control which
   tests to run, which probes to run, how often to run etc.  Through a
   randomization process, the impact of simultaneous access to these
   servers by probes may be minimized.  Probes themselves do not have
   the capability to determine which tests are to be run periodically
   and which are to be run aperiodically.  Configuration Management
   Servers can achieve the effect of periodic run by including the same
   test in each run request to probes.  From design perspective, storage
   requirements would be low whereas access requirements would range
   from low to medium.

4.3.  Plugin Servers

   Operators may upload new plugins for new tests to Plugin Servers.
   The frequency of new test scenarios is assumed small.  Thus, a single
   centralized server may do the job.  For large operators, depending on
   customer base, these servers may be geographically distributed.  From
   design perspective, storage requirements would be low whereas access
   requirements would range from low to medium.

4.4.  Update Servers

   These are contacted by probes periodically to check for any major
   software update.  The assumption of the measurement tasks is that a
   major software update is a less frequent activity.  Most updates
   would likely be in terms of new plugins that are handled by the
   Plugin Servers.  Thus, in terms of design, high-availability is not a
   key requirement for these servers.  If any update fails, then probes
   should at least be able to run with the current version.  From design
   perspective, storage requirements would be low whereas access
   requirements would range from low to medium.

4.5.  Probe Cache Servers

   These are required to be able to handle both high-velocity as well as
   high-volume data.  However, data integrity is not key since raw data
   is considered transient in nature and therefore may not need
   replication sets.  From design perspective, both update/access and
   storage requirements would be high.  Storage requirements may be made
   less stringent if an upper level entity purges the data once it has
   been fetched for processing and storage.

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4.6.  Refined Data Servers

   These servers fetch raw data from Probe Cache Servers and process it.
   Processing may involve computing higher level metrics, tends,
   correlations, etc.  These servers may keep historical data and may
   optionally purge raw data.  Since upper level entities, such as a
   visualization layer, across the network would fetch data from these
   servers, a key requirement, if geographically distributed, is local
   consistency with guaranteed eventual global consistency.

5.  Relationship to LMAP

   The components of our software architecture given in Figure 1 can be
   mapped to the components of an LMAP-based measurement system.
   Functionally, the Probes component in Figure 1 is the same as
   Measurement Agents (MA) in LMAP terminology.  The Configuration
   Management module is analogous to Controller in LMAP parlance.

   The component labeled Probe Cache Servers is equivalent to LMAP's
   Collector.  The directed edges between Probes and Configuration
   Management modules define the Control Channel described in the LMAP
   draft.  There are some additional components in our architecture, for
   instance, Update Servers, Plugin Servers and Refined Data Servers,
   that are not part of the LMAP proposal.  However, one can consider
   Update Servers as well as Plugin Servers as being part of the
   Controller's implementation details.  Finally the Refined Data Server
   can be viewed either as a part of the Collector (if we assume that
   the Collector entity has data processing and mining capabilities), or
   as a separate upper-level entity that is not addressed by the LMAP

6.  IANA Considerations

   There are no IANA considerations in this memo.

7.  Security Considerations

   This memo does not address security considerations related to a
   measurement system.  It is assumed a fully deployed system will
   comply with the security considerations outlined in the LMAP
   framework and its subsequent revisions [RFC7594].

8.  Acknowledgements

   We wish to acknowledge the helpful contributions towards our
   implementation by Sandeep Vodapally, Carmen Nigro, Andrew Dammann,
   Eduard Bachmakov, Edward Gallagher, and Peter Rokowski.

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9.  Informative References

              Kulkarni, S., Gehlot, V., Brzozowski, J., Bachmakov, E.,
              Gallagher, E., Dammann, A., and P. Rokowski, ""A Scalable
              Architecture for Performance Measurement in Broadband
              Networks", 2015 IEEE Conference on Standards for
              Communications and Networking (CSCN), 2015, (to be
              published October 2015)", October 2015.

   [RFC1034]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities",
              STD 13, RFC 1034, DOI 10.17487/RFC1034, November 1987,

   [RFC7594]  Eardley, P., Morton, A., Bagnulo, M., Burbridge, T.,
              Aitken, P., and A. Akhter, "A Framework for Large-Scale
              Measurement of Broadband Performance (LMAP)", RFC 7594,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7594, September 2015,

Authors' Addresses

   John Jason Brzozowski
   Comcast Cable
   1701 John F. Kennedy Blvd.
   Philadelphia, PA

   Email: john_brzozowski@cable.comcast.com

Vijay Gehlot
Villanova University
Center of Excellence in Enterprise technology (CEET), Department of Computing Sciences, 800 Lancaster Avenue
Villanova, PA

Email: vijay.gehlot@villanova.edu

 Sarvesh Kulkarni
 Villanova University
 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 800 Lancaster Avenue
 Villanova, PA

 Email: sarvesh.kulkarni@villanova.edu

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