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Versions: 00 01 02 draft-ietf-avt-rtcp-non-compound

Network Working Group                                       I. Johansson
Internet-Draft                                             M. Westerlund
Intended status: Standards Track                             Ericsson AB
Expires: December 29, 2007                                 June 27, 2007

  Support for non-compund RTCP in RTCP AVPF profile, opportunities and

Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).


   This memo discusses benefits and issues that arise when allowing RTCP
   packets to be transmitted as non-compound packets, i.e. not follow
   the rules of RFC 3550.  Based on that analysis this memo proposes
   changes to the rules to allow feedback messages to be sent as non-
   compound RTCP packets when using the RTP AVPF profile (RFC 4585)
   under certain conditions.

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Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  RTCP Compound Packets  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  Benefits from non-compound packets . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   4.  Issues with non-compound RTCP packets  . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     4.1.  Middle boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     4.2.  Packet Validation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       4.2.1.  Old RTCP Receivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       4.2.2.  Weakened Packet Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       4.2.3.  Bandwidth consideration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       4.2.4.  Computation of avg_rtcp_size . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.3.  Header compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.4.  RTP and RTCP multiplex on the same port  . . . . . . . . .  7
   5.  Allowing non-compound RTCP packets . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     5.1.  Usage of non-compound packets in AVPF  . . . . . . . . . .  8
       5.1.1.  Verifying the delivery of non-compound packets . . . .  9
     5.2.  SDP Signalling Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   6.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   7.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   8.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   9.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     9.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     9.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 13

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1.  Introduction

   In RTP [RFC3550] it is currently mandatory to always use RTCP
   compound packets containing at least Sender Reports or Receiver
   reports, and a SDES packet containing at least the CNAME item.  There
   are good reasons for this as discussed below (see Section 2).
   However this do result in that the minimal RTCP packets are quite
   large.  The RTP profile AVPF [RFC4585] specifies new RTCP packet
   types for feedback messages.  Some of these feedback messages would
   benefit from being possible to transmit with minimal delay and AVPF
   do provide some mechanism to enable this.  However for environments
   with low-bitrate links this still consumes quite large amount of
   resources and introduce extra delay in the time it takes to
   completely send the compound packet in the network.  There are also
   other benefits as discussed in Section 3.

   At least one application disregards the requirement in RTP and uses
   non-compound packets when transmitting certain events, namely Open
   Mobile Alliance (OMA) Push-to-talk over Cellular (PoC) [OMA-PoC].
   The OMA POC service is primarily used over cellular links capable of
   IP transport, such as the GSM GPRS.  The use of non-compound RTCP is
   also specified in [3GPP-MTSI].

   The use of non-compound packets is, however, not without issues.
   This is discussed in Section 4.  These issues needs to be considered
   and is one motivation for this document.

   In addition this document proposes how AVPF could be updated to allow
   the transmission of non-compound packets in a way that would not
   substantially affect the mechanisms that compound packets provide.
   The connection to AVPF is motivated by the fact that non-compound
   RTCP is mainly intended for event driven feedback purposes and that
   the AVPF early and immediate modes makes this possible.

2.  RTCP Compound Packets

   Section 6.1 in RFC3550 [RFC3550] specifies that an RTCP packet must
   be sent in a compound packet consisting of at least two individual
   packets, first an Sender Report (SR) or Receiver Report (RR),
   followed by an SDES packet containing at least a CNAME Item for the
   transmitting source identifier (SSRC).  Lets examine what these RTCP
   packet types are used for.

   1.  The sender and receiver reports (see Section 6.4 of RFC 3550
       [RFC3550]) provides the RTP session participant with the Sender
       Source Identifier (SSRC) of all RTCP senders.  Having all
       participants send these packets periodically allows everyone to

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       determine the current number of participants.  This information
       is used in the transmission scheduling algorithm.  Thus this is
       particularly important for new participants so that they quickly
       can establish a good estimate of the group size.  Failure to do
       this would result in RTCP senders consuming to much bandwidth.

   2.  The sender and receiver reports contain some basic statistics
       usable for monitoring of the transport and thus enable
       adaptation.  These reports become more useful if sent regularly
       as the receiver of a report can perform analysis to find trends
       between the individual reports.  When used for media transmission
       adaptation the information become more useful the more frequently
       it is received, at least until one report per round-trip time
       (RTT) is achieved.  Therefore there are most cases no reason to
       not include the sender or receiver report in all RTCP packets.

   3.  The CNAME SDES item (See Section 6.5.1 of RFC 3550 [RFC3550])
       exist to allow receivers to determine which media flows that
       should be synchronized with each other between different RTP
       sessions carrying different media types.  Thus it is important to
       quickly receive this for each media sender in the session when
       joining an RTP session.

   4.  Sender Reports (SR) is used in combination with the above SDES
       CNAME mechanism to establish inter media synchronization.  After
       having determined which media streams should be synchronized
       using the CNAME field, the receiver uses the Sender Report's NTP
       and RTP timestamp fields to establish synchronization.

   Reviewing the above it is obvious that both SR/RR and the CNAME is
   very important for new session participants to be able to utilize any
   received media and to avoid flooding the network with RTCP reports.
   In addition if not sent regular the dynamic nature of the information
   provided would make it less and less useful.

3.  Benefits from non-compound packets

   As mentioned in the introduction most advantages of using non-
   compound packets exists in cases when the available RTCP bit-rate is
   limited.  This because non-compound packets will be substantially
   smaller than a compound packet.  A compound packet is forced to
   contain both an RR or an SR and the CNAME SDES item.  The RR
   containing a report block for a single source is 32 bytes, an SR is
   52 bytes.  Both may be larger if they contain report blocks for
   multiple sources.  The SDES packet containing a CNAME item will be 10
   bytes plus the CNAME string length.  Here it is reasonable that the
   CNAME string is at least 10 bytes to get a decent collision

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   resistance.  And if the recommended form of user@host is used, then
   most strings will be longer than 20 characters.  Thus a non-compound
   packets can become at least 70-80 bytes smaller than the equivalent
   compound packet.

   The following benefits exist for the smaller non-compound packets:

   1.  Shorter serialization time, i.e. the time it takes the link to
       transmit the packet.  For slower links this time can be
       substantial.  For example transmitting 120 bytes over an link
       interface capable of 30 kbps takes 32 milliseconds (ms) assuming
       uniform transmission rate.

   2.  For links where the packet loss rate grows with the packet size,
       smaller packets will be less likely to be dropped.  Example of
       such links are radio links.  In the cellular world there exist
       links that are optimized to handle RTP packets with speech and
       these packets common sizes, the rationale behind this is to be
       able to increase the capacity and coverage for voice services.
       Compound RTCP packets commonly are 2-3 times the size of a RTP
       packet with compressed speech.  If the speech packet over such a
       bearer have a packet loss rate of p, then the RTCP packet will
       experience 1- (1-p)^x where x is the number of fragments the
       compound packet will be split on the link layer, i.e. 2 or 3

   3.  In fixed links there are also benefits with sending feedback in
       small non-compound RTCP.  One such application is those that use
       RTCP AVPF in early or immediate mode to send frequent event
       driven feedback .  Under these circumstances the use of non-
       compound RTCP minimizes the risk that the RTCP bandwidth becomes
       too high during periods of intense adaptation feedback signaling.

   4.  In cases when regular feedback is need, like in the profile under
       development for TCP friendly rate control (TFRC) for RTP
       [I-D.ietf-avt-tfrc-profile].  The size of compund RTCP can result
       in very high bandwidth requirements for the feedback in case the
       roundtrip time is short.  For this particular application non-
       compound RTCP gives a very substantial improvement.

   In cases when non-compound packets carry important and time sensitive
   feedback both shorter serialization time and the lower loss
   probability are important to enable the best possible functionality.
   Having a packet loss rate that is much higher for the feedback
   packets compared to media packets is not advantageous when for
   example trying to perform media adaptation to handle the e.g. changed
   performance present at the cell border in cellular system.

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   For high bit-rate applications there is usually no problem of
   supplying RTCP with sufficient bit-rates.  When using AVPF one can
   use the "trr-int" parameter to restrict the regular reporting
   interval to approximately once per RTT or less often.  As in most
   cases there are no reasons to provide regular reports with higher
   density than this.  Any additional bandwidth can then be used for
   feedback messages.  The benefits of non-compound packets in this case
   are limited, but exist, one typical example is video using generic
   NACK in cases where where the RTT is low.  Using non-compound packets
   would reduce the total amount of bits used for RTCP.  This is
   primarily applicable if the number of non-compound packets is large.
   This would also result in lower processing delay and less complexity
   for the feedback packets as they do not need to query the RTCP
   database to construct the right messages.

4.  Issues with non-compound RTCP packets

   This section describes some of the known issues with non-compound
   RTCP packets

4.1.  Middle boxes

   Middle boxes in the network may discard RTCP packets that does not
   follow the rules outlined in section 6.1 of RFC3550.  The effect of
   this might for instance be that compound RTCP packets makes its way
   through while the non-compound feedback packets are lost.

4.2.  Packet Validation

   A non-compound packet will be discarded by the packet validation code
   in Appendix A of RFC 3550 [RFC3550].  This has several impacts as
   described in the following sub sections.

4.2.1.  Old RTCP Receivers

   Any RTCP receiver without updated packet validation code will discard
   the non-compund packets.  Thus these receivers will not see the
   feedback contained in the these non-compound packets.  The effect of
   this depends on the type of feedback message and the role of the
   receiver.  For example this may cause complete function loss in the
   case of attempting to use a non-compound NACK message (see Section
   6.2.1 of RFC 4585 [RFC4585]) to non updated media sender in a session
   using the retransmission scheme defined by RFC 4588 [RFC4588].

   This type of discarding would also effect the feedback suppression
   defined in AVPF.  The result would be a partitioning of the receivers
   within the session between old ones only seeing the compound RTCP

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   feedback messages and the newer ones seeing both.  Where the old ones
   may send feedback messages for events already reported on in non-
   compound packets.

4.2.2.  Weakened Packet Validation

   The packet validation code needs to be rewritten to accept non-
   compound packets.  One potential effect of this change is much weaker
   validation that received packets actually are RTCP packets, and not
   packets of some other type being wrongly delivered.  Thus some
   consideration should be done to ensure the best possible validation
   is available.  For example restricting non-compound packets to
   contain only some specific RTCP packet types, that is preferably
   signalled on a session basis.

4.2.3.  Bandwidth consideration

   The discarding of non-compound RTCP packets would effect the RTCP
   transmission calculation in the following way; the avg_rtcp_size
   value would become larger than for RTP receivers that exclude the
   non-compound in this calculation (assuming that non-compound packets
   are smaller than compound ones).  Therefore these senders would
   under-utilize the available bit-rate and send with a longer interval
   than updated receivers.  For most sessions this would should not be
   an issue.  However for sessions with a large portion of non-compound
   packets may result in that the updated receivers time out non-updated
   senders prematurely.

4.2.4.  Computation of avg_rtcp_size

   Long intervals between compund RTCP packets and many non-compound
   RTCP packets inbetween may lead to a computation of the value
   avg_rtcp_size that varies greatly over time.

4.3.  Header compression

   The classifiers for header compression algorithms such as RoHC
   [RFC3095] and its profiles must be aware of the fact that, with the
   proposed non-compound RTCP packets, the first RTCP packet type might
   differ from 200 or 201.  Otherwise they may wrongly classify the
   packets as something else than RTCP.  This may have impact on the
   compression efficiency.

4.4.  RTP and RTCP multiplex on the same port

   In applications that multiplexes RTP and RTCP on the same port, as
   defined in [I-D.ietf-avt-rtp-and-rtcp-mux], care must be taken to
   ensure that the demultiplexing is done properly even though RTCP

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   packets are non-compound.

5.  Allowing non-compound RTCP packets

   Based on the above analysis it seems feasible to allow transmission
   in RTCP under some restrictions.  First of all it is important that
   compound packets are regularly sent to ensure the feedback reporting
   works.  The tracking of session size and number of participants is
   also important as this ensures that the RTCP bandwidth remain bounded
   independent of the number of session participants.  As the compound
   packets also are used to establish the synchronization, any newly
   joining participant in a session would need to receive a compound
   packet from the media sender.  In summary the regular usage of
   compound packets must be maintained throughout the complete session.
   Thus non-compound packets should be restricted to be used as extra
   feedback packets sent in cases when a regular compound packet would
   not have been sent.

   If one is going to use non-compound packets it will be important to
   verify that they actually reaches the session participants.  As
   outlined above in Section 4.1 and Section 4.2 packets may be
   discarded along the path or in the end-point.  The end-points can be
   resolved by introducing signalling that inform if all session
   participants are capable of non-compound packets or not.  The
   middlebox issue is more difficult and here one will be required to
   use heuristics to determine if the non-compound packets are delivered
   or not.  However in many cases the feedback messages sent using non-
   compound packets will result in either explicit or implicit
   indications that they have been received.  Example of such are the
   RTP retransmission [RFC4588] that result from a NACK message
   [RFC4585], the Temporary Maximum Media Bit-rate Notification message
   resulting from a Temporary Maximum Media Bit-rate Request
   [I-D.ietf-avt-avpf-ccm], or the presence of a Decoder Refresh Point
   [I-D.ietf-avt-avpf-ccm] in the video media stream resulting from the
   Full Intra Request sent.

5.1.  Usage of non-compound packets in AVPF

   The usage of non-compound RTCP packet SHALL only be done in RTP
   sessions operating in AVPF [RFC4585] Early RTCP or Immediate feedback
   mode.  Non-compound packets SHALL NOT be sent until at least one
   compound packet has been sent.  In Immediate feedback mode all
   feedback messages MAY be sent as non-compound packets.  In early RTCP
   mode a feedback message scheduled for transmission as an Early RTCP
   packet, i.e. not a Regular RTCP packet, MAY be sent as a non-compound

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   In order to get as much as possible out of of the non-compound RTCP
   concept, it is necessary to relax the sending rules in RFC 4585
   [RFC4585] in such a way that it is possible to transmit more that one
   early feedback RTCP between regular RTCP, presently this is
   controlled by means of the allow_early flag which has the effect that
   only one early feedback message is allowed between the regularly
   scheduled RTCP.  The proposed relaxation is reasonable as the size of
   the non-compound RTCP is expected to be small compared to the regular
   RTCP.  The relaxation however needs to be done in a way that it is
   both bandwidth conservative and robust/scalable for an increased
   number of users.  A possible outline of an algorithm that does this
   overrides the allow_early flag to the value TRUE if the bandwith
   consumed by non-compound RTCP is within some predefined limits, one
   such limit may be that non-compound RTCP should not be allowed to
   consume more than a predefiend fraction of the total RTCP bandwidth.
   Another option may be to use the SDP attribute "trr-int" as limiting

   The details of the algrithm that handles the relaxation of the
   sending rules is TBD.

5.1.1.  Verifying the delivery of non-compound packets

   A proposed algorithm to detect consistent failure of delivery of non-
   compound packets needs to be written.  The details of this algorithm
   is application dependent and therefore outside the scope of this

   If the verification fails it is strongly recommended that only
   compound RTCP according to the rules outlined in RFC3550 is

5.2.  SDP Signalling Attribute

   We request to define the a "a=ncp" [RFC4566] attribute to indicate if
   the session participant is capable of supporting non-compound
   packets.  It is a required that a participant that proposes the use
   of non-compound RTCP itself supports the reception of non-compound

6.  IANA Considerations

   IANA will be required to register the SDP signalling attribute
   defined in Section 5.2.

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7.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations of RTP [RFC3550] and AVPF [RFC4585] will
   apply also to non-compound packets.  The reduction in validation
   strength for received packets on the RTCP port may result in a higher
   degree of acceptance of spurious data as real RTCP packets.  This
   vulnerability can mostly be addressed by usage of an security
   mechanism that provide authentication, e.g.  SRTP[RFC3711].

8.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank all the people who gave feedback on
   this document.

   This document also contain some text copied from RFC 4585 [RFC4585]
   and we take the opportunity to thank the author of said document.

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC3550]  Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., and V.
              Jacobson, "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time
              Applications", STD 64, RFC 3550, July 2003.

   [RFC4585]  Ott, J., Wenger, S., Sato, N., Burmeister, C., and J. Rey,
              "Extended RTP Profile for Real-time Transport Control
              Protocol (RTCP)-Based Feedback (RTP/AVPF)", RFC 4585,
              July 2006.

9.2.  Informative References

              3GPP, "Specification : 3GPP TS 26.114 (v7.1.0
              preliminary), http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/tsg_sa/WG4_CODEC/
              Specs_update_after_SA36/26114-710.zip", March 2007.

              Wenger, S., "Codec Control Messages in the RTP Audio-
              Visual Profile with Feedback  (AVPF)",
              draft-ietf-avt-avpf-ccm-07 (work in progress), June 2007.

              Perkins, C. and M. Westerlund, "Multiplexing RTP Data and
              Control Packets on a Single Port",
              draft-ietf-avt-rtp-and-rtcp-mux-05 (work in progress),

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              May 2007.

              Gharai, L., "RTP with TCP Friendly Rate Control",
              draft-ietf-avt-tfrc-profile-08 (work in progress),
              June 2007.

   [OMA-PoC]  Open Mobile Alliance, "Specification : Push to talk Over
              Cellular User Plane, http://www.openmobilealliance.org/
              November 2006.

   [RFC3095]  Bormann, C., Burmeister, C., Degermark, M., Fukushima, H.,
              Hannu, H., Jonsson, L-E., Hakenberg, R., Koren, T., Le,
              K., Liu, Z., Martensson, A., Miyazaki, A., Svanbro, K.,
              Wiebke, T., Yoshimura, T., and H. Zheng, "RObust Header
              Compression (ROHC): Framework and four profiles: RTP, UDP,
              ESP, and uncompressed", RFC 3095, July 2001.

   [RFC3711]  Baugher, M., McGrew, D., Naslund, M., Carrara, E., and K.
              Norrman, "The Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP)",
              RFC 3711, March 2004.

   [RFC4566]  Handley, M., Jacobson, V., and C. Perkins, "SDP: Session
              Description Protocol", RFC 4566, July 2006.

   [RFC4588]  Rey, J., Leon, D., Miyazaki, A., Varsa, V., and R.
              Hakenberg, "RTP Retransmission Payload Format", RFC 4588,
              July 2006.

Authors' Addresses

   Ingemar Johansson
   Ericsson AB
   Laboratoriegrand 11
   SE-971 28 Lulea

   Phone: +46 73 0783289
   Email: ingemar.s.johansson (AT) ericsson.com

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   Magnus Westerlund
   Ericsson AB
   Torshamnsgatan 21-23
   SE-164 83 Stockholm

   Phone: +46 8 7190000
   Email: magnus.westerlund (AT) ericsson.com

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Full Copyright Statement

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