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JOSE Working Group                                              M. Jones
Internet-Draft                                                 Microsoft
Intended status: Standards Track                           March 5, 2012
Expires: September 6, 2012


            JSON Web Encryption JSON Serialization (JWE-JS)
         draft-jones-json-web-encryption-json-serialization-00

Abstract

   The JSON Web Encryption JSON Serialization (JWE-JS) is a means of
   representing encrypted content using JSON data structures.  This
   specification describes a means of representing secured content as a
   JSON data object (as opposed to the JWE specification, which uses a
   compact serialization with a URL-safe representation).  It enables
   the same content to be encrypted to multiple parties (unlike JWE).
   Cryptographic algorithms and identifiers used with this specification
   are enumerated in the separate JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)
   specification.  The JSON Serialization for related digital signature
   and HMAC functionality is described in the separate JSON Web
   Signature JSON Serialization (JWS-JS) specification.

Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on September 6, 2012.

Copyright Notice




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   Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
   3.  JSON Serialization  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
   4.  Example JWE-JS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
   5.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
   7.  Open Issues and Things To Be Done (TBD) . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
   8.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
     8.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
     8.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
   Appendix A.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
   Appendix B.  Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6






















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1.  Introduction

   The JSON Web Encryption JSON Serialization (JWE-JS) is a format for
   representing encrypted content as a JSON RFC 4627 [RFC4627] object.
   It enables the same content to be encrypted to multiple parties
   (unlike JWE [JWE].)  The encryption mechanisms are independent of the
   type of content being encrypted.  Cryptographic algorithms and
   identifiers used with this specification are enumerated in the
   separate JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification.  The JSON
   Serialization for related digital signature and HMAC functionality is
   described in the separate JSON Web Signature JSON Serialization
   (JWS-JS) [JWS-JS] specification.


2.  Terminology

   This specification uses the same terminology as the JSON Web
   Encryption (JWE) [JWE] specification.


3.  JSON Serialization

   The JSON Serialization represents encrypted content as a JSON object
   with members for each of three constituent parts: a "headers" member
   whose value is a non-empty array of Encoded JWE Header values, a
   "encrypted_keys" member whose value is a non-empty array of Encoded
   JWE Encrypted Key values, where the number of elements in both arrays
   is the same, and a "ciphertext" member whose value is an Encoded JWE
   Ciphertext value.

   Unlike the compact serialization used by JWEs, content using the JSON
   Serialization MAY be encrypted to more than one recipient.  Each
   recipient requires a JWE Header value specifying the cryptographic
   parameters used to encrypt the JWE Encrypted Key to that recipient
   and the parameters used to encrypt the plaintext to produce the JWE
   Ciphertext; these values are represented as Encoded JWE Header values
   that are elements of the non-empty array contained in the "headers"
   member.  Each recipient also requires a JWE Encrypted Key value;
   these values are represented as Encoded JWE Encrypted Key values that
   are corresponding elements of the non-empty array contained in the
   "encrypted_keys" member.  Therefore, the syntax is:
   {"headers":["<header 1 contents>",...,"<header N contents>"],
    "encrypted_keys":["<key 1 contents>",...,"<key N contents>"],
    "ciphertext":"<ciphertext contents>"
   }

   The contents of the Encoded JWE Header, Encoded JWE Encrypted Key,
   and Encoded JWE Ciphertext values are exactly as specified in JSON



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   Web Encryption (JWE) [JWE].  They are interpreted and validated in
   the same manner, with each corresponding "headers" and
   "encrypted_keys" value being created or validated together.  The
   arrays MUST have the same number of elements.

   The i'th JWE Encrypted Key value is computed using the parameters of
   i'th JWE Header value in the same manner described in the JWE
   specification.  This has the desirable result that each Encoded JWE
   Encrypted Key value in the "encrypted_keys" array is identical to the
   value that would have been computed for the same header and payload
   in a JWE, as is the JWE Ciphertext value.

   All recipients use the same JWE Ciphertext value, resulting in
   potentially significant space savings if the message is large.
   Therefore, all header parameters that specify the treatment of the
   JWE Ciphertext value MUST be the same for all recipients.  In
   particular, this means that the "enc" (encryption method) header
   parameter value in the JWE Header for each recipient MUST be the
   same, as MUST be the "iv" (initialization vector) value (when
   required for the algorithm).


4.  Example JWE-JS

   This section contains an example using the JWE JSON Serialization.
   This example demonstrates the capability for encrypting the same
   plaintext to multiple recipients.

   Two recipients are present in this example: both using the RSA-
   PKCS1_1.5 algorithm to produce the JWE Encrypted Key (but with using
   different public keys).  The Plaintext is encrypted using the AES-
   256-GCM algorithm to produce the JWE Ciphertext.  The two Decoded JWE
   Header Segments used are:
   {"alg":"RSA1_5",
    "enc":"A256GCM",
    "iv":"__79_Pv6-fg",
    "x5t":"7noOPq-hJ1_hCnvWh6IeYI2w9Q0"}

   and:
   {"alg":"RSA1_5",
    "enc":"A256GCM",
    "iv":"__79_Pv6-fg",
    "jku":"https://example.com/public_key.jwk"}

   The complete JSON Web Encryption JSON Serialization (JWE-JS) for
   these values is as follows (with line breaks for display purposes
   only):




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   {"headers":[
     "eyJhbGciOiJSU0ExXzUiLA0KICJlbmMiOiJBMjU2R0NNIiwNCiAiaXYiOiJfX
   zc5X1B2Ni1mZyIsDQogIng1dCI6Ijdub09QcS1oSjFfaENudldoNkllWUkydzlRM
   CJ9",
     "eyJhbGciOiJSU0ExXzUiLA0KICJlbmMiOiJBMjU2R0NNIiwNCiAiaXYiOiJfX
   zc5X1B2Ni1mZyIsDQogImprdSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vZXhhbXBsZS5jb20vcHVibGljX
   2tleS5qd2sifQ"],
    "encrypted_keys":[
     "TBD_key_1_value_TBD",
     "TBD_key_2_value_TBD"],
    "ciphertext":"TBD_ciphertext_value_TBD"
   }

   TBD: Finish this example.


5.  IANA Considerations

   This specification makes no requests of IANA.


6.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations for this specification are the same as
   those for the JSON Web Encryption (JWE) [JWE] specification.


7.  Open Issues and Things To Be Done (TBD)

   The following items remain to be done in this draft:

   o  Complete the example.

   o  Track changes that occur in the JWE spec, including the
      introduction of integrity protection for non AEAD operations.


8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [JWA]      Jones, M., "JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)", January 2012.

   [JWE]      Jones, M., Rescorla, E., and J. Hildebrand, "JSON Web
              Encryption (JWE)", January 2012.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.



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   [RFC4627]  Crockford, D., "The application/json Media Type for
              JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)", RFC 4627, July 2006.

8.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.rescorla-jsms]
              Rescorla, E. and J. Hildebrand, "JavaScript Message
              Security Format", draft-rescorla-jsms-00 (work in
              progress), March 2011.

   [JSE]      Bradley, J. and N. Sakimura (editor), "JSON Simple
              Encryption", September 2010.

   [JWS-JS]   Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web
              Signature JSON Serialization (JWS-JS)", March 2012.


Appendix A.  Acknowledgements

   JSON serializations for encrypted content were previously explored by
   JSON Simple Encryption [JSE] and JavaScript Message Security Format
   [I-D.rescorla-jsms].


Appendix B.  Document History

   -00

   o  Created the initial version incorporating JOSE working group input
      and drawing from the JSON Serialization previously proposed in
      draft-jones-json-web-token-01.


Author's Address

   Michael B. Jones
   Microsoft

   Email: mbj@microsoft.com
   URI:   http://self-issued.info/











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