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IP Flow Information Export                                    S. Kashima
Internet-Draft                                              A. Kobayashi
Intended status: Standards Track                                     NTT
Expires: April 28, 2010                                 October 25, 2009


              Data Link Layer Monitoring with IPFIX/PSAMP
           draft-kashima-ipfix-data-link-layer-monitoring-01

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   Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal



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   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents in effect on the date of
   publication of this document (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.

Abstract

   This document describes an efficient method for monitoring an
   Ethernet network using the IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX)
   protocol, adding Information Elements related to the Ethernet header.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
     1.1.  Conventions Used in This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
   2.  Wide-Area Ethernet Network Summary  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
   3.  Existing Traffic Measurement  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
   4.  Future Traffic Measurement  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
   5.  Information Elements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
     5.1.  dataLinkFrameType . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
     5.2.  dataLinkFrameSize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
     5.3.  dataLinkFrameSection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
   8.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
     8.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
     8.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8






















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1.  Introduction

   Ethernet [IEEE802.1D] and VLAN (Virtual LAN) [IEEE802.1Q]
   technologies used to be used only in Local Area Networks.  Recently,
   they have been used in Wide Area Networks, e.g., L2-VPN services.
   Accordingly, the IEEE802.1Q standard has been enhanced to
   [IEEE802.1ad] and [IEEE802.1ah].

   Wide-area Ethernet networks will be renovated from IEEE802.1ad to
   coexisting IEEE802.1ad and IEEE802.1ah in the near future.
   IEEE802.1ad will continue to be utilized in access networks, and
   IEEE802.1ah will be introduced in provider backbone networks.

   While this hierarchical approach provides flexible and scalable
   networks, it increases the complexity of traffic measurement due to
   the existence of various Ethernet header forms.  To cope with this, a
   more sophisticated method is required.

   IPFIX/PSAMP could help to resolve these problems.  However, the PSAMP
   Information Model [RFC5477] does not have Information Elements
   related to Ethernet header forms.  This document describes the
   Information Elements related to data link layers that enable a more
   sophisticated traffic measurement method.

1.1.  Conventions Used in This Document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].


2.  Wide-Area Ethernet Network Summary

   [IEEE802.1ad] and [IEEE802.1ah], which are standards for the Wide-
   Area Ethernet, are described below.

   o  In IEEE802.1ad, there are two VLAN IDs: S-VID (Service VLAN
      Identifier) and C-VID (Customer VLAN Identifier).  S-VID is
      assigned to an Ethernet frame by a service provider, while C-VID
      is independently assigned to an Ethernet frame by a customer.
      Frame switching in a service provider network is based on only
      S-VID.
   o  In IEEE802.1ah, new Ethernet fields, such as B-VID (Backbone VLAN
      Identifier) and I-SID (Backbone Service Instance Identifier), are
      introduced to overcome the limitations on the VLAN identifier
      space on IEEE802.1ad and to isolate the service provider
      identifier space and customer identifier space.  Frame switching
      is based on a 12-bit B-VID, and customer identification is based



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      on a 24-bit I-SID.  A flexible network design has become possible
      because network management is separated from customer management.
      Other Ethernet fields that indicate quality of service (QoS) class
      are B-PCP, B-DEI, I-PCP, and I-DEI.

   IEEE802.1ah will be introduced into a backbone network in an actual
   Ethernet network, and the wide-area Ethernet service is expected to
   change from a flat network with only IEEE802.1ad to a hierarchical
   network with co-existing IEEE802.1ad and IEEE802.1ah.


3.  Existing Traffic Measurement

   In a wide-area Ethernet network, network administrators are required
   to measure traffic volume for each VPN customer and for each QoS
   class in addition to measuring interface-based traffic.  This
   measurement makes it possible to provide a traffic report to network
   administrators for capacity planning and traffic engineering and to
   customers.

   At present, network administrators use a variety of special
   measurement methods, such as an Enterprise MIB from various vendors
   and various device types (router, switch, or probe), in a single
   network domain.  It is difficult to mediate the differences.  In
   addition, this will lead to limitations in future networks with
   [IEEE802.1ah].


4.  Future Traffic Measurement

   After [IEEE802.1ah] is installed in a backbone network, a more
   sophisticated traffic measurement method than that used today will be
   required because network administrators must measure traffic volume
   for each VPN customer and for each QoS class, without regard for the
   distinction between IEEE802.1ah and [IEEE802.1ad].  In the case of
   IEEE802.1ah, a traffic measurement for a VPN customer is more
   complicated due to consideration of the separation of VLAN
   Identifiers, and a traffic measurement for QoS class is more
   complicated due to consideration of the multiple parameters related
   to QoS.  As the use of multicast applications increases, complicated
   traffic measurements for each parameter and each Ethernet frame type
   (unicast, multicast, and broadcast) will be required.

   The requirements for the method are as follows:

   o  flexible traffic measurement architecture, which can be applied to
      both IEEE802.1ad and IEEE802.1ah, and




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   o  no software upgrade for switching devices, even when a network
      administrator requires traffic data based on a new Ethernet field.

   These requirements mean that it is possible to apply the architecture
   of IPFIX/PSAMP.  Therefore, in this document, we propose an Ethernet
   traffic measurement method using IPFIX/PSAMP, as follows.

   The device (Exporter) samples Ethernet frames using PSAMP, extracts
   the header of the frame, and exports the header information extracted
   via IPFIX to the Collector.  The Collector sums up the number of
   frames and the number of octets for each Ethernet header field (e.g.,
   B-VID, I-SID, B-PCP, and I-PCP) and for each Ethernet frame type
   (e.g., multicast or broadcast).

   Furthermore, the device (Exporter) filters and samples traffic for
   each VPN using a Composite Selector of PSAMP [RFC5475].  This makes
   it possible to change the granularity of the traffic monitoring for
   each VPN.


5.  Information Elements

   The Information Elements related to data link layer description was
   deleted from <draft-ietf-psamp-info-10.txt> though it was defined in
   <draft-ietf-psamp-info-09.txt>.  This was because, at that time, the
   PSAMP Working Group selected not standardization based on vague
   requirements but standardization that was quickly completed.

   The following Information Elements are necessary for enabling the
   above-mentioned method, which is not limited to Ethernet because the
   method can be applied to other data link protocols.


   +-----+---------------------------+-----+---------------------------+
   | ID  | Name                      |  ID | Name                      |
   +-----+---------------------------+-----+---------------------------+
   | XXX | dataLinkFrameType         | XXX | dataLinkFrameSize         |
   | XXX | dataLinkFrameSection      |     |                           |
   +-----+---------------------------+-----+---------------------------+

5.1.  dataLinkFrameType

   Description:

      This Information Element specifies the type of the sampled data
      link frame and SHOULD be checked before analyzing higher layer
      protocols.




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      The data link layer is defined in [ISO_IEC.7498-1_1994].

      The following data link types are defined here.

      - 0x01 ETHERNET
      - 0x02 PPP
      - 0x03 WiMAX

      Further values may be assigned by IANA.

   Abstract Data Type: unsigned32

   Data Type Semantics: quantity

   ElementId: XXX

   Status: current

5.2.  dataLinkFrameSize

   Description:

      This Information Element specifies the size of the sampled data
      link frame and SHOULD be checked before analyzing higher layer
      protocols.

      The data link layer is defined in [ISO_IEC.7498-1_1994].

   Abstract Data Type: unsigned32

   Data Type Semantics: quantity

   ElementId: XXX

   Status: current

5.3.  dataLinkFrameSection

   Description:

      This Information Element, which may have a variable length,
      carries the first n octets from the data link frame of a sampled
      packet.

      The data link layer is defined in [ISO_IEC.7498-1_1994].





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      The size of the exported section may be constrained due to
      limitations in the IPFIX protocol.

      The data for this field MUST NOT be padded.  If insufficient
      octets are available for the length specified in the Template,
      then a new Template MUST be used.

      Further Information Elements, i.e., dataLinkFrameSize and
      dataLinkFrameType, are needed to specify the data link type and
      the size of the data link frame of this Information Element.  A
      set of these Information Elements MUST be contained in one Packet
      Report.

   Abstract Data Type: octetArray

   Data Type Semantics: quantity

   ElementId: XXX

   Status: current


6.  Security Considerations

   The recommendations in this document do not introduce any additional
   security issues to those already mentioned in [RFC5101] and
   [RFC5477].


7.  IANA Considerations

   This document requires an ElementId assignment to be made by IANA.


8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

8.2.  Informative References

   [IEEE802.1D]
              IEEE Computer Society, "IEEE Standards for Local and
              Metropolitan Area Networks: Media Access Control (MAC)
              Bridges", IEEE Std 802.1D-2004, June 2004.



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   [IEEE802.1Q]
              IEEE Computer Society, "IEEE Standards for Local and
              Metropolitan Area Networks: Virtual Bridged Local Area
              Networks", IEEE Std 802.1Q-2005, May 2006.

   [IEEE802.1ad]
              IEEE Computer Society, "IEEE Standards for Local and
              Metropolitan Area Networks: Virtual Bridged Local Area
              Networks Amendment 4: Provider Bridges", IEEE Std 802.1ad-
              2005, May 2006.

   [IEEE802.1ah]
              IEEE Computer Society, "IEEE Standards for Local and
              Metropolitan Area Networks: Virtual Bridged Local Area
              Networks Amendment 7: Provider Backbone Bridges", IEEE
              Std 802.1ah-2008, August 2008.

   [ISO_IEC.7498-1_1994]
              International Organization for Standardization,
              "Information technology -- Open Systems Interconnection --
              Basic Reference Model: The Basic Mode", ISO Standard 7498-
              1:1994, June 1996.

   [RFC5101]  Claise, B., "Specification of the IP Flow Information
              Export (IPFIX) Protocol for the Exchange of IP Traffic
              Flow Information", RFC 5101, January 2008.

   [RFC5475]  Zseby, T., Molina, M., Duffield, N., Niccolini, S., and F.
              Raspall, "Sampling and Filtering Techniques for IP Packet
              Selection", RFC 5475, March 2009.

   [RFC5477]  Dietz, T., Claise, B., Aitken, P., Dressler, F., and G.
              Carle, "Information Model for Packet Sampling Exports",
              RFC 5477, March 2009.


Authors' Addresses

   Shingo Kashima
   NTT PF Lab.
   Midori-Cho 3-9-11
   Musashino-shi, Tokyo  180-8585
   Japan

   Phone: +81 422 59 3894
   Email: kashima@nttv6.net





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   Atsushi Kobayashi
   NTT PF Lab.
   Midori-Cho 3-9-11
   Musashino-shi, Tokyo  180-8585
   Japan

   Phone: +81 422 59 3978
   Email: akoba@nttv6.net











































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