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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 draft-ietf-appsawg-file-scheme

Network Working Group                                          M. Kerwin
Internet-Draft                                                       QUT
Intended status: Standards Track                           July 29, 2013
Expires: January 30, 2014


                         The 'file' URI Scheme
                      draft-kerwin-file-scheme-06

Abstract

   This document specifies the file Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)
   scheme that was originally specified in [RFC1738].  The purpose of
   this document is to keep the information about the scheme on
   standards track, since [RFC1738] has been made obsolete, and to
   promote interoperability by resolving disagreements between various
   implementations.

Note to Readers

   This draft should be discussed on its github project page [github].

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 19, 2014.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents



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   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.1.  History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.2.  Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   2.  Scheme Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.1.  Syntax  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   3.  Implementation Notes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.1.  Hierarchical Structure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.2.  Relative file paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.3.  Drives, drive letters, mount points, file system root . .   7
     3.4.  UNC File Paths  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.5.  Namespaces  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   4.  Encoding and Character Set Considerations . . . . . . . . . .   9
   5.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     6.1.  URI Scheme Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     6.2.  Status  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     6.3.  URI Scheme Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     6.4.  URI Scheme Semantics  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     6.5.  Encoding Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     6.6.  Applications/Protocols That Use This URI Scheme Name  . .  11
     6.7.  Interoperability Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     6.8.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     6.9.  Contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     6.10. Author/Change Controller  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     6.11. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   7.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   8.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     8.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     8.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
















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1.  Introduction

   The 'file' URI scheme has historically had little or no
   interoperability between platforms.  Further, implementers on a
   single platform have often disagreed on the syntax to use for a
   particular filesystem.  This document attempts to resolve those
   problems, and define a standard scheme which is interoperable between
   different extant and future implementations.  Additionally, it aims
   to ease implementation by conforming to a general syntax that allows
   existing URI parsing machinery to parse 'file' URIs.

   URIs were previously defined in [RFC1738], which was updated by
   [RFC3986].  Those documents also specify how to define schemes for
   URIs.

   The first definition for many URI schemes appeared in [RFC1738].
   Because that document has been made obsolete, this document copies
   the 'file' URI scheme from it to allow that material to remain on
   standards track.

1.1.  History

   This section is non-normative.

   The 'file' URI scheme was first defined in [RFC1630], which, being an
   informational RFC, does not specify an Internet standard.  The
   definition was standardised in [RFC1738], and the scheme was
   registered with the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
   [IANA-URI-Schemes]; however that definition omitted certain language
   included by former that clarified aspects such as:

   o  the use of slashes to donate boundaries between directory levels
      of a hierarchical file system; and

   o  the requirement that client software convert the 'file' URI into a
      file name in the local file name conventions.

   The Internet draft [I-D.draft-hoffman-file-uri] was written in an
   effort to keep the 'file' URI scheme on standards track when
   [RFC1738] was made obsolete, but that draft expired in 2005.  It
   enumerated concerns arising from the various, often conflicting
   implementations of the scheme.  It serves as the basis of this
   document.








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   The 'file' URI scheme defined in [RFC1738] is referenced three times
   in the current URI Generic Syntax standard [RFC3986], despite the
   former's obsoletion:

   1.  RFC 3986, Section 1.1 uses "file:///etc/hosts" as an example for
       identifying a resource in relation to the end-user's local
       context.

   2.  RFC 3968, Section 1.2.3 mentions the "file" scheme regarding
       relative references.

   3.  RFC 3968, Section 3.2.2 says that '...the "file" URI scheme is
       defined so that no authority, an empty host, and "localhost" all
       mean the end-user's machine...'.

   Finally the WHATWG defines a living URL standard [WHATWG-URL], which
   includes algorithms for interpreting file URIs (as URLs).

1.2.  Conventions and Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

2.  Scheme Definition

   The 'file' URI scheme is used to identify and retrieve files
   accessible on a particular host computer, where a "file" is a named
   resource which can be accessed through the computer's filesystem
   interface.

   The mechanism for retrieving a representation of a dereferenced
   'file' URI is through the computer's filesystem interface; for
   example using the POSIX "open", "read" and "close" functions [POSIX].

   This scheme, unlike most other URI schemes, does not identify a
   resource that is universally accessible over the Internet.

   Note well that "file" refers to filesystem names from the perspective
   of the user of a reference, rather than in relation to a globally-
   defined naming authority, so care ought to be taken when distributing
   'file' URIs to ensure that such references are actually intended to
   be interpreted in relation to the user's filesystem interface.

   Also note that 'file' and 'ftp' URIs are not the same, even when the
   target of the 'ftp' URI is the local host.





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2.1.  Syntax

   The syntax of a 'file' URI conforms with the generic syntax presented
   in [RFC3986], with the following components:

   scheme name
      The literal value "file"

   authority
      If present, either the fully qualified domain name of the
      system on which the file is accessible; or one of the special
      values "localhost" or the empty string ("").

      If the authority component is omitted, or has either of the
      special values "localhost" or the empty string (""), it is
      interpreted as "the machine from which the URI is being
      interpreted".

      A host name, if supplied, is typically intended to inform a client
      on a remote machine that it cannot access the file system, or
      perhaps to use some other mechanism to access the file.  It does
      not imply that the file ought to be accessible over a network
      connection.

      No retrieval mechanism for files stored on a remote machine is
      defined by this specification.

   path
      The hierarchical directory path to the file, using the slash
      ("/") character to separate directories.  Implementations SHOULD
      translate between the slash-separated URI syntax and the local
      system's conventions for specifying file paths, where they differ.
      (See: Section 3.1)

      Some systems allow 'file' URIs to refer to directories.  In this
      case, the path usually (but not always) includes a terminating
      slash character, such as in:

         file:///usr/local/bin/

      The presence of a terminating slash character always indicates
      that the 'file' URI refers to a directory, but the absence of a
      slash does not necessarily indicate that it refers to a file.
      Implementations ought to use other mechanisms to detect
      directories, if and when such detection is required.






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   query
      The query component contains non-hierarchical data that, along
      with data in the path component, serves to identify a file.  For
      example, in a versioning file system, the query component might be
      used to refer to a specific version of a file.

      Few implementations are known to use or support query components.

   fragment
      The semantics of a fragment component are undefined by this
      specification.  A protocol that employs 'file' URIs MAY define its
      own semantics for fragment components in the context of that
      protocol.

   Systems exhibit different levels of case-sensitivity.
   Implementations SHOULD maintain the case of file and directory names
   when translating 'file' URIs to and from the local system's
   representation of file paths, and any systems or devices that
   transport 'file' URIs SHOULD NOT alter the case of 'file' URIs they
   transport.

   See Section 6.3 for a formal syntax defintion.

   Previous definitions of the 'file' URI scheme required two slashes
   between the scheme and path, so implementations that wish to remain
   interoperable with older implementations ought to include an
   authority component in any 'file' URIs they generate.

3.  Implementation Notes

3.1.  Hierarchical Structure

   Most implementations of the 'file' URI scheme do a reasonable job of
   mapping the hierarchical part of a directory structure into the slash
   ("/") delimited hierarchy of the URI syntax, independent of the
   native platform's delimiter.

   For example, on Microsoft Windows platforms, it is typical that the
   file system presents backslash ("\") as the file delimeter for file
   names, yet the URI's forward slash ("/") can be used in 'file' URIs
   interpreted on those platforms.  Similarly, on (some) Macintosh OS
   versions, at least in some contexts, the colon (":") is used as the
   delimiter in the native presentation of file path names.  Unix
   systems natively use the same forward slash ("/") delimiter for
   hierarchy, so there is a closer mapping between 'file' URI paths and
   native path names.





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   In accordance with Section 3.3 of [RFC3986], the path segments "."
   and "..", also known as dot-segments, are only interpreted within
   the URI path hierarchy and are removed as part of the resolution
   process ([RFC3986], Section 5.2).  Implementations operating on or
   interacting with systems that allow dot-segments in their native
   path representation may be required to escape those segments using
   some other means when translating to and from 'file' URIs.

3.2.  Relative file paths

   As relative references are resolved into their respective (absolute)
   target URIs according to Section 5 of [RFC3986], this document
   does not describe that resolution.  However, a fully resolved URI may
   contain a non-absolute path.  For example, using a generic parser,
   the URI:

      file:a/b/c

   would be parsed and interpreted as: file 'c', in directory 'b', in
   directory 'a', on the machine on which the URI is being interpreted
   (i.e. localhost); however there is no indication of the location of
   the directory 'a' on that machine.  By convention an absolute file
   path would begin with a slash ("/") character on a Unix-based system,
   or a drive letter (e.g. "c:\") on a Microsoft Windows system, etc.

   Resolution of relative file paths is undefined by this specification.
   A protocol that employs 'file' URIs MAY define its own rules for
   resolution of relative file paths in the context of that protocol.

3.3.  Drives, drive letters, mount points, file system root

   Historically there has been considerable difference, in practice, for
   handling of the syntax for the "top" of the hierarchy.  The 'file'
   URI syntax provides one simple place for designating the root of the
   file hierachy, and implementations have diverged, even on the same
   platform, sometimes even within a single application.

   For example, Microsoft DOS- and Windows-based systems support the
   notion of a "drive letter", a single character which represents a
   (virtual) drive, mount point, or device.  Native representations of
   file paths start with the drive letter, a colon, and then the path;
   e.g., "c:\TMP\test.txt".

   Drive letters are mapped into the top of a 'file' URI in various
   ways.  On systems running some versions of Microsoft Windows, the
   drive letter may be specified with a colon (":") character, however
   sometimes the colon is replaced with a pipe ("|") character, and in
   some implementations the colon is omitted entirely.  The three



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   representations MAY be considered equivalent, and any implementation
   which could interact with a Microsoft Windows environment SHOULD
   interpret a single letter, optionally followed by a colon or pipe
   character, in the first segment of the path as a drive letter.  For
   example, the following URIs:

      file:///c:/TMP/test.txt
      file:///c|/TMP/test.txt
      file:///c/TMP/test.txt

   when interpreted on the same machine, would refer to the same file:

      c:\TMP\test.txt

   Implementations SHOULD use a colon (":") character to specify drive
   letters when generating URIs for Windows- and DOS-based systems.

   Note that some systems running some versions of Microsoft Windows are
   known to omit the slash before the drive letter, effectively
   replacing the authority component with the drive specification; for
   example, "file://c:/TMP/test.txt".  In line with Postel's robustness
   principle ("an implementation must be conservative in its sending
   behavior, and liberal in its receiving behavior" [RFC791])
   implementations that are likely to encounter such a URI MAY interpret
   it as a drive letter, but SHOULD NOT generate such URIs.

3.4.  UNC File Paths

   The Microsoft Windows Universal Naming Convention (UNC) [MS-DTYP]
   defines a convention for specifying the location of resources such as
   shared files or devices, for example Windows shares accessed via the
   SMB/CIFS protocol [MS-SMB2].  The general structure of a UNC file
   path, given in Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) [RFC5234], is:

      UNC        = "\\" hostname "\" sharename *( "\" objectname )
      hostname   = <NetBIOS name, FQDN, or IP address of a server>
      sharename  = <name of a share or resource to be accessed>
      objectname = <the name of an object>

   Note that this syntax description is non-normative.

   The canonical representation of a UNC file path as a 'file' URI
   copies the UNC 'hostname' into the URI 'host' field, and the UNC
   'sharename' and 'objectname's, concatenated with forward slash ("/")
   characters, into the 'path'.  For example, the following UNC path:

      \\server.example.com\Share\path\to\file.doc




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   is represented as a 'file' URI canonically as:

      file://server.example.com/Share/path/to/file.doc
             \________________/\_____________________/
                  hostname      sharename+objectnames

   Historically some implementations have translated UNC file paths
   entirely into the 'path' segment of a 'file' URI, including both
   leading slashes, and the Firefox web browser even prefixes the UNC
   file path with another slash.  For example, the UNC path given above
   might be translated as:

      file:////server.example.com/Share/path/to/file.doc
             \_________________________________________/
                        translated UNC path

   or even:

      file://///server.example.com/Share/path/to/file.doc
              \_________________________________________/
                        translated UNC path

   An implementation receiving such a URI SHOULD convert it to the
   canonical representation before processing it.

   The 'file' URI scheme is unusual in that it does not specify an
   Internet protocol or access method for shared files; as such, its
   utility in network protocols between hosts is limited.  Examples of
   file server protocols that do define such access methods include SMB/
   CIFS [MS-SMB2], NFS [RFC3530], and NCP [NOVELL].

3.5.  Namespaces

   The Microsoft Windows API defines Win32 Namespaces [Win32-Namespaces]
   for interacting with files and devices using Windows API functions.
   These namespaced paths are prefixed by "\\?\" for Win32 File
   Namespaces and "\\.\" for Win32 Device Namespaces.  There is also a
   special case for UNC file paths [MS-DTYP] in Win32 File Namespaces,
   referred to as "Long UNC", using the prefix "\\?\UNC\".

   This specification does not define a mechanism for translating
   namespaced file paths into 'file' URIs.

4.  Encoding and Character Set Considerations

   As specified in [RFC3986], the 'file' URI scheme allows any character
   from the Universal Character Set (UCS, [ISO10646]) encoded as UTF-8
   [RFC3629] and then percent-encoded in valid ASCII [RFC20].



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   If the local file system uses a known non-Unicode character encoding,
   the file path SHOULD be converted to a sequence of Unicode characters
   normalized according to Normalization Form C (NFC, [UTR15]).

   Before applying any percent-encoding, an application MUST ensure the
   following about the string that is used as input to the URI-
   construction process:

   o  The host, if any, consists only of Unicode code points that
      conform to the rules specified in [RFC5892].

   o  Internationalized domain name (IDN) labels are encoded as A-labels
      [RFC5890].

5.  Security Considerations

   There are many security considerations for URI schemes discussed in
   [RFC3986].

   File access and the granting of privileges for specific operations
   are complex topics, and the use of 'file' URIs can complicate the
   security model in effect for file privileges.  Under no circumstance
   should software using 'file' URIs grant greater access than would be
   available for other file access methods.

6.  IANA Considerations

   In accordance with the guidelines and registration procedures for new
   URI schemes [RFC4395], this section provides the information needed
   to update the registration of the 'file' URI scheme.

6.1.  URI Scheme Name

   file

6.2.  Status

   permanent


6.3.  URI Scheme Syntax

   The 'file' URI syntax is defined here in Augmented Backus-Naur Form
   (ABNF) [RFC5234], including the core ABNF syntax rule 'ALPHA' defined
   by that specifiation, and borrowing the 'host', 'path-absolute' and
   'segment' rules from [RFC3986] (updated by [RFC6874]).





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      fileURI       = "file" ":" ( auth-file / local-file )

      auth-file     = "//" ( host-file / no-host-file )
      host-file     = hostpart path-absolute
                                     ;   file://<host>/<path>
                                     ;   file://localhost/<path>

      no-host-file  = path-abs       ; begins with "/"
                    / path-abs-win   ; begins with drive-letter
                                     ;   file:///<path>
                                     ;   file:////<bad-UNC-path>
                                     ;   file://c:/<path> *

      local-file    = path-absolute  ;   file:/<path>
                    / path-abs-win   ;   file:c:/<path>

      hostpart      = "localhost" / host

      path-abs      = 1*( "/" segment )

      path-abs-win  = drive-letter path-absolute
      drive-letter  = ALPHA [ drive-marker ]
      drive-marker  = ":" / "|"

   * The 'no-host-file' rule allows for dubious URIs that encode a
   Windows drive letter as the authority component.  See Section 3.3 of
   RFC XXXX.  [Note to RFC Editor: please replace XXXX with the number
   issued to this document.]


6.4.  URI Scheme Semantics

   See Section 2 of RFC XXXX.  [Note to RFC Editor: please replace XXXX
   with the number issued to this document.]

6.5.  Encoding Considerations

   See Section 4 of RFC XXXX.  [Note to RFC Editor: please replace XXXX
   with the number issued to this document.]

6.6.  Applications/Protocols That Use This URI Scheme Name

   Web browsers:

   o  Firefox

         Note: Firefox has a unique interpretation of RFC 1738 (See:
         Bugzilla#107540 [1]), which affects UNC paths.



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   o  Chromium

   o  Internet Explorer

   o  Opera

   Other applications/protocols:

   o  Windows API [2,3]

   o  Perl LWP

6.7.  Interoperability Considerations

   Due to the convoluted history of the 'file' URI scheme there a many,
   varied implementations in existence.  Many have converged over time,
   forming a few kernels of closely-related functionality, and RFC XXXX
   attempts to accommodate such common functionality.  [Note to RFC
   Editor: please replace XXXX with the number issued to this document.]
   However there will always be exceptions, and this fact is recognised.

6.8.  Security Considerations

   See Section 4 of RFC XXXX [Note to RFC Editor: please replace XXXX
   with the number issued to this document.]

6.9.  Contact

   Matthew Kerwin, matthew@kerwin.net.au

6.10.  Author/Change Controller

   This scheme is registered under the IETF tree.  As such, the IETF
   maintains change control.

6.11.  References

   [1]  "Bug 107540", Bugzilla@Mozilla, October 2007,
        <https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=107540>.

   [2]  "PathCreateFromUrl function", MSDN, June 2013,
        <http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/
        bb773581(v=vs.85).aspx>.

   [3]  "UrlCreateFromPath function", MSDN, June 2013,
        <http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/
        bb773773(v=vs.85).aspx>





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7.  Acknowledgements

   This specification is derived from RFC 1738 [RFC1738], RFC 3986
   [RFC3986], and I-D draft-hoffman-file-uri (expired)
   [I-D.draft-hoffman-file-uri]; the acknowledgements in those documents
   still apply.


8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [ISO10646]
              International Organization for Standardization, "ISO/IEC
              10646:2003: Information Technology - Universal Multiple-
              Octet Coded Character Set (UCS)", ISO Standard 10646,
              December 2003.

   [RFC20]    Cerf, V., "ASCII format for Network Interchange", RFC 20,
              October 1969.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3629]  Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
              10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003.

   [RFC3986]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66, RFC
              3986, January 2005.

   [RFC5890]  Klensin, J., "Internationalized Domain Names for
              Applications (IDNA): Definitions and Document Framework",
              RFC 5890, August 2010.

   [RFC5892]  Faltstrom, P., "The Unicode Code Points and
              Internationalized Domain Names for Applications (IDNA)",
              RFC 5892, August 2010.

   [RFC6874]  Carpenter, B., Cheshire, S., and R. Hinden, "Representing
              IPv6 Zone Identifiers in Address Literals and Uniform
              Resource Identifiers", RFC 6874, February 2013.

   [UTR15]    Davis, M. and K. Whistler, "Unicode Normalization Forms",
              August 2012,
              <http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr15/tr15-37.html>.





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8.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.draft-hoffman-file-uri]
              Hoffman, P., "The file URI Scheme", draft-hoffman-file-
              uri-03 (work in progress), January 2005.

   [IANA-URI-Schemes]
              Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, "Uniform Resource
              Identifier (URI) Schemes registry", June 2013, <http://
              www.iana.org/assignments/uri-schemes/uri-schemes.xml>.

   [MS-DTYP]  Microsoft Open Specifications, "Windows Data Types, 2.2.56
              UNC", January 2013,
              <http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/gg465305.aspx>.

   [MS-SMB2]  Microsoft Open Specifications, "Server Message Block (SMB)
              Protocol Versions 2 and 3", January 2013,
              <http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc246482.aspx>.

   [NOVELL]   Novell, "NetWare Core Protocols", 2013, <http://
              www.novell.com/developer/ndk/netware_core_protocols.html>.

   [POSIX]    IEEE, "IEEE Std 1003.1, 2013 Edition", 2013,
              <http://www.unix.org/version4/>.

   [RFC1630]  Berners-Lee, T., "Universal Resource Identifiers in WWW: A
              Unifying Syntax for the Expression of Names and Addresses
              of Objects on the Network as used in the World-Wide Web",
              RFC 1630, June 1994.

   [RFC1738]  Berners-Lee, T., Masinter, L., and M. McCahill, "Uniform
              Resource Locators (URL)", RFC 1738, December 1994.

   [RFC3530]  Shepler, S., Callaghan, B., Robinson, D., Thurlow, R.,
              Beame, C., Eisler, M., and D. Noveck, "Network File System
              (NFS) version 4 Protocol", RFC 3530, April 2003.

   [RFC4395]  Hansen, T., Hardie, T., and L. Masinter, "Guidelines and
              Registration Procedures for New URI Schemes", BCP 35, RFC
              4395, February 2006.

   [RFC5234]  Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234, January 2008.

   [RFC791]   Postel, J., "Internet Protocol - DARPA Internet Program,
              Protocol Specification", RFC 791, September 1981.



Kerwin                  Expires January 19, 2014               [Page 14]


Internet-Draft                 'file' URI                      July 2013


   [WHATWG-URL]
              WHATWG, "URL Living Standard", May 2013,
              <http://url.spec.whatwg.org/>.

   [Win32-Namespaces]
              Microsoft Developer Network, "Naming Files, Paths, and
              Namespaces", June 2013, <http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/
              library/windows/desktop/
              aa365247(v=vs.85).aspx#namespaces>.

   [github]   Kerwin, M., "file-uri-scheme GitHub repository", n.d.,
              <https://github.com/phluid61/file-uri-scheme>.


Author's Address

   Matthew Kerwin
   Queensland University of Technology
   Victoria Park Rd
   Kelvin Grove, QLD  4059
   Australia

   EMail: matthew.kerwin@qut.edu.au






























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