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Internet Engineering Task Force                            B. Khasnabish
Internet-Draft                                               ZTE TX Inc.
Intended status: Informational                                    J. Chu
Expires: July 8, 2014                                              S. Ma
                                                                     ZTE
                                                                   N. So
                                                     Tata Communications
                                                            P. Unbehagen
                                                                   Avaya
                                                               M. Morrow
                                        Cisco Systems [Switzerland] GmbH
                                                                M. Hasan
                                                           Cisco Systems
                                                            Y. Demchenko
                                                 University of Amsterdam
                                                                 Y. Meng
                                                                       .
                                                         January 4, 2014


                       Cloud Reference Framework
           draft-khasnabish-cloud-reference-framework-06.txt

Abstract

   This document presents a cloud reference framework that intends to
   provide a basis for designing interoperable cloud services and their
   integration into existing open Internet and enterprise IT
   infrastructures.

   In general, a cloud-based system utilizes virtualized computing /
   communications / storage resources and applications, and allows their
   combined provisioning as complex infrastructure services.  In the
   emerging cloud-based virtualized infrastructures and services are
   provisioned on on-demand basis, and configured for specific customer
   needs or tasks.

   The reference framework is based on the survey of the SDOs and WGs
   that are focusing on cloud-based systems and services (Cloud SDO,
   I-D.Khasnabish-cloud-sdo-survey), on-going standardisation activities
   and other research and developments in the cloud computing technology
   area.  Both intra-cloud and inter-cloud reference frameworks are
   presented and the requirements to the general functional layers and
   components are discussed.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the



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   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on July 8, 2014.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF
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   Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling
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   not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format
   it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
   than English.











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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   3.  Reference Cloud Services Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     3.1.  HORIZONTAL/CSM LAYERS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       3.1.1.  Access and Service Delivery Layer (ASDL) . . . . . . . 10
       3.1.2.  Cloud Services Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       3.1.3.  Resources Control (Composition and Orchestration)
               Layer (RCOL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       3.1.4.  Resources Abstraction and Virtualization Layer . . . . 12
       3.1.5.  Physical Resources Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     3.2.  VERTICAL LAYERS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       3.2.1.  Cloud Management Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     3.3.  User/Customer Side Functions and Resources . . . . . . . . 21
   4.  Inter-Cloud Framework  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     4.1.  Inter-Cloud Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     4.2.  Intercloud Control and Management Plane (ICCMP)  . . . . . 25
     4.3.  Intercloud Federation Framework (ICFF) . . . . . . . . . . 27
     4.4.  Intercloud Operations and Management Framework (ICOMF) . . 33
   5.  Use Cases  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
     5.1.  Virtual Network Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
     5.2.  Telecom Network Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
     5.3.  Virtual Data Center  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
     5.4.  Security Framework for VDCS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
   6.  Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
   7.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
   8.  Acknowledgement  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
   9.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
   10. Normative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47




















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1.  Introduction

   Clouds are emerging as a common way of provisioning virtualised
   infrastructure services that are provisioned on demand (and
   configured for specific customer needs or tasks).  Current
   development of the cloud technologies demonstrate movement to
   developing Intercloud models, architectures and integration tools
   that could allow integrating cloud based infrastructure services into
   existing enterprise and campus infrastructures, on one hand, and
   provide common/interoperable environment for moving existing
   infrastructures and infrastructure services to virtualised cloud
   environment.  More complex and enterprise oriented use of cloud
   infrastructure services will require developing new service
   provisioning and security models that could allow creating complex
   project and group oriented infrastructures provisioned on-demand and
   across multiple providers.

   This document presents a general cloud reference framework that
   includes the proposed multilayer Cloud Services Model (CSM),
   including cross-layer functions such as Cloud Management Plane, and
   defines the Intercloud framework to address interoperability and
   integration issues in provisioning multi-domain multi-provider
   heterogeneous cloud based infrastructures and services.

   The proposed CSM defines the basic functional layers to support the
   cloud based infrastructure services and applications virtualization,
   composition, delivery and operation.  The CSM provides a basis for
   building Cloud Service Provider (CSP) internal infrastructure (or
   datacenter) that could also address inter-provider interoperability
   and cloud based services integration.

   The proposed Intercloud Architecture Framework ICAF addresses a
   number of issues in ensuring interoperability of cloud
   infrastructures built using different cloud software stacks/platforms
   and provided by multiple providers.  It should address Intercloud
   service control and management (under one cloud operator or
   integrator), Intercloud federation that should allow interoperability
   and integration of administratively independent cloud domains, and
   general inter-cloud services provisioning and operation.

   The proposed in this document Intercloud Framework intends to provide
   a basis for inter-cloud infrastructures and services integration and
   interoperability that could span multiple providers, multiple
   management domains and include mutli-platform and multi-technology
   components/domains.  The definition of the Intercloud Framework is
   based on previous experience of Internet community in building large
   scale interoperable telecommunication and Internet systems and uses
   best practices and recommendations from the wide range of industry



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   standards by IETF, OGF, ITU-T, TMF, DMTF and other standardisation
   bodies specifically oriented on cloud technologies.

   The presented Cloud Reference Framework can be used to a) define
   requirements to the main cloud infrastructure functional elements and
   other components of the general Internet infrastructure to
   consistently support cloud services/infrastructure integration and
   operation, b) define the interfaces between the functional elements,
   and c) propose further standardisation.

   It is important to mention that consistent definition of the general
   Cloud Services Model will provide a basis for seamless inter-cloud
   integration and operation.

   The proposed cloud reference framework describes basic functions in
   different layers to support the virtualised applications and services
   interoperability, integration and operation.  This reference
   framework can be used to standardize a) features of functional
   elements and b) the interfaces between the functions.

   Basically, the cloud reference framework includes

   o  the following horizontal layers

      *  User/Customer Side Services/Functions and Resources Layer(USL)

      *  Access/Delivery Layer (ADL) hosting also Inter-Cloud functions

      *  Cloud Service Layer(CSL)

      *  Resource Control (Composition and Orchestration) Layer(RCL)

      *  Resource Abstract and Virtualization Layer(RAVL)

      *  Physical Resource Layer(PRL)

   o  Cross-layer functions including

      *  Cloud Management Plane that supports the following
         functionality

         +  Configuration management

         +  Services registry and discovery

         +  Monitoring, logging, accounting and auditing





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         +  Service Level Agreement (SLA) management (SLAM)

         +  Security services and infrastructure management

   The Cloud Security Services Infrastructure works as another cross-
   layer service which task is to ensure normal operation of the cloud
   services, protect user data, and enforce security, access control
   (authentication and authorisation) and operational policies at all
   layers of the cloud services model.  In clouds, security services
   also need to be provisioned on-demand together with the provisioned
   on-demand main cloud services.  In this respect cloud security
   infrastructure should support consistent security context and
   security sessions management during the whole lifecycle of the
   provisioned cloud services.  To perform this function it will use the
   services lifecycle management service as a part of the Cloud
   Management Plane functionality.



































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2.  Terminology

   Clouds Discussion Archive:
   http://www.ietf.org/mail-archive/web/clouds/current/maillist.html

   IETF Wiki Website for slides from Clouds bar BoFs:
   http://trac.tools.ietf.org/area/app/trac/wiki/Clouds












































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3.  Reference Cloud Services Model




+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                  User/Customer Side Functions and Resources Layer                     |
|                          +------------------------------+                             |
|  +-------------------+   | Content/ Data Services       |    +------------------+     |
|  |User Client/Service|   | +------+ +-------+ +-------+ |    | Administrative   |     |
|  |* Identity Service |   | | Data | |Content| |Sensor | |    | and Management   |     |
|  |* Visualisation    |   | +------+ +-------+ +-------+ |    | Functions/Client |     |
|  +-------------------+   +------------------------------+    +------------------+     |
+----------------|-------------------------|--------------------------------|-----------+
                 |                         |                                |
                 |                         |                                |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+    +-----------------+
|                     Access/Delivery Layer                      |    |  Cross-Layer    |
|    +---------------------+   +-----------------------------+   |    |  Functions and  |
|    | End Point Functions |   | Inter-Cloud Functions       |   |    |  Services       |
|    | * Service Gateway   |   | * Registry & Discovery      |   |    |                 |
|    | * Portal/Desktop    |   | * Federation Infrastructure |   |    |                 |
|    |                     |   | * Service/Trust Broker      |   |    |                 |
|    +---------------------+   +-----------------------------+   |    |                 |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+    |   Cloud         |
         |                    |                    |                  |   Management    |
         |                    |                    |                  |   Plane         |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+    |                 |
|                          Cloud Service Layer                   |    |                 |
| +---------+ +------+ +---------------------------------------+ |    |                 |
| | IaaS    | | PaaS | |   SaaS (Applications) & API           | |    | +-------------+ |
| | API     | | API  | | +------------+ +--------------------+ | |    | |Configuration| |
| |         | |      | | |BusinessApps| |    ConsumerApps    | | |    | |Management   | |
| |         | |      | | |(Analytics) | |(Data share/backup) | | |    | +-------------+ |
| |         | |      | | +------------+ +--------------------+ | |    |                 |
| |         | |      | | +------------+ +--------------------+ | |    |                 |
| |         | |      | | |NetworkApps | | CommunicationApps  | | |    | +-------------+ |
| |         | |      | | |(Hosted PBX)| |(VoIP, Video Serv.) | | |    | |Services     | |
| |         | |      | | +------------+ +--------------------+ | |    | |Lifecycle    | |
| |         | |      | +---------------------------------------+ |    | |Management   | |
| |         | |      +-----------------------------------------+ |    | +-------------+ |
| |         | | PaaS (Software Environment)   +--------------+ | |    |                 |
| |         | | +-----------+  +-----------+  |PaaS MidWare  | | |<==>| +-------------+ |
| |         | | |Development|  |Test       |  |* Service Bus | | |    | | Registry &  | |
| |         | | |Environment|  |Environment|  |* Load Balance| | |    | | Discovery   | |
| |         | | +-----------+  +-----------+  +--------------+ | |    | +-------------+ |
| |         | +------------------------------------------------+ |    |                 |
| |         +--------------------------------------------------+ |    | +-------------+ |



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| | IaaS (Infrastructure) +---------+ +--------+ +-----------+ | |    | | Monitoring  | |
| | +----------------+    |Compute  | |Storage | |Network/VPN| | |    | | Logging     | |
| | |IaaS Middleware |    +---------+ +--------+ +-----------+ | |    | | Accounting  | |
| | |* VM Management |    +---------+ +--------+ +-----------+ | |    | | Auditing    | |
| | |* Load Balancing|    |Security | |Database| |VM Reposito| | |    | +-------------+ |
| | +----------------+    +---------+ +--------+ +-----------+ | |    |                 |
| +------------------------------------------------------------+ |    | +-------------+ |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+    | | SLA         | |
         |                    |                    |                  | | Management  | |
         |                    |                    |                  | +-------------+ |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+    |                 |
| Resource Control (Composition & Orchestration) Layer           |    |                 |
| +---------+ +--------+ +--------+ +------------+ +-----------+ |    |                 |
| |Resource | |Resource| |Resource| |Resource    | |Inter-Cloud| |    | +-------------+ |
| |Availabil| |Authen. | |Reservat| |Composition | |Resource   | |<-->| | Security    | |
| |Admission| |&Author.| |Schedule| |Orchectratin| |Control    | |    | | Services &  | |
| |Control  | |Control | |Control | |            | |           | |    | | Infrastruct | |
| +---------+ +--------+ +--------+ +------------+ +-----------+ |    | | Management  | |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+    | +-------------+ |
         |                      |                    |                |                 |
         |                      |                    |                |                 |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+    |                 |
|           Resource Abstraction & Virtualization Layer          |    |                 |
| +------------------------------------------------------------+ |    |                 |
| |                                  Virtualized Resource      | |    |                 |
| | +---------+  +--------+  +------+  +------------+  +-----+ | |    |                 |
| | |   V-    |  |  V-    |  |  V-  |  |    V-      |  | VPN | | |    |                 |
| | |Computing|  |Storage |  |Switch|  |Netwk Intf. |  +-----+ | |    |                 |
| | +---------+  +--------+  +------+  +------------+          | |    |                 |
| | +---------+  +--------+  +------+  +------------+          | |    |                 |
| | |   V-    |  |   V-   |  |  V-  |  |     V-     |  +-----+ | |    |                 |
| | |Database |  |FireWall|  |Router|  |Network Link|  |Other| | |    |                 |
| | +---------+  +--------+  +------+  +------------+  +-----+ | |    |                 |
| +------------------------------------------------------------+ |<-->|                 |
|----------------------------------------------------------------|    |                 |
|      +----+      +----+      +----+      +----+      +----+    |    |                 |
|      | VM |      | VM |      | VM |      | VM |      | VM |    |    |                 |
| +------------------------------------------------------------+ |    |                 |
| |                             Hypervisor                     | |    |                 |
| +------------------------------------------------------------+ |    |                 |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+    |                 |
         |                   |                     |                  |                 |
         |                   |                     |                  |                 |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+    |                 |
|                               Physical Resource Layer          |    |                 |
| +----------+ +-------------+ +-------------------------------+ |    |                 |
| |  SERVER  | |  STORAGE    | |          NETWORK              | |<-->|                 |
| | +------+ | | +---------+ | | +------+ +--------+ +------+  | |    |                 |



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| | | CPU  | | | |Hard Disk| | | |Router| |FireWall| |Switch|  | |    |                 |
| | +------+ | | +---------+ | | +------+ +--------+ +------+  | |    |                 |
| | +------+ | | +---------+ | | +-----------+ +------------+  | |    |                 |
| | |MEMORY| | | |NAS        | | |Netwk Intf.| |Network Link|  | |    |                 |
| | +------+ | | +---------+ | | +-----------+ +------------+  | |    |                 |
| +----------+ +-------------+ +-------------------------------+ |    |                 |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+    +-----------------+



   Figure 3.1.  Cloud Services Model

3.1.  HORIZONTAL/CSM LAYERS

3.1.1.  Access and Service Delivery Layer (ASDL)

   Access and Service Delivery Layer hosts functions and generally
   infrastructure components to deliver cloud based services to
   customers and their access by end users.  In majority cases services
   delivery takes place over Internet but may also include dedicate
   network infrastructure provided by a third party network provider or
   so-called Cloud Carrier.

   The ADL may include (but not limited to) the following functions:

   o  End-point functions that may include

      *  User portal

      *  Service gateways (such as distributed cache, CDN gateways,
         etc.)

   o  Intercloud functions that may include

      *  Intercloud infrastructure to support cloud federation

      *  Federated Identity providers that besides Identity Management
         functions may also include attribute provisioning and
         translation, trust management and Security Token Service

      *  Cloud services registry and discovery

      *  Cloud brokering functions

      *  Trust brokering and management functions

   End-point functions can be provided either Cloud Service provider
   themselves, in particular Cloud IaaS providers that typically have



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   globally distributed infrastructure, or third party service providers
   such as SDN providers, home access providers, network service
   providers, etc.

   It is also foreseen that global Cloud Service providers will provide
   localized access and delivery services to distributed users based on
   their globally distributed infrastructure and existing datacenters
   and points of presence worldwide.

3.1.2.  Cloud Services Layer

   Cloud Service Layer defines the requirements of the basic functional
   entities based on the virtual resources needed to perform any tasks.
   The tasks are classified according to the 3 cloud services models
   IaaS, PaaS and SaaS.  Some cloud services are illustrated as an
   example of applications like:

   o  Compute, storage, database, and VLAN/network for IaaS,

   o  Development environment and test environment for PaaS,

   o  Business, consumer, network and communication applications for
      SaaS.

   o  Cloud services middleware that is typically present in both IaaS
      and PaaS service layers and include load balancing, Service Bus
      for PaaS, and VM management for IaaS.

   The requirements the basic functional entities provided include the
   following characteristics and parameters of the virtual resources:

   o  Type of resources: CPU, memory, hard disk space, bandwidth,
      latency, jitter, and so on

   o  Amount of resources

   o  Nature of the resources: dedicated vs. shared, transport media
      exclusions, and so on

   o  Timing of the resources: scheduled vs. on-demand

   o  Duration of the Resources

   Cloud Services layer defines also interfaces: external cloud services
   interface that exposes cloud service to user or customer, and
   internal that links cloud services and underlying virtualised
   resources.




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3.1.3.  Resources Control (Composition and Orchestration) Layer (RCOL)

   Resources Control Layer manages the virtual resources, ensuring that
   the resources are efficient, secure and reliable.  With the interface
   of virtual resources, the layer integrates the resources as a whole
   supplied to upper layer.  The layer has the following
   responsibilities:

   o  Resources composition and orchestration.  The layer provides
      functionality to compose cloud resources, that are provisioned
      together as cloud services on-demand, from the available resource
      pool.  Orchestration means providing inter-resources
      communication, synchronisation and coordination.

   o  Resource schedule control.  The layer manages resources in form of
      resource pool.  In a resource pool, the layer balances the virtual
      resources on a set of physical equipment to achieve higher
      hardware utilization.  Virtual resources can be migrated between
      physical equipment if necessary, and also can be allocated
      according to user's priority grade.

   o  Inter-cloud resource control.  Resources in a cloud can be shared
      with another cloud in some circumstances, so a cloud must control
      resources in other cloud, and supply cloud service to end users.
      End users have no need to know where the resources are from.

   o  Resource availability control.  The layer supports fault-tolerance
      on resources.  It can allocate another copy of resources as a
      backup, and switch over when some faults raised.

   o  Resource security management.  Resources must be accessed and
      owned by the right user, there are several function modules to
      fulfill this responsibility, include resource admission control,
      resource authentication and authorization control

   o  Services Lifecycle Management.  This functional component is
      needed to support resources provisioning process/staes for an
      instant cloud infrastructure or service.

3.1.4.  Resources Abstraction and Virtualization Layer

   Physical resources at the lowest level are the most complex to share
   among multiple users.  There are several hardware details that don't
   need to visible to users, so we need a level of abstraction.  In
   fact, these physical resources are abstracted first, next composed by
   the cloud management software (at composition and abstraction layer)
   and finally deployed as virtual resources on the virtualised physical
   resources.  The function of resources abstraction and virtualization



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   layer is to convert physical resources to virtual resources.  Virtual
   resources are contained in resource pool.  Resources can be allocated
   to users from the resource pool, and released to resource pool when
   it's not needed.

   Virtual resources are isolated from physical equipment, and have the
   following features:

   o  Have all features as physical resources, resource users can't
      distinguish the difference between them;

   o  Can be allocated and released on demand;

   o  Support heterogeneous physical equipment, and supply a consistency
      view of resources to users;

   o  Support resource mobility, virtual resource can move from one
      physical equipment to another seamlessly;

   There are several types of resources, such as computing resource,
   storage resource, database, bandwidth and network.  According to the
   type of resource, there are different methods to realize
   virtualization.  The variety function modules for virtualization are
   contained in Resources abstraction and virtualization layer.  The
   layer has the following responsibilities:

   o  Through the interface of physical equipment to manage physical
      resource, mapping the virtual resources to physical resource;

   o  Supply the interface to upper layer to manage and access virtual
      resources;

   o  Hide the details of physical equipment, mask the difference
      between physical equipment.

3.1.4.1.  Networking Resources Layer

   Networking (Resources) layer converts and communicates network (LAN/
   MAN/WAN) capabilities and capacities(such as Bandwidth, ports,
   Latency matrices, Jitter matrices, Availability, Restoration
   capabilities, etc) into a set of resource pools that can be
   understood and used by the above layers.  The resource pools include

   o  Virtual Switch

   o  Virtual Router





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   o  Virtual Firewall

   o  Virtual Network Interface

   o  Virtual Network Link

   o  VPN

3.1.5.  Physical Resources Layer

   Physical Resources Layer include

   o  CPU

   o  Memory

   o  Hard Disk

   o  Network Interface Card

   o  Network Link

      *  Ports

      *  Bandwidth

3.2.  VERTICAL LAYERS

3.2.1.  Cloud Management Plane

   Cloud Management Plane provides monitoring and administration of the
   cloud network platform to keep the whole cloud operating normally,
   including the following functionalities:

   o  Configuration management and services lifecycle management

   o  Services Registry and discovery

   o  Monitoring, logging, accounting and auditing

   o  Service level agreement (SLA) Management (SLAM), and

   o  Security services/infrastructure management.

   Key features of the Virtual System Management Layer include:

   o  Automatically deploying the cloud system based on the
      configuration data and policy



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   o  Real-time monitoring and alerting of cloud status, resource usage
      and performance of cloud

   o  Reporting and charting of historical events and performance
      metrics

   o  Flexible IT management and operational status displays

   o  Authenticating/Authorizing the published cloud service registry

   o  Auditing the cloud environment to check whether its running
      smoothly

   o  Controlling the SLA implemented in the cloud system

   o  Maintenance concerned with performing repairs, upgrades and new
      nodes join into the Cloud

   o  Providing Security mechanism for the Cloud

   Basically CML includes four Functions:

   o  Cloud Configuration Management

   o  Cloud Service Registry and Audit Management

   o  Cloud SLA Management

   o  Cloud Service Security Management

3.2.1.1.  Cloud Configuration Management

   Cloud Configuration Management (CCM) is responsible for establishing
   and maintaining the consistent performance of the Clouds system or
   product and its functional and physical attributes throughout its
   life-cycle.  It mainly focuses on configuring the cloud system and
   retrieving the configuration information automatically.  Requirements
   on Configuration Management are as follows:

   o  Provide efficient and reliable means to provision large amounts of
      configuration data.  Current versions of provision configuration
      data are CLI, SNMP and NETCONF.

   o  Provide secure means to provision configuration data.  The system
      must provide support for access control, authentication,
      integrity-checking, replay- protection and/or privacy security
      services.




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   o  Provide means to send feedback information to the management
      system.  Feedback information include configuration data
      confirmation, network status and monitoring information, specific
      events, etc.

   o  Provide expiration time and effective time capabilities to
      configuration data.  It is required that some configuration data
      items be set to expire, and other items be set to never expire.

   o  Provide facilities to help in tracing back configuration changes

   o  Be flexible and extensible to accommodate future needs.
      Configuration management data models are not fixed for all time
      and are subject to evolution like any other management data model.

   o  Leverage knowledge of the existing SNMP management infrastructure,
      such as the knowledge of and experience with MIBs and SMI.

   o  Basically, the CM includes CM database, CM policy, system change
      management and version management.

   o  Related protocol: CLI, SNMP, NETCONF

3.2.1.2.  Cloud Service Registry/Repository

   Service Registry/Repository provides management and governance
   capabilities that enable the published cloud service to be
   authenticated in the cloud system and accessed by service client.  It
   facilitates storing, accessing and managing service information,
   called service metadata, so that the cloud service can be easily
   published, selected, invoked, enriched, governed and reused.

   Requirements on Service Registry/Repository are as follows:

   o  Publication and Discovery.  The authorized service is published in
      the Cloud system, and you can keep an accurate record of the
      deployed services in your repository platform.  The user can find
      the service from the repository platform using the service
      discovery engine.  Cloud Service Registry/Repository is capable of
      a powerful query mechanism allows you to search and find the
      services that best fit the requirements of a given process.

   o  Service Information Retrieval.  The service repository enables
      dynamic and efficient access to services information by enabling
      selection of services based on service metadata.

   o  Optimize service usage.  Service manage capability enables
      management of service metadata, as well as service interactions,



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      dependencies and redundancies.  You can classify services based on
      business objectives, manage policies for service usage and monitor
      how services are changed and versioned.  This capability helps you
      optimize the use of services in cloud system by exchanging service
      metadata with runtime monitoring tools and operational data
      stores.

   o  Impact analysis.  By maintaining relationships, Cloud Service
      Registry/Repository has extensive support for analyzing the impact
      of service introduction, deletion or alteration.

   o  Service life cycle.  By creating user-defined entities and
      customizing the service life cycle, you can configure Cloud
      Service Registry/Repository precisely according to your business
      needs.  You can easily implement best practices for service life-
      cycle management with the ability to promote services and life-
      cycle validations.

   o  Policy support.  You can publish policies that apply to services
      stored in Cloud Service Registry/Repository.  These policies help
      you institute best practices in your Cloud deployment.

   o  Governance profile.  To help you get started easily and quickly,
      Cloud Service Registry/Repository provides a well defined service
      model that includes templates, associated life cycles, governance
      policies, a classification system, roles and perspectives.

3.2.1.3.  Cloud Monitoring, Accounting and Audit Management (CMAAM)

   Cloud Monitoring, Accounting and Audit Management (CMAAM) is to
   provide an agent through which cloud providers and authorized
   consumers automate the Audit, Assertion, Assessment, and Assurance of
   the cloud infrastructure (IaaS), platform (PaaS), and application
   (SaaS) environments to reduce the risk.  A common interface and
   namespace can be used by the CAM to facilitate these audit functions.

   Requirements on CMAAM are as follows:

   o  A well-defined objective and scope tied to quality compliance and
      risk management processes

   o  Establish clear policies, procedures, and metrics.  Audit
      management should incorporate defined policies, procedures, and
      metrics as performance benchmarks.  These elements should be
      reviewed periodically for continuous improvement.

   o  Integrate essential quality management processes.  An effective
      audit management system should automate the entire audit process



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      and include integration of the following processes:

      *  Corrective and preventive actions

      *  Change control

      *  Non-conformance tracking and management

      *  Regulatory document/content management

      *  Custom reporting, analysis and analytics

      *  Training

      *  Compliance intelligence dashboard

3.2.1.4.  Cloud SLA Management (C-SLAM)

   SLA is a part of a service contract where the level of service is
   formally defined between Cloud service providers and Cloud customers.
   Within the terms of their contracts, the SLA will have a technical
   definition, typical terms as MTTF (Mean Time To Failures), MTTR (Mean
   Time To Repair), ABA (Abandonment Rate), ASA (Average Speed to
   Answer), TSF (Time Service Factor), FCR (First Call Resolution), TAT
   (Turn Around Time), Uptime Agreements, various data rates, etc.

   C-SLAM is to control the usage and receipt of resources from and by
   third parties.  The strategy of C-SLAM includes the negotiation of
   the contract and the monitoring of its realization in real-time.
   Thus, C-SLAM encompasses the SLA contract definition (basic schema
   within QoS parameters), the SLA negotiation, the SLA monitoring, and
   the SLA enforcement.

   C-SLAM also needs to define rate reductions and discounts that are
   applied when a service provider fails to meet the desired service
   parameters or does not fulfill an agreement.

   Requirements on C-SLAM are as follows:

   o  SLA template specification. when service provider publishes a new
      service, an SLA template which describes the contract type that
      goes with the resource usage will be specified.  Such a template
      may be hard to define we propose to develop a skeleton of a
      template with the corresponding write-up procedure.

   o  Negotiation.  Service client and service providers have to agree
      on the terms of the SLA binding them and also with the
      consequences to violations.



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   o  Resource Optimization.  When the SLA processes the service access
      request from the service client, it also has to keep in mind the
      optimization of the usage of resources, and the QoS guaranteed in
      the SLA.

   o  Monitoring.  Once the cloud system has started providing access to
      its resources, it should monitor the operating resources.  The
      monitored information is then used to prove the QoS agreed within
      the SLA being satisfied.

   o  Re-negotiation.  Some party of the contract may wish to change the
      resource usage policy while the system is running, in order to
      comply with a change in external conditions.  In order to keep the
      behaviour of the process continuous, the agreed SLA need adjust to
      assure the process vitality after migration and resource shortage.

   o  Evaluation.  Besides the running information is interested by the
      managers and users, other data like contract violations or global
      statistics are also needed in order to verify the SLA.  Evaluation
      is the process of analyzing the previously monitored information.
      An evaluation daemon may be proposed, based on the monitoring
      tools developed.

   o  Accounting.  The use of a resource generates an accounting sheet
      which describes the resources used and aligns them with the
      billing rules agreed in the SLA.  This is a base to draft the real
      financial exchange, which can be in disfavour of the provider in
      case of failure to comply with the compromised QoS.  This subject
      is very sensible, and the development of tools for such themes
      should not be taken lightly.

   C-SLAM service use languages and ontologies related to SLA and
   business processes management such as WSLA, TMF SLAM, Web Services
   Agreement, ITIL.

3.2.1.5.  Cloud Security Services Management CSSM)

   Security in clouds involve two types of security services: cloud
   platform security services managed by the Cloud Provider and security
   services that are run as a part of the cloud services or
   infrastructure provisioned to the customer that is managed by the
   customer themselves.  Cloud Security Services (CSS) include a set of
   security services and mechanisms (e.g.  IP address filtering,
   firewall, message integrity and confidentiality, private key
   encryption, dynamic session key encryption, user authentication and
   authorisation, service certification) to ensure normal cloud services
   operation and their protection against not authorised use, policy/
   operation violation and intrusion..



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   Requirements on CSS are as follows

   o  Authentication and Authorisation.  This is the main functionality
      of the CSSM to provided authentication of the request or requester
      and authorization of the service use or a specific action on the
      cloud resource.  Authentication requires both Identity
      Provisioning and Management and key or trust management between
      two or three parties: Customer/requester, Cloud services or
      provider, and Identity Provider if it is a part of the
      Authentication infrastructure.  Authorisation requires attributes
      and policy management.  Attributes management can be a part of the
      Identity Management, and Policy management is typically a separate
      service of the security infrastructure.

   o  Policy management.  Policy management includes functions for
      authorisation policies managent, their distribution, selection.

   o  Licensing.  It is likely that cloud services are composed of many
      different components, most of which have some type of licensing
      agreement associated with them.  The service composition and
      delivery process need to review individual services licensing
      agreements and determine if, or how, those licenses will be
      affected by deployment in a cloud.  For example, if the service
      uses a component that is licensed by CPU number and it is deployed
      in a cloud environment designed to launch new instances and
      request more resources as load increases, there should be provided
      a control not to exceed particular CPU license limit.  Cloud
      service implementation should provide license control when scaling
      applications.

   o  Processing requirements and memory locks.  To make advantage of a
      parallel architecture on the typical cloud platform, the
      application must be designed with multi-threaded code that will
      allow processing to be split into small chunks,

   o  Communication protocol.  The cloud is based on the Internet
      Protocol (IP), so for an service to be considered, it must use IP
      as its communication mechanism.  While there are many protocols
      that can be run over IP, the IP layer can provide security
      mechanism to protect the security of the transmitted data.

   o  Data security.  The service needs to provide security at the data
      storage, processing and transmission stages.  Data at rest must be
      protected by the service, that is the service must provide a
      mechanism to protect the data stored in the cloud.  Data in
      transit needs to be protected either at the service or the
      transmission level.  Most services choose the transmission level
      for protection and the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)/Transport Layer



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      Security (TLS) protocols are often used.  Server to server
      communications need to ensure the security from one cloud instance
      to another cloud instance.

3.3.  User/Customer Side Functions and Resources

   It is also important to define the functions on the user or customer
   side that are typically involved into interaction and protocols with
   the services provided on clouds.  Cloud services are often provided
   to customers (like company or university) to create their business or
   project specific services that will be delivered to the end users
   (like services consumers, buyers, students, etc.).

   Considering generic cloud based services delivery chain (cloud
   provider) _ (customer or business) _ (consumer, end user) the
   following user/customer side functions can be defined:

   o  Identity service or user home organization authentication service
      that in general should be capable to support Single-Sign-On to
      cloud based services.

   o  Visualisation that represents a specific type of service delivery
      that in general needs to deliver a large volume of data to user
      location; visualization can be considered as a particular case for
      the general content delivery, and consequently can use CDN
      technologies.

   o  Administrative and management functions that are used to manage
      the provisioned cloud based services; majority of these management
      functions can be fulfill with the management interface (typically
      web based) provided by cloud services providers, but for more
      complex and Intercloud infrastructure services there will be a
      need for a special user-side management tool.

   o  Functions to manage content or data on the user side, in
      particular: cloud services may be created to process or manage
      user data; cloud services may produce content that needs to be
      stored at user side; cloud services may involve collecting data
      from the sensors in user premises or for user applications.
      Interacting with user content and/or data services may require
      interactive communication with the cloud services residing on
      cloud provider premises.









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4.  Inter-Cloud Framework

   The inter-cloud interoperability and integration is motivated by a
   number of uses to provide multi-provider cloud services and
   infrastructures, multi-platform cloud services integration and
   traditional/legacy infrastructure services migration to clouds, and
   IT infrastructure services recovery or migration/move to a new
   location, platform, or service model.

   A Cloud Service Provider (CSP) can offer services using one or more
   date centers (DCs).  These DCs can provide virtualized compute,
   storage, and networking resources on on-demand basis to the Cloud
   Service Consumers (CSC).  Therefore, the DC infrastructure does not
   necessarily need to be a static entity as in a traditional DC.  The
   infrastructure resources can span multiple CSPs and the entity that
   is offered to the consumer can be referred to as the Infrastructure
   as a Service (IaaS).

   With the IaaS, a CSC can acquire and release resources on on-demand
   basis.

   We therefore define an Inter-Cloud as a interconnection of clouds
   where two or more cloud service providers (any combination of
   Service-Provider-owned, private, public, etc.) can collaborate.  The
   objective of the collaboration is to dynamically distribute the
   workloads based on mutually agreed upon service level agreement
   (SLA).

   The inter-cloud functions generically include the following groups of
   functions:

   o  Intercloud Users and Identities management

   o  Intercloud data store, replication, migration, access and
      management

   o  Intercloud business processes, workflows, workflow and SLA
      management













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                            Inter-cloud Interfaces
                                     |
  +---------------------------+   ICI-1      +---------------------------+
  |             Cloud 1       |<-----|------>|   Cloud 2                 |
  |  +---------------------+  |      |       |  +---------------------+  |
  |  |Inter-cloud Resource |  |   ICI-2      |  |Inter-cloud Resource |  |
  |  |Control              |  |<-----|------>|  |Control              |  |
  |  +---------------------+  |      |       |  +---------------------+  |
  |  +---------------------+  |      |       |  +---------------------+  |
  |  | User/Identity       |  |   ICI-3      |  + User/Identity       |  |
  |  | Control/Management  |  |<-----|------>|  | Control/Management  |  |
  |  +---------------------+  |      |       |  +---------------------+  |
  |  +---------------------+  |      |       |  +---------------------+  |
  |  | Data store, Access, |  |   ICI-4      |  | Data store, Access, |  |
  |  | Migration           |  |<-----|------>|  | Migration           |  |
  |  +---------------------+  |      |       |  +---------------------+  |
  |  +---------------------+  |      |       |  +---------------------+  |
  |  | Business process,   |  |      |       |  | Business process,   |  |
  |  | Workflow/workload   |  |      |       |  | Workflow/workload   |  |
  |  | and SLA Management  |  |      |       |  | and SLA Management  |  |
  |  +---------------------+  |      |       |  +---------------------+  |
  +---------------------------+      |       +---------------------------+


   Figure 4.1.  Inter-Cloud interfaces general view

4.1.  Inter-Cloud Requirements

   o  ICF should support communication between cloud applications and
      services belonging to different service layers (vertical
      integration), between cloud domains and heterogeneous platforms
      (horizontal integration).

   o  ICA should provide a possibility that applications could control
      infrastructure and related supporting services at different
      service layers to achieve run-time optimization and required
      Quality of Service (QoS) (typically related to Intercloud control
      and management functions).

   o  ICA should support cloud services/infrastructures provisioning on-
      demand and their lifecycle management, including composition,
      deployment, operation, and monitoring, involving resources and
      services from multiple providers (this is typically related to
      service management and operations support functions).

   o  Provide a framework for heterogeneous inter-cloud federation





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   o  Facilitate interoperable and measurable intra-provider
      infrastructures

   o  Explicit/Guaranteed intra- and inter-Cloud network infrastructure
      provisioning (as NaaS service model)

   o  Support existing Cloud Provider operational and business models
      and provide a basis for new forms of infrastructure services
      provisioning and operation

   More specific Inter-cloud functional requirements may be articulated
   as follows:

   o  Provide a mechanism for resource search and discovery, to
      determine which serving cloud might have certain resources
      available (including a match making mechanism).

   o  Provide a mechanism to authenticate participating entities
      belonging to different cloud domains.

   o  Provide a mechanism for requesting, controlling, and releasing
      resources between two clouds.

   o  Provide a secure transport channel between the interconnecting
      entities.

   o  Provide end-to-end isolation to support multi-tenancy.

   o  Provide a mechanism for monitoring, assuring, and troubleshooting
      across the interconnection.

   o  Provide a mechanism for defining the monitoring metrics such as
      Delay-Jitter-Loss.  This may be useful for monitoring a flow such
      as TCP/UDP between IP prefix and a destination address across the
      interconnection.

   Following the above requirements, we define the following
   complimentary components of the proposed Intercloud Architecture:

   (1) Intercloud Control and Management Plane (ICCMP) for Intercloud
   applications/infrastructure control and management, including inter-
   applications signaling, synchronization and session management,
   configuration, monitoring, run time infrastructure optimization
   including VM migration, resources scaling, and jobs/objects routing;

   (2) Intercloud Federation Framework (ICFF) to allow independent
   clouds and related infrastructure components federation of
   independently managed cloud based infrastructure components belonging



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   to different cloud providers and/or administrative domains; this
   should support federation at the level of services, business
   applications, semantics, and namespaces, assuming necessary gateway
   or federation services;

   (3) Intercloud Operations and Management Framework (ICOMF) which
   includes functionalities to support multi-provider infrastructure
   operations and Management including business workflow, SLA
   management, accounting.  ICOF defines the basic roles, actors and
   their relations in sense of resources operation, management and
   ownership.  ICOF requires support from and interacts with both ICCMP
   and ICFF.

   Intercloud Security Framework (ICSF) that provides a basis for secure
   operation of all components of the Intercloud infrastructure,
   including secure operation of the cloud federations.  In this respect
   ICSF should provide a basis for integration of the security services
   between different CSM layers and all participating cloud service
   providers.

   The following sections provides in details descriptions of the
   proposed ICF components definition and suggestions about required
   interfaces and supporting protocols.

4.2.  Intercloud Control and Management Plane (ICCMP)

   The ICCMP defines functionality and functional components for
   Intercloud applications/infrastructure control and management,
   including inter-applications signaling, synchronization and session
   management, configuration, monitoring, runtime infrastructure
   optimization.  ICCMP should support also more complex operations such
   as VM migration, resources scaling, and jobs/objects/data routing

   The ICCMP definition/development attempts to leverage the general
   Internet technologies such as provided by CDN [CNDI, I-D], XMPP
   [XMPP, RFC] and the Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching
   (GMPLS) [GMPLS, RFC].

   Figure 4.2 illustrates an example where two different cloud/segments
   domains IaaS and PaaS need to interact (communicate) to allow
   applications from one domain to control underlying virtualised
   resources and infrastructure in another domain.  Upper layer (north
   band) interfaces facing customer applications are typically
   standardised and can use e.g.  Open Cloud Computing Interface (OCCI)
   [OCCI] as a standard interface or Amazon Web Services (AWS) as an
   industry standard-de-facto interface, while lower layer interfaces
   controlling internal provider virtualised and physical resources may
   be non-standard or proprietary.



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Cloud Provider 1          Cloud Services Layers (Logical)            Cloud Provider 2
(IaaS)                    (Intercloud Communication)                (PaaS)

+------------------+     +-------------------------------------+     +------------------+
|                  |     |  Layer C5 - Access/Delivery Layer   |     |                  |
| +-------------+  |     |     User side service, data &       |     |  +-------------+ |
| | User        |--------|     management functions/apps       |     |  | User        | |
| | Defined     |  |     |                                     |--------| Defined     | |
| | Applications|  |     +-------------------------------------+     |  | Applications| |
| | Platform    |  |     |   Layer C4 _ Cloud Services Layer   |     |  |             | |
| |             |  |     |                                     |     |  |             | |
| |             |  |     |   +-----------------------------+   |     |  |             | |
| |             |  |     |   | Layer C4.3 _ Cloud SaaS/Apps|------------|             | |
| |             |------------| Cloud based Apps/Software   |   |     |  +-------------+ |
| |             |  |     |   |                             |   |     |        || Std    |
| |             |  |     |   |                             |   |     |        || API    |
| |             |  |     |   +-----------------------------+   |     |        ||        |
| |             |------------| Layer C4.2 _ Cloud PaaS     |   |     |  +-------------+ |
| +-------------+  |     |   | Cloud based Platforms       |   |     |  | Layer C3.2  | |
|  Std   ||        |     |   |                             |<==========>| Paas        | |
|  API   ||        |     |   |                             |   |     |  |             | |
|        ||        |     |   +-----------------------------+   |     |  +-------------+ |
| +-------------+  |     |   | Layer C4.1 _ Cloud IaaS     |   |     |        |         |
| | Layer C4.1  |  |     |   | Cloud Based Infrastructure  |   |     |        |         |
| | IaaS        |<==========>| Services                    |   |     |  +-------------+ |
| |             |  |     |   |                             |   |     |  | Provider    | |
| +-------------+  |     |   +-----------------------------+   |     |  | Defined     | |
|        |         |     |                                     |     |  | Infrastruct | |
|        |         |     +-------------------------------------+     |  | Resource    | |
| +-------------+  |     |  layer C3 - Resource Control        |     |  | Control &   | |
| | Provider    |--------|  (Composition & Orchestration)      |--------| Virtualistn | |
| | Defined     |  |     |                                     |     |  | Platform    | |
| | Resource    |  |     +-------------------------------------+     |  |             | |
| | Control &   |  |     | Layer C2 - Resource Abstraction     |     |  |             | |
| | Virtualistn |--------| Virtualization Layer                |--------|             | |
| | Platform    |  |     |                                     |     |  |             | |
| |             |  |     +-------------------------------------+     |  |             | |
| |             |  |     |  Layer C1 _ Physical Resource       |     |  |             | |
| |             |  |     |                                     |     |  |             | |
| +-------------+  |     |                                     |     |  +-------------+ |
+------------------+     +-------------------------------------+     +------------------+

Legend
== or || - standard interfaces
-- or |  - proprietary interfaces


   Figure 4.2.  Inter-Cloud Control and Management Plane (ICCMP)



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   Interfaces Logical model

   The role of ICCMP is to provide logical and functional interface
   between different cloud service layers running in different cloud
   domains.  This provides another motivation for the standardisation of
   such interlayer interfaces; otherwise they can be implemented as part
   of user applications.

   ICCMP supports Intercloud signalling, monitoring, dynamic
   configuration and synchronisation of the distributed heterogeneous
   clouds.

   Main functional components include

   o  Cloud Resource Manager

   o  Network Infrastructure Manager

   o  Virtual Infrastructure composition and orchestration

   o  Services and infrastructure lifecycle management (that can be also
      a part of the composition and orchestration layer).

   The ICCMP Interfaces should support the following functionalities:

   o  Inter-/cross-layer control and signalling

   o  Message routing

   o  Monitoring

   o  Location service

   o  Topology aware infrastructure management

   o  Configuration and protocols management.

4.3.  Intercloud Federation Framework (ICFF)

   ICFF is defined to allow independent clouds and related
   infrastructure components federation of independently managed cloud
   based infrastructure components belonging to different cloud
   providers and/or administrative domains; this should support
   federation at the level of services, business applications,
   semantics, and namespaces, assuming necessary gateway or federation
   services, and also supporting federated security infrastructure
   including federated identity and trust management;




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   The ICFF is built upon and extends current cloud federation concept
   [CloudFed] and leverages existing platforms for federated network
   access and federated identity management widely used for multi-domain
   and multi-provider infrastructure integration [Bujja, 2010], [ICFF,
   2013].  The federation allows for end-users to access cloud services
   from multiple domains without need to obtain a separate identity,
   while services remain under control of their original operator or
   home provider.

   One of the main components of the federated Intercloud architecture
   is the Intercloud gateway that provides translation and forwarding of
   the requests, protocols, data formats between cloud domains that may
   use different semantics, protocols, trust relations.

   The main goal of ICFF is to allow heterogeneous clouds integration at
   service and business level.

   When considering Intercloud federation scenarios we can define two
   general types of federation:

   1) user-side federation that federates cloud services and
   applications provided by CSPs (single or multiple) and federates user
   identities/accounts to allow federation based Single Sing On (SSO) to
   cloud services provisioned on-demand;

   2) provider-side federation of cloud resources that is typically
   created between cooperating CSP to outsource some cloud resources to
   specialized cloud resource providers, extend used resources pool in
   cased of excessive demand, or offer to used resources to other
   providers.

   In both cases the main task of the federation infrastructure is to
   support federated access and control and federated resources or
   identity management.  Although the federation infrastructure can be
   built using existing platforms for federated network access and
   federated identity management widely used for multi-domain and multi-
   provider infrastructure integration, the cloud scenario requires
   dynamic on-demand identity provisioning and dynamic security
   associations establishment what is not standard procedure for
   existing federation technologies that in most cases rely on the off-
   line and prio established trust relations.

   Figure 4.3 illustrates the main actors and relations in the user-side
   federation that covers the following basic scenarios:

   a) Enterprise as a Customer 1 creates a virtualised service or
   infrastructure on the CSP A premises that will be used by the
   customer's employees acting as cloud based service users.



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   User accounts and/or identities to access cloud based services can be
   created as (i) unique cloud based identities that will be used by the
   employees directly or (ii) federated with (mapped to) their home
   identities.

   In this case, the enterprise Identity Provider, often referred to as
   Home Organisation (HO) IDP needs to be federated with the cloud based
   IDP that in practice can be either (i) completely virtualized IDP-Xa
   for the on-demand provisioned service Xa, or (ii) CSP's IDP can be
   used as a gateway for translating/mapping identities between HO and
   services Xa.

   b) Customer 1 creates services that will run from the cloud and serve
   external customers and users (like in case of cloud based e-commerce
   site).  In this case, the external users should have an opportunity
   to use the third party IDP services such as from the global Identity
   Services Microsoft, Gmail, Facebook, etc.


































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+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| CUSTOMER 1                                                                            |
| (a) Enterprise      +----------------------------------------+                        |
|     IT Management   | (a) Customer 1 Users      +--------+   |                        |
| (b) Open Internet   | (b) External Users        | User 1 |---------------+            |
|                     |                           |        |   |           |            |
|                     |               +--------+  +--------+   |   +-------v---------+  |
|                     |               | User 2 |      :        |   |                 |  |
|  +--------------+   |               |        |------:------------| (a) IDP-HO1     |  |
|  |IT Infrastruct|   |   +--------+  +--------+      :        |   | {b} 3rd Party   |  |
|  |and user Mngnt|   |   | User 3 |      :           :        |   |     IDP (public)|  |
|  |(a) HomeOrg   |   |   |        |------:-----------:------------|                 |  |
|  |(b) Customer 1|   |   +--------+      :           :        |   |                 |  |
|  |    Serv Mngnt|   |       :           :           :        |   |                 |  |
|  |              |   +-------:-----------:-----------:--------+   |                 |  |
|  +--------------+           :           :           :            +-----------------+  |
|          |                  :           :           :                    ||           |
+----------|------------------:-----------:-----------:--------------------||-----------+
           |                  :           :           :                    ||
           |                  :           :           :                    ||
           |                  :           :           :                    ||
   +-------|------------------:-----------:-----------:--------------------||--------+
   |       |                  :           :           :                    ||        |
   |       |          +-------:-----------:-----------:---------+          ||        |
   | +-------------+  |       :           :        o---------o  |          ||        |
   | |CSP Service  |  |       :           :        :User Xa.1:  |          ||        |
   | |Management   |  |       :       o---------o  :         :  |   +-------------+  |
   | |System/Portal|  |       :       :User Xa.1:  o---------o  |   | CSP IDP     |  |
   | |(Operation&  |  |  o---------o  :         :               |   | * CustAdmin |  |
   | |Security)    |  |  :User Xa.3:  o---------o               |   | * Identity  |  |
   | |             |  |  :         :                            |   |   Broker/   |  |
   | +-------------+  |  o---------o    o--------------------o  |   |   Gateway   |  |
   |                  |                 :IDP-Xa              :------|             |  |
   |                  | Cloud           :Virt IDP Serv Xa    :------|             |  |
   |                  | Customer A1     :(Instant of IDP-CSP}:  |   |             |  |
   |                  | running Serv Xa o--------------------o  |   |             |  |
   |                  +-----------------------------------------+   |             |  |
   |                                                                +-------------+  |
   | CLOUD PROVIDER A                                                                |
   +---------------------------------------------------------------------------------+


   Figure 4.3.  Basic federation relations when provisioning cloud based
   services or infrastructure

   The Intercloud Federation Framework is responsible for coordinating
   allocation and management of the resources and users in a unified
   way.  Figure 4.4 illustrates the main components of the federated



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   Intercloud Architecture, specifically underlying the Intercloud
   gateway function (GW) that provides translation of the requests,
   protocols and data formats between cloud domains.  The federated
   Intercloud infrastructure requires a number of functionalities,
   protocols and interfaces to support its operation.  The following
   common services constitute the federated Intercloud infrastructure:

   o  Service and Trust Brokers

   o  Service Registry

   o  Service Discovery

   o  Federated Identity Provider (FedIDP), including attributes
      management service

   o  Service and/or inter-domain gateway (GW) that provides translation
      of the requests, protocols and data formats between cloud domains

   Each Federated Cloud infrastructure instance typically contains Cloud
   Service Broker and trust Broker or manager that support
   correspondingly dynamic services federation and dynamic trust
   establishment.  Each Cloud Provider domain also includes Identity
   Provider IDP and Authentication, Authorisation, Accounting (AAA)
   services, both of them supporting federated identity and federation
   policy.

   The ICFF interfaces should support the following functionalities:

   o  Names and attributes resolution, translation and management (if/as
      needed)

   o  Publishing and subscription

   o  Discovery

   o  Trust/key management

   o  Service, infrastructure and federation itself lifecycle
      management.











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+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                                                       |
|                    +----------------------------+    +----------------------------+   |
|                    | Federate Cloud             |    |             Federate Cloud |   |
|                    | Infrastructure  +--------+ |    | +--------+  Infrastructure |   |
|                    | A               | Trust  | |    | | Trust  |               B |   |
|                    |         +-------| Broker | |    | | Broker |--------+        |   |
|                    |         | Cloud +--------+ |    | +--------+ Cloud  |        |   |
|                    |         | Service      |   |    |    |       Service|        |   |
|                    |         | Broker       |   |    |    |       Broker |        |   |
|                    |         +--------------+   |    |    +--------------+        |   |
|                    |                            |    |                            |   |
|                    +----------------------------+    +----------------------------+   |
|                                 \                         /                           |
|                                  \                       /      Common ICFF Services  |
|  +--------------------------------\---------------------/--------------------------+  |
|  | +-------------+                 |                   /        +-------------+    |  |
|  | | Trusted     |                 |                  /         | Discovery   |    |  |
|  | | Introducer  |           +------------------------- -+     /|             |\   |  |
|  | | (TTP)       |------+    |   Intercloud Network      |    | +-------------+ |  |  |
|  | +-------------+      |    |   Infrastructure          |    |   Registry      |  |  |
|  |      |               |    |   (CSM ASD Layer)         |    |                 |  |  |
|  |      | Federated IDP |    |                           |    \________________/   |  |
|  |      +---------------+    +---------------------------+                         |  |
|  |                             /        /           \                              |  |
|  +----------------------------/--------/-------------\-----------------------------+  |
|                              /        /               \                               |
|          -------------------/     ---/                 \---------------               |
|          |                        |                                   |               |
|    +----------+             +----------+                         +----------+         |
+----| Gateway  |-------------| Gateway  |-------------------------| Gateway  |---------+
    /|          |---\        /|          |--\                     /|          |--\
   | |          |-+  \      | |          |-+ \                   | |          |-+ \
   | +----------+ |   \     | +----------+ |  \                  | +----------+ |  \
   /      |       |   |     /      |       |   |                 /      |       |   |
  /       | AAA   |   |    /       | AAA   |   |                /       | AAA   |   |
  |       +-------+   |    |       +-------+   |                |       +-------+   |
  |  Cloud            |    |  Cloud            |   * * *        |                   |
  \  Provider Domain  |    \  Provider Domain  |                \  Provider Domain  |
   | (IaaS/PaaS/SaaS) |     | (IaaS/PaaS/SaaS) |                 | (IaaS/PaaS/SaaS) |
   |                 /      |                 /                  |                 /
   |   +------+     /       |    +------+    /                   |    +------+    /
   |   | IDP  }    |-       |    | IDP  |   |                    |    | IDP  |   |
   \   | CSP  |    |        \    | CSP  |   |                    \    | CSP  |   |
    |  +------+   /          \   +------+  /                      \   +------+  /
     \___________/            \___________/                        \___________/





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   Figure 4.4.  Intercloud Federation Infrastructure: Main components

   The following federation related issues must be addressed in the
   further ICFF definition:

   o  Federation, delegation and trust management

   o  Single Sign On (SSO) and session credentials management

   o  Attributes management in federations, attributes validation ,
      mapping and translation

   o  Federation governance, including federation lifecycle management.

4.4.  Intercloud Operations and Management Framework (ICOMF)

   ICOMF includes functionalities to support multi-provider
   infrastructure operations and management including business workflow,
   SLA management, accounting, and operational security.  ICOF defines
   the basic roles, actors and their relations in sense of resources
   operation, management and ownership.  ICOMF requires support from and
   interacts with ICCMP, ICFF, and ICSF.

   The ICOMF definition will include analysis and adoption of the
   TeleManagement Forum (TMF) documents related to eTOM and Operational
   Support Systems [TMF], Service Delivery Framework (SDF) [TMF SDF],
   and SLA Management [TMF SLAM].

   ICOMF defines the main stakeholders, roles and actors based on the
   Cloud Services Model and RORA model: Resource, Ownership, Role,
   Action.  This should provide a basis for business processes
   definition, SLA management and access control policy definition and
   also Broker and Federation operation.

   The following actor are defined as involved into business, ownership
   and operational relations

   o  Intercloud Service Provider

   o  Intercloud Broker

   o  Intercloud Carrier

   o  Intercloud Service Operator

   o  Intercloud Resource Provider





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   o  .

   Main functional components include

   o  Service Broker

   o  Service Registry

   o  SLA Repository

   o  Services Monitoring System

   o  Cloud Services Lifecycle Management System (CSLMS)

   o  .

   The ICOF Interfaces should support the following functionalities

   o  Provisioning, Deployment, Decommissioning/Termination

   o  SLA management and negotiation

   o  Services Lifecycle management

   o  Services deployment

   o  Monitoring information exchange
























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5.  Use Cases

5.1.  Virtual Network Management

   Configuration Management in VSML is responsible for creating and
   managing virtual network through the interface between the
   Configuration Manager and the Resources Abstraction and
   Virtualization Layer or Physical Resource Layer.  This section is
   based on the information available in the following draft: draft-
   Okita-Clouds-VNM-model-for-PaaS-00, Okita-Clouds-VNM-model-for-PaaS-
   Sept10.pdf


+------------------------------------------------+    +-----------------+
|      Application/Service Layer                 |<-->|     Cloud       |
+------------------------------------------------+    |   Management    |
        |             |             |                 |                 |
        |             |             |                 |                 |
+------------------------------------------------+    |                 |
|      Resource Control Layer                    |<-->|                 |
+------------------------------------------------+    |                 |
        |             |             |                 |                 |
        |             |             |                 |                 |
+------------------------------------------------+    |                 |
|       Resource Abstraction&Virtualization Layer|    | +-------------+ |
|     +---------+  +---------+  +---------+      |    | |Configuration| |
|     |    V-   |  |    V-   |  |    V-   |      |<-->| |  Management | |
|     |  Switch |  |Interface|  |   Link  |      |    | +-------------+ |
|     +---------+  +---------+  +---------+      |    |                 |
+------------------------------------------------+    |                 |
        |             |             |                 |                 |
        |             |             |                 |                 |
+------------------------------------------------+    |                 |
|       Physical Resource Layer                  |    |                 |
|                   +-------+                    |    |                 |
|                   |Network|                    |<-->|                 |
|                   +-------+                    |    |                 |
+------------------------------------------------+    +-----------------+


5.2.  Telecom Network Virtualization

   Telecom Network virtualization is the technology that enables the
   creation of logically isolated network partitions over shared
   physical network infrastructures so that multiple virtual telecom
   networks can simultaneously coexist over the shared infrastructures.

   The objectives of telecom network virtualization is to



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   o  scale telecom services on demand

   o  improve reliability and availability

   o  efficiently use infrastructure

   In order to facilitate the deployment of telecom network
   virtualization, Manager Node provides control procedures such as
   creating Functional (Service) Entity operating on Execution Node,
   monitoring the status of Functional (Service) Entity and Execution
   Node, measuring the performance, retrieving deployment data from
   Infromation Server, and so on.

   This section is based on the information available in the following
   draft: draft-Yokota-Clouds-Telecom-Net-Virtualization-00, Yokota-
   Clouds-Telecom-Net-Virtualization-Sept10.pdf


                               +---------------------------+
                               |      Information Server   |\
                               +---------------------------+ \
                                            |                 \
   +------------------------------------------------+    +-------------+
   |      Application/Service Layer                 |<-->|   Cloud     |
   +------------------------------------------------+    | Management  |
           |             |             |                 |             |
           |             |             |                 |             |
   +------------------------------------------------+    | +---------+ |
   |      Resource Control Layer                    |<-->| | Manager | |
   +------------------------------------------------+    | |   Node  | |
           |             |             |                 | +---------+ |
           |             |             |                 |             |
   +------------------------------------------------+    |             |
   |       Resource Abstraction&Virtualization Layer|    |             |
   |   +---------+    +---------+    +---------+    |    |             |
   |   |Execution|----|Execution|----|Execution|    |<-->|             |
   |   |   Node  |    |   Node  |    |   Node  |    |    |             |
   |   +---------+    +---------+    +---------+    |    |             |
   +------------------------------------------------+    |             |
           |             |             |                 |             |
           |             |             |                 |             |
   +------------------------------------------------+    |             |
   |      Physical Resource Layer                   |<-->|             |
   +------------------------------------------------+    +-------------+


   Manager Node manages the Execution Node and communicates with
   Information Server to get configuration data.



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   Execution Node is a physical or virtual machines on which target
   telecomm functions (software) are running.  For example, in IMS, CSCF
   and HSS are candidates of functions.

   Information Server (optional) is used for discovery and assignment of
   Execution Node for a session (e.g., P-CSCF at a UE's registration).

5.3.  Virtual Data Center

   Virtual Data Center (VDC) can be constructed base on the virtualized
   resources in cloud environment.

   This section is based on the information available in the following
   draft: draft-bitar-datacenter-vpn-applicability-01.txt,
   draft-armd-datacenter-reference-arch-01.txt.



                             ,---------.
                           ,'           `.
                          (    IP/MPLS    )
                           `.           ,'
                             `-+------+'
                          +-----+   +-----+
                          | GW  |<->| GW  |
                          +-----+   +-----+
                            /           \
                      +--------+  +---------+
                      |  Core  |  |  Core   |
                      | SW/Rtr |  | SW/Rtr  |
                      +--------+  +---------+
                        /    \      /     \
                       /      \    /       \
                  +-------+  +-------+  +------+
                  |  ToR  |  |  ToR  |  | ToR  |
                  +-------+  +-------+  +------+
                   /    \     /    \     /   \
                  /      \   /      \   /     \
               +-----+  +-----+    +-----+   +-----+
               | VSw |  | VSw |    | VSw |   | VSw |
               +-----+  +-----+    +-----+   +-----+


   The following network components are present in a DC:

   o  VSw or virtual switch - software based Ethernet switch running
      inside the server blades.  The individual VMs appear to a VSw as
      IP hosts connected via logical interfaces.  The VSw may evolve to



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      support IP routing functionality.

   o  ToR or Top of Rack - software-based or hardware-based Ethernet
      switch aggregating all Ethernet links from the server blades in a
      rack representing the entry point in the physical DC network for
      the hosts.  ToRs may also perform routing functionality.

   o  Core SW (switch) - high capacity core node aggregating multiple
      ToRs.  This is usually a cost effective Ethernet switch.  Core
      switches can also support routing capabilities.

   o  DC GW - gateway to the outside world providing DC Interconnect and
      connectivity to Internet and VPN customers.  In the current DC
      network model, this may be a Router with Virtual Routing
      capabilities and/or an IPVPN/L2VPN PE.

5.4.  Security Framework for VDCS

   Virtualized Data Center Services (VDCS) Security Framework is a
   reference framework to build secure and interoperable services on top
   of a virtualized infrastructure.  A security framework and the
   associated requirements for Protocols, Profiles, Network Interfaces,
   Operations and Management, and Application Interfaces(APIs) need to
   be proposed in an environment where virtualized resources are shared
   among a variety of public and private subscribers/clients seamlessly.

   The various applications and interworking protocols developed by the
   IETF MAY need to be extended or profiled to support the security
   requirements of virtualized services and infrastructure environment.

   o  Applications and Services: The most widely used protocol that is
      in use today for application and services development areas like
      HTTP have been considered for the applications in the virtualized
      environment.  The protocol may have to be profiled or extended
      with significant changes to be ready to handle the security
      requirements in a virtualized environment.

   o  Infrastructure Operations and Management: The various security
      parameters related to operations and management of virtualized
      network resources in multiple administrative domains may need to
      be defined.  The results of monitoring may need to be exchanged
      periodically to support the private and public virtualized domains
      and infrastructure in order to maintain the expected end-to-end
      security.

   The above protocol extension and operations and management
   requirements can be implemented in current cloud reference framework
   (CRF) based on the security functionality provided by cloud



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   management layer, resource authentication and authorization
   mechanism, and services/users admission control.

   This section is based on the information available in the following
   draft: draft-karavettil-vdcs-security-framework-04.txt














































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6.  Conclusion

   This document presents a high-level cloud reference framework that
   includes both multi-layer Cloud Services Model (CSM) and InterCloud
   Architecture Framework (ICAF).  A few examples on utilization of the
   reference framework are also discussed.













































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7.  Security Considerations

   Contents in this section will be added based on discussion and
   contributions.















































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8.  Acknowledgement

   We thank T. Sridhar (thsridhar@gmail.com), Simon Leinen
   (simon.leinen@switch.ch) for comments on an earlier version of this
   document.

   The Intercloud Framework definition is an outcome of the ongoing
   research and developments in the FP7 EU funded project, "Generalised
   Architecture for Dynamic Infrastructure Services" (GEYSERS, FP7-ICT-
   248657, http://www.geysers.eu/) which provides implementation of the
   main components of ICCMP and ICOF.

   The presented work is also supported by the research on Cloud
   architecture research at the System and Network Engineering group of
   the University of Amsterdam [UVA2011, UVA2012, ICAF2012].




































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9.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no actions for IANA.
















































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10.  Normative references

   [Buyya, 2010]
              Buyya, R., "Buyya, R., R.Ranjan, R.Calheiros, InterCloud:
              Utility-Oriented Federation of Cloud Computing
              Environments for Scaling of Application Services. Proc.
              10th Intern Conf. on Algorithms and Architectures for
              Parallel Processing (ICA3PP 2010, Busan, South Korea, May
              21-23, 2010), LNCS, Springer, Germany, 2010.", May 2010.

   [CDN, I-D]
              IETF, "Leung, K. and Lee, Y. (2011). Content Distribution
              Network Interconnection  (CDNI) Requirements", March 2012.

   [Cloud SDO]
              Khasnabish, B., "draft-khasnabish-cloud-sdo-survey-02",
              June 2012.

   [Cloud ServiceMobility]
              Yokota, H., "draft-yokota-cloud-service-mobility-01",
              March 2011.

   [CloudFed]
              Blog post by Krishnan Subramanian, "Defining Federated
              Cloud Ecosystems.", October 6 2011.

   [DSP0004]  DMTF, "Common Information Model (CIM) Infrastructure",
              May 2009.

   [DSP1041]  DMTF, "Resource Allocation Profile", June 2009.

   [DSP1042]  DMTF, "System Virtualization Profile", April 2010.

   [DSP1057]  DMTF, "Virtual System Profile", October 2009.

   [DSP1059]  DMTF, "Generic Device Resource Virtualization Profile",
              July 2009.

   [FedNetwork]
              GEANT, "Federated Network Architectures. GEANT3 Project.",
              March 2012.

   [GMPLS]    IETF, "RFC 3945. Generalized Multi-Protocol Label
              Switching (GMPLS) Architecture.", October 2004.

   [ICFF, 2013]
              Makkes, M., "Defining Intercloud Federation Framework for
              Multi-provider Cloud Services Integration, The Fourth



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              International Conference on Cloud Computing, GRIDs, and
              Virtualization (CLOUD COMPUTING 2013), May 27 - June 1,
              2013,Valencia, Spain.", June 2013.

   [ITU-T FGCC]
              FGCC, "FG Cloud Technical Report (Part 1 to 7). [online] h
              ttp://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/focusgroups/cloud/Documents/
              FG-coud-technical-report.zip", February 2012.

   [ITU-T Y.2011]
              ITU SG13, "Y.2011_General principles and general reference
              model for NGN", October 2004.

   [Industry WorkItem]
              Khasnabish, B.,
              "draft-khasnabish-cloud-industry-workitems-survey-04",
              December 2012.

   [NIST CCRA]
              NIST, "NIST SP 500-292, Cloud Computing Reference
              Architecture, v1.0", October 2011.

   [NIST Cloud]
              NIST, "NIST SP 800-145, A NIST definition of cloud
              computing", October 2011.

   [OASIS IDCloud]
              OASIS IDCloud TC, "OASIS Identity in the Cloud", May 2012.

   [RFC2119]  IETF, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
              Levels", March 1997.

   [RFC4741]  IETF, "NETCONF Configuration Protocol", December 2006.

   [TMF]      TMF, "TM Forum Frameworx", March 2012.

   [TMF SLAM]
              TMF, "TMF SLA Management", November 2011.

   [TMF-SDF]  TMF, "TR139, Service Delivery Framework (SDF) Overview,
              Release 2.0.", October 2010.

   [UML]      OMG, "Unified Modeling Language", September 2002.

   [UVA2011]  University of Amsterdam, "Generic Architecture for Cloud
              Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Provisioning Model,
              Release 1. SNE Techn. Report SNE-UVA-2011-03, 15 April
              2011. [Online] http://staff.science.uva.nl/~demch/ worksin



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              progress/
              sne2011-techreport-2011-03-clouds-iaas-architecture-
              release1.pdf", 15 April 2011.

   [UVA2012]  University of Amsterdam, "Intercloud Architecture for
              Interoperability and Integration, Release 2, Draft Version
              0.7. SNE Techn. Report SNE-UVA-2012-03-02, 01 July 2013.
              [Online] http://staff.science.uva.nl/~demch/
              worksinprogress/
              sne2012-techreport-12-05-intercloud-architecture-
              draft07.pdf", 01 July 2013.

   [VDCS Security]
              Karavettil, S.,
              "draft-karavettil-vdcs-security-framework-05.txt", 26
              December 2012.

   [VNet Model]
              Okita, H., "draft-okita-ops-vnetmodel-07", July 2013.
































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Authors' Addresses

   Bhumip Khasnabish
   ZTE TX Inc.
   55 Madison Avenue, Suite 160
   Morristown, NJ 07960
   USA

   Phone: +1-781-752-8003
   Email: vumip1@gmail.com, bhumip.khasnabish@ztetx.com


   Chu JunSheng
   ZTE
   No.50 Ruanjian Dadao Road, Yuhuatai District
   Nanjing
   China

   Phone: +86-25-8801-4630
   Email: chu.junsheng@zte.com.cn


   Ma SuAn
   ZTE
   No.68 Zijinghua Rd,Yuhuatai District
   Nanjing
   China

   Phone: +86-25-5287-8189
   Email: ma.suan@zte.com.cn


   Ning So
   Tata Communications
   2613 Fairbourne Cir.
   Plano, TX 75082
   USA

   Phone: +1-972-955-0914
   Email: ning.so@tatacommunications.com











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   Paul Unbehagen
   Avaya
   USA

   Phone: +1-919-606-8845
   Email: paul@unbehagen.net


   Monique Morrow
   Cisco Systems [Switzerland] GmbH
   Richistrasse 7
   CH-8304 Wallisellen
   Switzerland

   Phone:
   Email: mmorrow@cisco.com


   Masum Hasan
   Cisco Systems
   3675 Cisco Way
   San Jose, California 95134
   USA

   Phone:
   Email: masum@cisco.com


   Yuri Demchenko
   University of Amsterdam
   Science Park 904
   Amsterdam, 1098 XH
   The Netherlands

   Phone:
   Email: y.demchenko@uva.nl


   Meng Yu
   .
   Nanjing
   China

   Phone:
   Email: zjumengyu@hotmail.com






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