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Network Management Research Group                               M-S. Kim
Internet-Draft                                                 Y-G. Hong
Intended status: Informational                                      ETRI
Expires: September 5, 2018                                      T-J. Ahn
                                                                      KT
                                                                K-H. Kim
                                                                    ETRI
                                                                Y-H. Han
                                                               KoreaTech
                                                           March 4, 2018


  Intelligent Management using Collaborative Reinforcement Multi-agent
                                 System
                          draft-kim-nmrg-rl-02

Abstract

   This document describes intelligent network management system to
   autonomously manage and monitor using machine learning techniques.
   Reinforcement learning is one of the machine learning techniques that
   can provide autonomously management with multi-agent path-planning
   over a communication network.  According to intelligent distributed
   multi-agent system, the main centralized node called by the global
   environment should not only manage all agents workflow in a hybrid
   peer-to-peer networking architecture and, but transfer and share
   information in distributed nodes.  All agents in distributed nodes
   are able to be provided with a cumulative reward for each action that
   a given agent takes with respect to an optimized knowledge based on a
   to-be-learned policy over the learning process.  The optimized and
   trained knowledge would be involved with a large state information by
   the control action over a network.  A reward from the global
   environment is reflected to the next optimized control action
   autonomously for network management in distributed networking nodes.
   The Reinforcement Learning Process (RLP) have developed and expanded
   to Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) with model-driven or data-driven
   technical approaches for learning process.  The trendy technique has
   been widely to attempt and apply to networking fields since DRL can
   be used in practical networking areas beyond dynamics and
   heterogeneous environment disturbances, so that in the technique can
   be intelligently learned in the effective strategy.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.





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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Motivation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.1.  General Motivation for Reinforcement Learning (RL)  . . .   4
     3.2.  Reinforcement Learning (RL) in networks . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.3.  Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) in networks . . . . . .   4
     3.4.  Motivation in our work  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   4.  Related Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.1.  Autonomous Driving System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.2.  Network Defect Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.3.  Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.4.  Routing Enhancement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.5.  Routing Optimization  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.6.  Game Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   5.  Machine Learning (ML) Technologies in distributed-nodes . . .   7
     5.1.  Reinforcement Learning (RL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     5.2.  Deep Learning (DL)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     5.3.  Policy using Distance and Frequency . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     5.4.  Distributed Computing Node  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8



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     5.5.  Agent Sharing Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     5.6.  Sub-goal Selection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   6.  Proposed Architecture for Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) .   8
   7.  Use case of Multi-agent Reinforcement Learning (RL) . . . . .  10
     7.1.  Distributed Multi-agent Reinforcement Learning (RL):
           Sharing Information Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     7.2.  Fault prediction for core-network using Deep Learning . .  12
     7.3.  Use case of Intelligent Edge computing system in a field
           of construction works using machine learning techniques .  12
     7.4.  Use case of Intelligent Edge computing system in a field
           of construction works using machine learning techniques .  13
     7.5.  Use case of Shortest Path-planning via sub-goal selection  13
   8.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   9.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   10. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   11. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     11.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     11.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16

1.  Introduction

   In large infrastructures such as transportation, health and energy
   systems, collaborative monitoring system is needed, where there are
   special needs for intelligent distributed networking systems with
   learning schemes.  Agent Reinforcement Learning (RL) for
   intelligently autonomous network management, in general, is one of
   the challengeable methods in a dynamic complex cluttered environment
   over a network.  It also needs the development of computational
   multi-agents learning systems in large distributed networking nodes,
   where the agents have limited and incomplete knowledge, and they only
   access local information in distributed networking nodes.

   Reinforcement Learning (RL) can become an effective technique to
   transfer and share information among agents via the global
   environment (centralized node), as it does not require a priori
   knowledge of the agent behavior or environment to accomplish its
   tasks [Megherbi].  Such a knowledge is usually acquired and learned
   automatically and autonomously by trial and error.

   Reinforcement Learning (RL) is one of the machine Learning techniques
   that will be adapted to the various networking environments for
   automatic networks[S.  Jiang].  Thus, this document provides
   motivation, learning technique, and use case for network machine
   learning.

   Deep reinforcement learning (DRL) recently proposes that the extended
   Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithm could emerge as more powerful



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   model-driven or data-driven techniques over a large state space to
   overcome the classical behavior RL process.  The DRL technique has
   been significantly shown as successful models in playing Atari games
   [V.  Mnih].  The DRL provides more effective experimental system
   performance in a complex and cluttered networking environment.

   The classical Reinforcement Learning (RL) slightly has a limitation
   to be adopted in networking areas, since the networking environments
   consist of significantly large and complex components in fields of
   routing configuration, optimization and system management, so that
   DRL can provide much more state information for learning process.

2.  Conventions and Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

3.  Motivation

3.1.  General Motivation for Reinforcement Learning (RL)

   Reinforcement Learning (RL) is a system capable of autonomous
   acquirement and incorporation of knowledge.  It can continuously
   self-improve learning process with experience and attempts to
   maximize cumulative reward to manage an optimized learning knowledge
   by multi-agents-based monitoring systems[Teiralbar].  The maximized
   reward can be increasingly optimizing of learning speed for agent
   autonomous learning process.

3.2.  Reinforcement Learning (RL) in networks

   Reinforcement learning (RL) is an emerging technology in terms of
   monitoring network system to achieve fair resource allocation for
   nodes within the wire or wireless mesh setting.  Monitoring
   parameters of the network and adjusts based on the network dynamics
   can demonstrate to improve fairness in wireless environment
   Infrastructures and Resources[Nasim].

3.3.  Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) in networks

   Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) is a large state model-driven or
   data-driven approach on an intelligently learning strategy.  The
   intelligent technique represents learning models successfully to
   train knowledge for control policy directly from high-dimensional
   sensory input using Reinforcement Learning (RL) with Q-value function
   in a convolutional neural network [Mnih].  The model repeatedly
   estimates reward using the defined reward function depending on the



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   current states, to acquire more effective and optimized control
   action in following next steps.  The DRL can be widely-adopted in
   routing optimization to attempt minimizing the network delay
   [Stampa].

3.4.  Motivation in our work

   There are many different networking management problems to
   intelligently solve, such as connectivity, traffic management, fast
   internet without latency and etc.  We expect that ML-based mechanism
   such as RL will provide network solutions with multiple cases against
   human operating capacities even if it is a challengeable area due to
   a multitude of reasons such as large state space, complexity in the
   giving reward, difficulty in control actions, and difficulty in
   sharing and merging of the trained knowledge between agents in a
   distributed memory node to be transferred over a communication
   network.[Minsuk]

4.  Related Works

4.1.  Autonomous Driving System

   Recently, 5G network and AI are new trend and future research areas,
   so that a lot of business models have been developed and appeared in
   the networking fields.  Autonomous vehicle has been simultaneously
   developed with 5G and AI.  Autonomous vehicle is capable of self-
   automotive driving without human supervision depending on optimized
   trust region policy by Reinforcement Learning (RL) that enables
   learning of more complex and special network management environment.
   Such a vehicle provides a comfortable user experience safely and
   reliably on interactive communication network [April] [Markus].

4.2.  Network Defect Prediction

   Nowadays, the networking equipment handles a variety of services such
   as Internet, IPTV, VoIP in a single device.  As the performance of
   the equipment improves, even if there is an advantage to construct
   the equipment to be separately constructed in a single device, the
   probability of the service failure of network equipment might be
   increasing.  For that reason, the equipment failure risk over a
   network poses a major networking carriers, so that there is growing
   need to prevent disturbances by detecting network failure in advance.
   Machine learning (ML) such as Deep Learning (DL) or Reinforcement
   Learning (RL) emerged the preferred solutions to manage and monitor
   the networking equipment (LTE core, router and switch) prevented by
   the networking failure risk.





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4.3.  Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)

   Wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of a large number of sensors
   and sink nodes for monitoring systems with event parameters such as
   temperature, humidity, air conditioning, etc.  Reinforcement learning
   (RL) in WSNs has been applied in a wide range of schemes such as
   cooperative communication, routing and rate control.  The sensors and
   sink nodes are able to observe and carry out optimal actions on their
   respective operating environment for network and application
   performance enhancements.[Kok-Lim]

4.4.  Routing Enhancement

   Reinforcement Learning (RL) is used to enhance multicast routing
   protocol in wireless ad hoc networks, where each node has different
   capability.  Routers in the multicast routing protocol are determined
   to discover optimal route with a predicted reward, and then the
   routers create the optimal path with multicast transmissions to
   reduce the overhead in Reinforcement Learning (RL).[Kok-Lim]

4.5.  Routing Optimization

   Routing optimization as traffic engineering is one of the important
   issues to control the behavior of transmitted data in order to
   maximize the performance of network [Stampa].  There are several
   attempts to be adopted with machine learning algorithms in the
   context of routing optimization.  Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL)
   is recently one of solutions for unseen network states that cannot be
   achieved by traditional table-based RL agent [Stampa].  DRL can
   provide more improvement to optimal control routing configuration by
   given-agent on complex networking.

4.6.  Game Theory

   The adaptive multi-agent system, which is combined with complexities
   from interacting game player, has developed in a field of
   Reinforcement Learning (RL).  In the early game theory, the
   interdisciplinary work was only focused on competitive games, but RL
   has developed into a general framework for analyzing strategic
   interaction and has been attracted field as diverse as psychology,
   economics and biology.[Ann] AlphaGo is also one of the game theories
   using RL, developed by Google DeepMind.  Even though it began as a
   small learning computational program with some simple actions, it has
   now trained on a policy and value networks of thirty million actions,
   states and rewards.






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5.  Machine Learning (ML) Technologies in distributed-nodes

5.1.  Reinforcement Learning (RL)

   Agent RL is ml-based unsupervised algorithms based on an agent
   learning process.  Reinforcement Learning (RL) is normally used with
   a reward from centralized node (the global environment), and capable
   of autonomous acquirement and incorporation of knowledge.  It is
   continuously self-improving and becoming more efficient as the
   learning process from an agent experience to optimize management
   performance for autonomous learning process.[Sutton][Madera]

5.2.  Deep Learning (DL)

   The rule-based network equipment failure for judgment/prediction
   should have been described as a correct rule for equipment or case,
   and continuously updated when a new failure pattern occurs.  Deep
   Learning (DL) techniques such as Convolution Neural Network (CNN),
   and Recurrent Neural Network (RNN-LSTM) can be adapted to learn new
   patterns occurred by the networking faults.  We are able to judge and
   predict a fault condition in these models.  The DL models has
   advantages in terms of maintenance and expandability, since it can
   automatically learn features under the patterns without needing to
   describe the detailed rules.

   Nowadays, some of advanced techniques using RL encounter and combine
   to DL in Neural Network (NN) that has made it possible to extract
   high-level features from raw data in compute vision [A Krizhevsky].
   There are many challenges under the DL models such as CNN, RNN and
   etc.  The benefit of the DL applications is that lots of networking
   models, which have problematic issue due to complex and cluttered
   networking structure, can be used with large amounts of labelled
   training data.

   DRL can provide more extended and powerful scenarios to build
   networking models with optimized action controls, huge system states
   and real-time-based reward function.  Moreover, DRL has a significant
   advantage to set highly sequential data in a large model state space.
   In particular, the data distribution in RL is able to change as
   learning behaviors, that is a problem for deep learning approaches
   assumed by a fixed underlying distribution [Mnih].

5.3.  Policy using Distance and Frequency

   Distance and Frequency algorithm uses the state occurrence frequency
   in addition to the distance to goal.  It avoids deadlocks and lets
   the agent escape the Dead, and it was derived to enhance agent
   optimal learning speed.  Distance-and-Frequency is based on more



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   levels of agent visibility to enhance learning algorithm by an
   additional way that uses the state occurrence frequency.[Al-Dayaa]

5.4.  Distributed Computing Node

   Autonomous multi-agent learning process for network management
   environment is related to transfer optimized knowledge between agents
   on a given local node or distributed memory nodes over a
   communication network.

5.5.  Agent Sharing Information

   This is a technique how agents can share information for optimal
   learning process.  The quality of agent decision making often depends
   on the willingness of agents to share a given learning information
   collected by agent learning process.  Sharing Information means that
   an agent would share and communicate the knowledge learned and
   acquired with or to other agents using RL.

   Agents normally have limited resources and incomplete knowledge
   during learning exploration.  For that reason, the agents should take
   actions and transfer the states to the global environment under RL,
   then it would share the information with other agents, where all
   agents explore to reach their goals via a distributed reinforcement
   reward-based learning method on the existing local distributed memory
   nodes.

   MPI (Message Passing Interface) is used for communication way.  Even
   if the agents do not share the capabilities and resources to monitor
   an entire given large terrain environment, they are able to share the
   needed information to manage collaborative learning process for
   optimized management in distributed networking
   nodes.[Chowdappa][Minsuk]

5.6.  Sub-goal Selection

   A new technical method for agent sub-goal selection in distributed
   nodes is introduced to reduce the agent initial random exploration
   with a given selected sub-goal.

   [TBD]

6.  Proposed Architecture for Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL)

   The architecture using Reinforcement Learning (RL) describes a
   collaborative multi-agent-based system in distributed environments as
   shown in figure 1, where the architecture is combined with a hybrid
   architecture making use of both a master and slave architecture and a



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   peer-to-peer.  The centralized node(global environment), assigns each
   slave computing node a portion of the distributed terrain and an
   initial number of agents.



         +-------------+
         |             |                       +-----------------+
         |             |<...... node 1 .......>|    terrain 1    |
         |             |                       +-----------------+
         | Global env. |                           +        |
         |  (node 0)   |                           |        |
         |             |                           |        +
         |             |                       +-----------------+
         |             |<...... node 2 .......>|    terrain 2    |
         |             |                       +-----------------+
         +-------------+

        Figure 1: Hybrid P2P and Master/Slave Architecture Overview

   Reinforcement Learning (RL) actions involve interacting with a given
   environment, so the environment provides an agent learning process
   with the elements as followings:

   o  Agent control actions, large states and cumulative rewards

   o  Initial data-set in memory

   o  Random or learning process in a given node

   o  Next, optimamization in neural network under RL

   Additionally, agent actions with states toward its goal as below:

   o  Agent continuously control actions to earn next optimized state
      based on its policy with reward

   o  After an agent reaches its goal, it can repeatedly collect the
      information collected by the random or learning process to next
      learning process for optimal management

   o  Agent learning process is optimized in the following phase and
      exploratory learning trials

   As shown in Figure2, we illustrate the fundamental architecture for
   relationship of a control action, large states space and optimized
   reward.  The agent does an action that leads to a reward from




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   achieving an optimal path toward its goal.  Our works will be
   extended depending on the architecture.


                            DRL Network
                            +----------------------------------+
                            |Q-Value1|                         |
                            |--------+    +-------+    +------+|
          ......Action......|Q-Value2|----|Network|----|States||<...
          .                 |--------+    +-------+    +------+|   .
          .                 |Q-Value3|                         |   .
          .                 +----------------------------------+   .
          .                                                        .
        +---------+----------+                                     .
        | Global Environment |                                     .
        +---------+----------+                                     .
          .                                                        .
          .                                                        .
          .           +-------------------+                +----------+
          ...........>+ Large State Space +....States.....>+ D-Memory +
                      +-------------------+                +----------+


                     Figure 2: DRL work-flow Overview

7.  Use case of Multi-agent Reinforcement Learning (RL)

7.1.  Distributed Multi-agent Reinforcement Learning (RL): Sharing
      Information Technique

   In this section, we deal with case of a collaborative distributed
   multi-agent, where each agent has same or different individual goals
   in a distributed environment.  Since sharing information scheme among
   the agents is problematic one, we need to expand on the work
   described by solving the challenging cases.

   Basically, the main proposed algorithm is presented by distributed
   multi-agent RL as below:













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   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | Proposed Algorithm                                                |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | (1) Let Ni denote the number of node (i= 1, 2, 3 ...)             |
   |                                                                   |
   | (2) Let Aj denote the number of agent                             |
   |                                                                   |
   | (3) Let Dk denote the number of goals                             |
   |                                                                   |
   | (4) Place initial number of agents Aj, in random position (Xm,    |
   | Yn)                                                               |
   |                                                                   |
   | (5) Initialization of data-set memory for neural network          |
   |                                                                   |
   | (6) Copy neutal network Q and store as the data-set memory        |
   |                                                                   |
   | (7) Every Aj in Ni                                                |
   |                                                                   |
   | -----> (a) Do initial exploration (random) to corresponding Dk    |
   |                                                                   |
   | -----> (b) Do exploration (using RL) for Tx denote the number of  |
   | trial                                                             |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+

                        Table 1: Proposed Algorithm

   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | Random Trial                                                      |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | (1) Let Si denote the the current state                           |
   |                                                                   |
   | (2) Relinquish Si so that the other agent can occupy the position |
   |                                                                   |
   | (3) Assign the agent new position                                 |
   |                                                                   |
   | (4) Update the current state Si -> Si+1                           |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+

                           Table 2: Random Trial












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   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | Optimal Trial                                                     |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | (1) Let Si denote the the current state                           |
   |                                                                   |
   | (2) Let ACj denote a contorl action                               |
   |                                                                   |
   | (3) Let DRm denote discount reward                                |
   |                                                                   |
   | (4) Choose ACj <- Policy(Si, ACj) in neural network               |
   |                                                                   |
   | (5) Update and copy the network for learning process in the       |
   | global environment                                                |
   |                                                                   |
   | (6) Update the current state Si < Si+1-                           |
   |                                                                   |
   | (7) Repeat a available network control action                     |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+

                          Table 3: Optimal Trial

   Multi-agent RL in distributed nodes can improve the overall system
   performance to transfer or share information from one node to another
   node in following cases; expanded complexity in RL technique with
   various experimental factors and conditions, analyzing multi-agent
   sharing information for agent learning process.

7.2.  Fault prediction for core-network using Deep Learning

   EPC equipment such as PGW, SGW, MME, HSS and PCRF in the LTE core
   network send/receive messages using interfaces based on the 3GPP
   standard specification.  These EPC equipment could create training
   data and model to predict/detect features of the precursor symptoms
   occurring before the networking failure when a specific equipment and
   LTE network service failures are discovered.  In the addition, Deep
   Learning (DL) can predict various network faults such as in/out
   traffic, resource information of CPU/Memory and QoS performance in
   the case of IP core network equipment.

   [TBD]

7.3.  Use case of Intelligent Edge computing system in a field of
      construction works using machine learning techniques

   EPC equipment such as PGW, SGW, MME, HSS and PCRF in the LTE core
   network send/receive messages using interfaces based on the 3GPP
   standard specification.  These EPC equipment could create training
   data and model to predict/detect features of the precursor symptoms



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   occurring before the networking failure when a specific equipment and
   LTE network service failures are discovered.  In the addition, Deep
   Learning (DL) can predict various network faults such as in/out
   traffic, resource information of CPU/Memory and QoS performance in
   the case of IP core network equipment.

   [TBD]

7.4.  Use case of Intelligent Edge computing system in a field of
      construction works using machine learning techniques

   In a construction site, there are many dangerous elements such as
   noisy, gas leak and vibration needed by alerts, so that real-time
   monitoring system to detect the alerts using machine learning
   techniques (DL, RL) can provide more effective solution and approach
   to recognize dangerous construction elements.

   Representatively, to monitor these elements CCTV (closed-circuit
   television) should be locally and continuously broadcasting in a
   situation of construction site.  At that time, it is in-effective and
   wasteful even if the CCTV is constantly broadcasting unchangeable
   scenes in high definition.  However, when any alert should be
   detected due to the dangerous elements, the streaming should be
   converted to high quality streaming data to rapidly show and defect
   the dangerous situation.  To approach technically, DL is one of the
   solutions to automatically detect these kinds of dangerous situations
   with prediction in an advance.  It can provide the transform data
   including with the high-rate streaming video and quickly prevent the
   other risks.  RL is additionally important role to efficiently manage
   and monitor with the given dataset in real time.

   [TBD]

7.5.  Use case of Shortest Path-planning via sub-goal selection

   Sub-goal selection is a scheme of a distributed multi-agent RL
   technique based on selected intermediary agent sub-goal(s) with the
   aim of reducing the initial random trial.  The scheme is to improve
   the multi-agent system performance with asynchronously triggered
   exploratory phase(s) with selected agent sub-goal(s) for autonomous
   network management.

   [TBD]








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8.  IANA Considerations

   There are no IANA considerations related to this document.

9.  Security Considerations

   [TBD]

10.  Acknowledgements

   Carles Gomez has been funded in part by the Spanish Government
   (Ministerio de Educacion, Cultura y Deporte) through the Jose
   Castillejo grant CAS15/00336.  His contribution to this work has been
   carried out during his stay as a visiting scholar at the Computer
   Laboratory of the University of Cambridge.

11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

11.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.jiang-nmlrg-network-machine-learning]
              Jiang, S., "Network Machine Learning", ID draft-jiang-
              nmlrg-network-machine-learning-02, October 2016.

   [Megherbi]
              "Megherbi, D. B., Kim, Minsuk, Madera, Manual., A Study of
              Collaborative Distributed Multi-Goal and Multi-agent based
              Systems for Large Critical Key Infrastructures and
              Resources (CKIR) Dynamic Monitoring and Surveillance, IEEE
              International Conference on Technologies for Homeland
              Security", 2013.

   [Teiralbar]
              "Megherbi, D. B., Teiralbar, A. Boulenouar, J., A Time-
              varying Environment Machine Learning Technique for
              Autonomous Agent Shortest Path Planning, Proceedings of
              SPIE International Conference on Signal and Image
              Processing, Orlando, Florida", 2001.






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   [Nasim]    "Nasim ArianpooEmail, Victor C.M. Leung, How network
              monitoring and reinforcement learning can improve tcp
              fairness in wireless multi-hop networks, EURASIP Journal
              on Wireless Communications and Networking", 2016.

   [Minsuk]   "Dalila B. Megherbi and Minsuk Kim, A Hybrid P2P and
              Master-Slave Cooperative Distributed Multi-Agent
              Reinforcement Learning System with Asynchronously
              Triggered Exploratory Trials and Clutter-index-based
              Selected Sub goals, IEEE CIG Conference", 2016.

   [April]    "April Yu, Raphael Palefsky-Smith, Rishi Bedi, Deep
              Reinforcement Learning for Simulated Autonomous Vehicle
              Control, Stanford University", 2016.

   [Markus]   "Markus Kuderer, Shilpa Gulati, Wolfram Burgard, Learning
              Driving Styles for Autonomous Vehicles from Demonstration,
              Robotics and Automation (ICRA)", 2015.

   [Ann]      "Ann Nowe, Peter Vrancx, Yann De Hauwere, Game Theory and
              Multi-agent Reinforcement Learning, In book: Reinforcement
              Learning: State of the Art, Edition: Adaptation, Learning,
              and Optimization Volume 12", 2012.

   [Kok-Lim]  "Kok-Lim Alvin Yau, Hock Guan Goh, David Chieng, Kae
              Hsiang Kwong, Application of Reinforcement Learning to
              wireless sensor networks: models and algorithms, Published
              in Journal Computing archive Volume 97 Issue 11, Pages
              1045-1075", November 2015.

   [Sutton]   "Sutton, R. S., Barto, A. G., Reinforcement Learning: an
              Introduction, MIT Press", 1998.

   [Madera]   "Madera, M., Megherbi, D. B., An Interconnected Dynamical
              System Composed of Dynamics-based Reinforcement Learning
              Agents in a Distributed Environment: A Case Study,
              Proceedings IEEE International Conference on Computational
              Intelligence for Measurement Systems and Applications,
              Italy", 2012.

   [Al-Dayaa]
              "Al-Dayaa, H. S., Megherbi, D. B., Towards A Multiple-
              Lookahead-Levels Reinforcement-Learning Technique and Its
              Implementation in Integrated Circuits, Journal of
              Artificial Intelligence, Journal of Supercomputing. Vol.
              62, issue 1, pp. 588-61", 2012.





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   [Chowdappa]
              "Chowdappa, Aswini., Skjellum, Anthony., Doss, Nathan,
              Thread-Safe Message Passing with P4 and MPI, Technical
              Report TR-CS-941025, Computer Science Department and NSF
              Engineering Research Center, Mississippi State
              University", 1994.

   [Mnih]     "V.Mnih and et al., Human-level Control Through Deep
              Reinforcement Learning, Nature 518.7540", 2015.

   [Stampa]   "G Stamp, M Arias, etc., A Deep-reinforcement Learning
              Approach for Software-defined Networking Routing
              Optimization, cs.NI", 2017.

   [Krizhevsky]
              "A Krizhevsky, I Sutskever, and G Hinton, Imagenet
              classification with deep con- volutional neural networks,
              In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems,
              1106-1114", 2012.

Authors' Addresses

   Min-Suk Kim
   Etri
   161 Gajeong-Dong Yuseung-Gu
   Daejeon  305-700
   Korea

   Phone: +82 42 860 5930
   Email: mskim16@etri.re.kr


   Yong-Geun Hong
   ETRI
   161 Gajeong-Dong Yuseung-Gu
   Daejeon  305-700
   Korea

   Phone: +82 42 860 6557
   Email: yghong@etri.re.kr











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   Tae-Jin Ahn
   Korea Telecom
   70 Yuseong-daero 1689 Beon-gil Yuseung-Gu
   Daejeon  305-811
   Korea

   Phone: +82 42 870 8409
   Email: Taejin.ahn@kt.com


   Kwi-Hoon Kim
   ETRI
   161 Gajeong-Dong Yuseung-Gu
   Daejeon  305-700
   Korea

   Phone: +82 42 860 6746
   Email: kwihooi@etri.re.kr


   Youn-Hee Han
   KoreaTech
   Byeongcheon-myeon Gajeon-ri, Dongnam-gu
   Choenan-si, Chungcheongnam-do
   330-708
   Korea

   Phone: +82 41 560 1486
   Email: yhhan@koreatech.ac.kr






















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