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IPWAVE Working Group                                              K. Sun
Internet-Draft                                                    Y. Kim
Intended status: Informational                       Soongsil University
Expires: January 3, 2020                                    July 2, 2019


    Considerations for ID/Location Separation Protocols in IP-based
                           Vehicular Networks
                draft-kjsun-ipwave-id-loc-separation-01

Abstract

   ID/Location separation protocols are proposed for scalable routing,
   enhancing mobility and privacy in IP based internet infrastructure.
   When we consider IP based vehicular networks, ID/Location separation
   architecture is expected to offer benefits.  In this draft, we
   analyze whether ID/Location separation protocols can adjust into IP
   based vehicular networks and solve requirements.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 3, 2020.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Use Cases for ID/Location Separation Protocols  . . . . . . .   3
     3.1.  LISP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     3.2.  ILNP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  Gap Analysis  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.1.  Neighbor Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.2.  Mobility Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.3.  Security and Privacy  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   5.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9

1.  Introduction

   For vehicular networks, it is required to provide connection to the
   Intelligent Transport System (ITS) for the driver's safety, efficient
   driving and entertaining with fast mobility management.  Other
   scenarios besides V2I communication, like V2V and V2X communication
   are also considered.  Link layer protocols such as IEEE 802.11 OCB
   are already defined for low-latency and alternative networks, and it
   is designed for enabling IPv6 as a network layer protocol.
   Nevertheless, for using IPv6 in the vehicular network, there are some
   requirements for optimization as described in
   [ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking].  These issues are classified into
   neighbor/service discovery, mobility management, security and
   privacy.

   In IETF, there are several ID/Location separation protocols such as
   LISP [RFC6830] and ILNP [RFC6740] for scalable routing, enhancing
   privacy and mobility management.  Currently ID/Location separation
   concept is useful not only for decomposing ID/Location from an IP
   address, but also for control/data plane separation which is a major
   evolution of the internet infrastructure.  For the vehicular network,
   ID/Location separation protocols can be expected to meet requirements
   and solve problem statements discussed in IPWAVE WG.  In this draft,
   we describe use cases for applying ID/Location separation
   architecture into IP-based vehicular network, and analyze whether
   such protocols can meet requirements for IPv6 in vehicular networks.








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2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].  This
   document uses the terminology described in
   [ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking], [RFC6830], [RFC6740].

3.  Use Cases for ID/Location Separation Protocols

3.1.  LISP


                     Traffic Control Center in Vehicular Cloud
                    *-----------------------------------------*
                   *                                           *
                  *             +----------------+              *
                 *              | Mapping System |               *
                 *              +----------------+               *
                  *                      ^                      *
                   *               MS/MR |                     *
                    *--------------------v--------------------*
                    ^               ^                        ^
                    |               |                        |
                    |               |                        |
             RLOC1  v               v RLOC2                  v RLOC3
               +--------+  Ethernet  +--------+ Tunneling  +--------+
               |  RSU1  |<---------->|  RSU2  |<---------->|  RSU3  |
               |  (xTR) |            |  (xTR) |            |  (xTR) |
               +--------+            +--------+            +--------+
                     ^                  ^                    ^
                +----:------------------:---------+ +--------:---------+
                |    : V2I          V2I :         | |    V2I :         |
                |    v                  v         | |        v         |
    +--------+  |   +--------+      +--------+    | |    +--------+    |
    |Vehicle1|===>  |Vehicle2|===>  |Vehicle3|===>| |    |Vehicle4|===>|
    |  (EID) |<....>|  (EID) |<....>|  (EID) |    | |    |  (EID) |    |
    +--------+ V2V  +--------+ V2V  +--------+    | |    +--------+    |
                |                                 | |                  |
                +---------------------------------+ +------------------+
                    LISP Site-1                          LISP Site-2

    <----> Wired Link   <....> Wireless Link   ===> Moving Direction


      Figure 1: LISP Use Case Scenario in IP-based Vehicular Network
                               Architecture




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   Figure 1 describes a vehicular network architecture with the LISP
   protocol.  A single LISP site can have multiple RSUs with xTR
   function to communicate with other LISP sites.  In the figure, we
   assume that Vehicle 1, 2 and 3 belong to LISP site 1 and Vehicle 4 to
   LISP site 2.  IPv6 addresses for wireless interfaces of each vehicle
   are mapped to unique EIDs, which can communicate with other EIDs in
   the same LISP site same as a legacy IPv6 operation.  That is,
   vehicles are able to communicate with RSU as V2I communication at the
   same time with other vehicles in the same LISP site as V2V
   communication.

   Traffic control center in the vehicular cloud is appropriate to
   deploy a mapping system, since it is a point accessible from all
   RSUs.  When vehicles enter each LISP site and attach to the RSU, RSU
   sends Map-Register message to the mapping system including vehicle's
   EID and RLOC of attached RSU.  After registration, the vehicle can be
   provided reachability from other LISP sites or non-LISP sites.  In
   the figure, for communication between vehicle 4 and vehicle 3, RSU 3
   which is the attachment point of vehicle 4 should request for the
   RLOC of vehicle 3 from the mapping system by sending Map-Requests
   message.  After receiving mapping information of vehicle 3's EID and
   its RLOC in Map-Reply message, RLOC 3 can forward packets via the IP
   tunnel between xTR (e.g.  RSU 2 in this figure) assigned to vehicle
   3.  Note that several data plane protocols (e.g.  SRv6, etc.) can be
   used with LISP control plane functions.

3.2.  ILNP

   In the ILNPv6, IPv6 address is replaced with an I-LV value.  The I-LV
   has a 128-bit length allowing it to be applied to the current IPv6
   header without modification.  [RFC6740] describes in detail how I-LV
   value can replace an IPv6 address at the same time how can it works
   in current IPv6 based infrastructure.  In [RFC6741], the details of
   the ILNPv6 packet header, locator subnetting and new DNS resource
   record type for mapping I-LV values are defined.

   Vehicular network architecture design for supporting ILNP is shown in
   Figure 2.  Most of the components are similar with architecture
   described in [ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking].  Every vehicle can
   have more than one NID to connect to a network, and the IPv6 address
   for communication is represented as a combination of NID and Locator.
   Site Border Router (SBR) can be implemented in the RSU or border of
   ILNP subnet site, which should have a routing table mapped with I-LV
   values for forwarding packets.  A DNS server can be deployed in the
   vehicular cloud which is accessible from both in ILNP site and
   external internet.





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                     Traffic Control Center in Vehicular Cloud
                    *-----------------------------------------*
                   *                                           *
                  *            +-----------------+              *
                 *             |    DNS Server   |               *
                 *             +-----------------+               *
                  *                      ^                      *
                   *                     |                     *
                    *--------------------v--------------------*
                    ^               ^                        ^
                    |               |                        |
                +---------------------+                      |
                |         SBR         |                      |
                +---------------------+                      |
                    |               |                        |
                    v               v                        v
               +--------+   Ethernet  +--------+         +--------+
               |  RSU1  |<----------->|  RSU2  |<------->|RSU3/SBR|
               +--------+             +--------+         +--------+
                     ^                  ^                    ^
                +----:------------------:---------+ +--------:---------+
                |    : V2I          V2I :         | |    V2I :         |
                |    v                  v         | |        v         |
    +--------+  |   +--------+      +--------+    | |    +--------+    |
    |Vehicle1|===>  |Vehicle2|===>  |Vehicle3|===>| |    |Vehicle4|===>|
    | (I-LV) |<....>| (I-LV) |<....>| (I-LV) |    | |    | (I-LV) |    |
    +--------+ V2V  +--------+ V2V  +--------+    | |    +--------+    |
                |                                 | |                  |
                +---------------------------------+ +------------------+
                            Subnet-1                      Subnet-2

    <----> Wired Link   <....> Wireless Link   ===> Moving Direction


      Figure 2: ILNP Use Case Scenario in IP-based Vehicular Network
                               Architecture

4.  Gap Analysis

4.1.  Neighbor Discovery

   In both cases of LISP and ILNP, usage of existing neighbor discovery
   message defined in [RFC4861] is possible without modification.  In
   LISP, vehicles and RSUs in the same LISP site can exchange ND/NA
   messages for routing via EID configured as IPv6 format.  Also, ILNP
   can operate Neighbor Discovery for configuration of I-LV value as the
   I-LV for ILNPv6 occupies the same bits as the IPv6 address in the
   IPv6 header[RFC6740].  Thus, for vehicular networking, we expect that



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   the same solutions already mentioned in
   [ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking] (e.g. new ND option
   [ID-Vehicular-ND]) also can be applicable in ID/Location separation
   architecture.

4.2.  Mobility Management

   One of the advantages for using LISP is that mobility management can
   be provided efficiently, when a device is roaming across different
   LISP sites while maintaining its EID.  Existing IP mobilty management
   schemes such as MIP or PMIP required an anchor function(e.g.  Home
   Agent, Local Mobility Anchor) to maintain the IP address of mobile
   node when the mobile node moves so that it occurs non-optimized
   forwarding path between anchor and current attachment point of mobile
   node.  In LISP, however, forwarding path can be optimized by updating
   EID-RLOC mapping information and establishing IP tunnel between xTR
   of coresponding node and xTR of current mobile node's attachement
   point.  This provides advantages for easly optimizing forwarding path
   especially in the vehicular network where connection point of the
   mobile node can be fastly moved away from its initial attachment
   point.  In the vehicular network, EID will roam much faster and it
   means that the mapped RLOC will be changed more frequently.  For
   faster RLOC assignment, a predictive RLOC algorithm for roaming-EID
   is proposed in LISP WG [draft-ietf-lisp-predictive-rlocs].  Using
   this algorithm, it predicts moving direction of roaming-EID,
   registers predictive RLOCs as a list to the mapping system, and
   replicates packets to each RLOC in the list.  It can minimize packet
   loss while maintaining transport session continuity.

   In ILNP, mobility management is classified into host mobility and
   network(site) mobility.  For a vehicular network, host mobility
   scenario is suitable[RFC6740].  When the vehicle moves to its network
   attachment point and locator, it is changed to belong to new site, it
   may send Locator Update (LU) message to the Corresponding Node (CN)
   and also send a request to the DNS server to change its entry.  Even
   though LU procedure is necessary, it causes delay and packet loss
   during handover, and it may become a more critical issue in the
   vehicular network which changes locator of vehicle faster and more
   frequently.  Therefore, ILNP needs to minimize LU process including
   DNS updates for seamless mobility management in vehicular networks.
   For example, [ILNP-Sol-Wireless-Net] may be one possible solution
   that defines a geological information server, which gives information
   of attachment points nearby to devices to prepare handover, deliver
   its predictive locator to the CN so that it reduces packet loss and
   latency for updating DNS.






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4.3.  Security and Privacy

   ID/Location separation architecture can enhance privacy.  It is
   difficult to track a device using single RLOC or locator value since
   its locator changes with movement across sites.  Nevertheless, since
   EID or identifier is defined as permanent, additional methodologies
   may be considered for enhancing access security of device identifier
   information.  For example, [draft-ietf-lisp-eid-anonymity] defines
   Ephemeral-EID which is frequently changed by the device.  For ILNP,
   identity privacy supports using IPv6 privacy extensions for stateless
   address autoconfiguration[RFC4941] and Locator Rewriting Relay (LRR)
   component for locator privacy[RFC6748], can be solutions for
   enhancing privacy in vehicular network.

   In [draft-nordmark-id-loc-privacy], they raised two issues of privacy
   in ID/Location separation environment.  One is location privacy which
   is related to geographic location of device reachable at some IP
   address coupled identifier, and other is movement privacy which is
   derived from changing locator of point of attachment at different
   times even without knowing particular locators and by possible
   correlation with other information.  From that issues,
   [draft-xyz-pidloc-ps] described some use cases for privacy in
   vehicular network. [draft-xyz-pidloc-reqs] gave requirements for
   solving that challenges.

5.  Informative References

   [draft-ietf-lisp-eid-anonymity]
              Farinacci, D., Pillay-Esnault, P., and W. Haddad, "LISP
              EID Anonymity", draft-ietf-lisp-eid-anonymity-04(working
              on progress) (work in progress), October 2018.

   [draft-ietf-lisp-predictive-rlocs]
              Farinacci, D. and P. Pillay-Esnault, "LISP Predictive
              RLOCs", draft-ietf-lisp-predictive-rlocs-03(working on
              progress) (work in progress), November 2018.

   [draft-nordmark-id-loc-privacy]
              Nordmark, E., "Privacy issues in ID/locator separation
              systems", draft-nordmark-id-loc-privacy-00(Expired) (work
              in progress), July 2018.

   [draft-xyz-pidloc-ps]
              von Hugo, D., Sarikaya, B., Iannone, L., Petrescu, A.,
              Sun, K., and U. Fattore, "Problem Statement for Secure End
              to End Privacy in IdLoc Systems", draft-xyz-pidloc-ps-
              02(working on progress) (work in progress), June 2019.




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   [draft-xyz-pidloc-reqs]
              Iannone, L., von Hugo, D., and B. Sarikaya, "Requirements
              to Secure End to End Privacy in IdLoc Systems", draft-xyz-
              pidloc-reqs-00(working on progress) (work in progress),
              May 2019.

   [ID-Vehicular-ND]
              Xiang, Z., Jeong, J., and Y. Shen, "IPv6 Neighbor
              Discovery for IP-Based Vehicular Networks", draft-xiang-
              ipwave-vehicular-neighbor-discovery-00(working on
              progress) (work in progress), November 2018.

   [ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking]
              Jeong, J., "IP Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments
              (IPWAVE): Problem Statement and Use Cases", draft-ietf-
              ipwave-vehicular-networking-07(working on progress) (work
              in progress), July 2017.

   [ILNP-Sol-Wireless-Net]
              Isah, M. and CJ. Edwards, "An ILNP-based solution for
              future heterogeneous wireless networks", PGNET
              2013: Proceedings of the 14th Annual Postgraduate
              Symposium on the Convergence of Telecommunications,
              Networking and Broadcasting, June 2013.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC4861]  Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
              "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
              September 2007.

   [RFC4941]  Narten, T., Draves, R., and S. Krishnan, "Privacy
              Extensions for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration in
              IPv6", RFC 4941, September 2007.

   [RFC6740]  Atkinson, RJ., Bhatti, SN., and U. St Andrews,
              "Identifier-Locator Network Protocol (ILNP) Architectural
              Description", RFC 6740, November 2012.

   [RFC6741]  Atkinson, RJ., Bhatti, SN., and U. St Andrews,
              "Identifier-Locator Network Protocol (ILNP) Engineering
              Considerations", RFC 6741, November 2012.

   [RFC6748]  Atkinson, RJ., Bhatti, SN., and U. St Andrews, "Optional
              Advanced Deployment Scenarios for the Identifier-Locator
              Network Protocol (ILNP)", RFC 6748, November 2012.




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   [RFC6830]  Farinacci, D., Fuller, V., Meyer, D., and D. Lewis, "The
              Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP)", RFC 6830, January
              2013.

Authors' Addresses

   Kyoungjae Sun
   School of Electronic Engineering
   Soongsil University
   369, Sangdo-ro, Dongjak-gu
   Seoul, Seoul  06978
   Republic of Korea

   Phone: +82 10 3643 5627
   EMail: gomjae@dcn.ssu.ac.kr


   Younghan Kim
   School of Electronic Engineering
   Soongsil University
   369, Sangdo-ro, Dongjak-gu
   Seoul, Seoul  06978
   Republic of Korea

   Phone: +82 10 2691 0904
   EMail: younghak@ssu.ac.kr

























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