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Versions: 00 01

Network Working Group                                        P. Lapukhov
Internet-Draft                                                  Facebook
Intended status: Informational                            March 21, 2016
Expires: September 22, 2016


      Deploying Identifier-Locator Addressing (ILA) in datacenter
                    draft-lapukhov-ila-deployment-00

Abstract

   Identifier-Locator Addressing defined in [I-D.herbert-nvo3-ila]
   proposes using locator-identifier split in IPv6 address to realize
   workload mobility and network virtualization.  This document
   describes how ILA can be implemented in datacenter using BGP as the
   control-plane protocol.  In general, ILA could be built upon
   different control planes, and BGP is one particular instantiation.
   BGP is a well-known protocol, sufficient for small to medium size
   deployments, on scale of few millions of mappings.  Defining more
   generic and scalable control plane is outside of scope of this
   document.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on September 22, 2016.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents



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   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  ILA deployment process  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  Preparing the network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.1.  Data-center network topology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.2.  Configuring locator addressing  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   5.  Deploying ILA routers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     5.1.  Configuration parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     5.2.  ILA router operation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     5.3.  Scaling considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   6.  Deploying ILA hosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     6.1.  Configuration parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     6.2.  Providing task isolation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     6.3.  ILA host operation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   7.  Using BGP as the ILA control plane  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     7.1.  BGP topology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     7.2.  Any-to-any mapping distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     7.3.  Hub-and-spoke mapping distribution  . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   8.  Push vs pull mapping distribution modes . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   9.  ILA address management  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     9.1.  Decentralized address management  . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     9.2.  Centralized address management  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     9.3.  Role of Task scheduler  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
   10. ILA domain federation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
   11. Operational Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     11.1.  Operational procedures for ILA routers . . . . . . . . .  19
     11.2.  Multicast routing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     11.3.  ILA mappint table complications  . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     11.4.  ILA routers complications  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
   12. Deployment Scenario Primer  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
   13. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
   14. Manageability Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
   15. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     15.1.  ILA host security  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     15.2.  ILA router security  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     15.3.  Tenant security  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
   16. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
   17. Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27




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1.  Introduction

   This document provides general guidelines for building an ILA-enabled
   datacenter using BGP [RFC4271] as the protocol for ILA mapping
   information dissemination.  The reader is assumed to be familiar with
   the concepts defined in [I-D.herbert-nvo3-ila].  Reading on ILNP
   architecture defined in [RFC6740] is also recommended, but not needed
   for understanding of this document.  ILA does not implement the full
   ILNP proposal, but it's based on the same idea, adapting it for
   datacenter use and employing simpler model for distribution of
   mapping information.

   The full set of ILA benefits is realized in L3 switched (routed)
   datacenter networks, i.e. networks that do not rely on spanning
   Layer-2 domains across multiple network devices.  Endpoint mobility
   made possible by ILA is one of the key benefits ILA brings to the
   datacenter networks.  Combining ILA with fully routed network design
   allows for achieving the robustness of routed network with the
   flexibility of endpoint mobility.  Some practical recommendations for
   building a fully-routed datacenter network could be found in
   [I-D.ietf-rtgwg-bgp-routing-large-dc] or [ROUTED-DESIGN].

   While workload mobility could also be achieved in L3 switched
   networks by using "host-route" injection techniques, this has limited
   applicability, due to high stress put on the underlying routing
   system.  The prefix needs to be removed, re-injected and propagated
   to all network devices every time an address moves.

   ILA offers an alternative to "encapsulation" approaches, such as LISP
   ([RFC6830]), for realizing the endpoint mobility and network
   virtualization.  Using simple address rewrites significantly reduces
   the processing overhead on the hosts, and makes various hardware and
   software network acceleration functions easier to implement.
   Furthermore, ILA keeps the underlying network fully visible to the
   applications that use ILA addresses, which makes network
   troubleshooting easier, as compared to the "encapsulation"
   approaches.

2.  Terminology

   This section defines some ILA-specific terminology that will be used
   through the document.

      ILA domain: a collection of ILA hosts and ILA routers that
      collectively support ILA identifier mobility and network
      virtualization model.  The ILA domain is assigned a single 64-bit
      IPv6 prefix known as SIR (Standard Identifier Representation, see
      [I-D.herbert-nvo3-ila]) prefix, which is made known to all hosts



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      and routers in the domain.  This prefix is used to construct the
      complete 128-bit IPv6 addresses for ILA identifies found in the
      domain.

      ILA host: network endpoint that is capable of accepting and
      originating traffic for ILA addresses using IPv6 packets.  The
      host maintains its own local version of the ILA mapping table and
      has at least one ILA locator (64-bit prefix) assigned.

      ILA router: network endpoint that is responsible for two main
      functions:

         Storing and disseminating the ILA mapping information within
         the ILA domain (NVA role per [I-D.ietf-nvo3-arch]).

         Serving as the gateway between the ILA-domain and non-ILA
         capable nodes, as well as the gateway for communicating with
         other ILA domains (NVE role per [I-D.ietf-nvo3-arch]).

      ILA mapping table: The table for mapping identifiers to locators
      present in ILA host or ILA router.  This table is updated either
      via BGP, or ILA redirection messages.  ILA routers maintain
      authoritative copy of the table, while ILA hosts may have their
      own smaller view of the global mapping state.

      Non-ILA host: network endpoint that is not aware of ILA addressing
      structure and does not participate in ILA address resolution.

      Task: the unit of mobility in ILA domain.  Each task is assigned
      an identifier unique within the ILA domain, which follows the task
      as it changes the hosts and, consequently, the locators.
      Implementation wise, the task can run within a container or a
      virtual machine, for example.

      Tenant: owner of the tasks executed in the shared environment.
      All tasks that belongs to the same owner could be grouped and
      addressed together from the same identifier pool, thus creating
      simple hierarchy in the ILA address space.

      Common Locator Address (CLA): Special ILA address constructed as
      <locator>::1 and identifying the physical host itself.  This
      address is used to send and receive of the ILA redirect messages.

3.  ILA deployment process

   The ILA domain consists of the following components:





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   o  L3 switched network that provides reachability among physical
      hosts, i.e. provides routing within the locator address space.

   o  ILA hosts, each assigned a unique /64 prefix reachable in the
      network.  Hosts maintains its own local version of ILA mapping
      table.

   o  ILA routers, each injecting the domain's SIR prefix in the routed
      network and maintaining the full mapping table for the ILA domain.
      The routers could be implemented in software, or using specialized
      hardware appliances.

   o  Centralized BGP speaker nodes that peer with all of the ILA hosts
      and all of the ILA routers within the domain for the purpose of
      mapping information dissemination.  ILA hosts and routers are also
      assumed to run the BGP processes.

   Deploying ILA in datacenter requires multiple logical steps:

   o  Preparing the network.  Assigning locator addressing to the hosts
      (servers) in the datacenter network and providing routed
      interconnection among the locator prefixes.

   o  Configuring ILA hosts and ILA routers.  Each ILA domain requires a
      set of ILA routers to facilitate mapping function and provide
      connectivity to other ILA domains and the Internet.  Each ILA
      domain is assigned a /64 SIR prefix, which scopes all identifiers
      in the domain.  All ILA hosts and ILA routers within a domain are
      aware of the SIR prefix of this domain.

   o  Setting up ILA control plane.  Configuring the BGP mesh for
      mapping information dissemination within the ILA domain and
      injecting the SIR prefix into routed network from the ILA routers
      to facilitate communications among the ILA domain and from / to
      the Internet.  See [I-D.lapukhov-bgp-ila-afi] for definition of
      the corresponding BGP extension.

   o  Deploying an address management solution to coordinate allocation
      of ILA identifiers.  In simpler cases, the addresses could be
      generated on each host individually, in ad-hoc fashion.

4.  Preparing the network

   This section provides overview of the network-related configuration
   needed for ILA.






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4.1.  Data-center network topology

   For ease of reference, this document adopts the Clos topology
   described in [I-D.ietf-rtgwg-bgp-routing-large-dc] along with the
   terminology developed in that document.

                                      Tier-1
                                     +-----+
          Cluster                    |     |
 +----------------------------+   +--|     |--+
 |                            |   |  +-----+  |
 |                    Tier-2  |   |           |   Tier-2
 |                   +-----+  |   |  +-----+  |  +-----+
 |     +-------------| DEV |------+--|     |--+--|     |-------------+
 |     |       +-----|  C  |------+  |     |  +--|     |-----+       |
 |     |       |     +-----+  |      +-----+     +-----+     |       |
 |     |       |              |                              |       |
 |     |       |     +-----+  |      +-----+     +-----+     |       |
 |     | +-----------| DEV |------+  |     |  +--|     |-----------+ |
 |     | |     | +---|  D  |------+--|     |--+--|     |---+ |     | |
 |     | |     | |   +-----+  |   |  +-----+  |  +-----+   | |     | |
 |     | |     | |            |   |           |            | |     | |
 |   +-----+ +-----+          |   |  +-----+  |          +-----+ +-----+
 |   | DEV | | DEV |          |   +--|     |--+          |     | |     |
 |   |  A  | |  B  | Tier-3   |      |     |      Tier-3 |     | |     |
 |   +-----+ +-----+          |      +-----+             +-----+ +-----+
 |     | |     | |            |                            | |     | |
 |     O O     O O            |                            O O     O O
 |       Servers              |                              Servers
 +----------------------------+

                      Figure 1: 5-Stage Clos topology

   The network is partitioned hierarchically in three tiers, with tier
   numbering starting at the "middle" stage of the Clos network.  The
   "middle" tier is often called as the "spine" of the network.

   A set of directly connected Tier-2 and Tier-3 devices along with
   their attached servers will be referred to as a "cluster".

   Tier-3 switches that connect the servers, and often referred to as
   "ToR" (Top of Rack) switches or simply "rack switches".

4.2.  Configuring locator addressing

   A mandatory prerequisite for ILA deployment is enabling IPv6 routing
   in the network.  This could be done using either dual-stack IPv4/IPv6
   deployment or IPv6-only deployments.  This document assumes the



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   network has been already configured to forward IPv6 traffic.  See
   [I-D.ietf-v6ops-dc-ipv6] for operational considerations on deploying
   IPv6 in the datacenter.

   ILA requires every ILA host to have at least one 64-bit locator
   assigned.  This means that every host (server) in the datacenter
   network needs to have at least one /64 IPv6 prefix configured on one
   of its interfaces (typically the internal loopback).  These /64
   prefixes could be either globally routable or unique local.

   The use of the globally routable addressing scheme allows for
   deploying highly scalable hierarchical addressing scheme, and make
   the locators accessible from the Internet.  The figure below
   illustrates the structure of a globally-routable locator:


 |<------------------ Locator -------------------->|
 |3 bits| N bits     | M1 bits | M2 bits | M3 bits |       64 bits
 +------+------------+---------+---------+---------+-------------------+
 | 001  | Global pfx | Cluster |   Rack  |   Host  |    Identifier     |
 +------+------------+---------+---------+---------+-------------------+
 |<-------------------- 64-bits ------------------>|


   For example, a global /32 prefix (N=29) allows for sub-allocation of
   2^32 locators.  This sub-allocation could be done hierarchically,
   mapping to the tiers of network topology.  Following the /32 example
   prefix:

      Allocate 256 /64 prefixes per Tier-3 switch (M3 = 8 bits), which
      allows for up to 256 physical hosts in a rack, with /56 prefix
      assigned per rack.

      Assuming 256 Tier-3 switches per cluster, one would allocate /48
      per cluster (M2 = 8 bits).

      This leaves room for 16-bits (64K) cluster per datacenter (M1 = 16
      bits).  This space could be further sub-divided if multiple
      network fabrics have been deployed.

   The use of unique-local addressing for locators is more limiting in
   terms of available space, as it only offers 16-bits for sub-
   allocation.  It does, however, have the benefit of ad-hoc allocation.
   This could work better for smaller deployment, e.g. allocating
   10-bits to enumerate Tier-3 switches (physical racks of servers) and
   6 bits to enumerate hosts within a rack.  For instance, the address
   structure may look as following, here M1 = 10 bits and M2 = 6 bits.




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 |<----------------- Locator --------------->|
 | 7 bits |1|  40 bits   | M1 bits | M2 bits |          64 bits        |
 +--------+-+------------+---------+---------+-------------------------+
 | FC00   |L| Global ID  |  Rack   |   Host  |        Identifier       |
 +--------+-+------------+---------+---------+-------------------------+
 |                       |<---- 16 bits ---->|
 |<--------------- 64-bits ----------------->|


   In either case, the addressing scheme is hierarchical, allowing for
   simple route summarization logic and better routing system scaling
   (see [RFC2791]).  This is especially important in case of IPv6, since
   contemporary datacenter network switches have smaller IPv6 lookup
   tables as compared to IPv4.  Route summarization also requires
   certain network design changes to avoid packet black-holing under
   link failures.  This problem gets more complicated in Clos
   topologies, and analyzed in more details in
   [I-D.ietf-rtgwg-bgp-routing-large-dc].

   In greenfield deployments, each ILA host could be assigned the /64
   locator prefix prefix during provisioning phase.  There are multiple
   options to accomplish this:

   o  Assigning static link-local addresses to servers and statically
      routing /64 prefixes from Tier-3 switches to the servers over
      those link-local addresses.  In this model, the operator would
      plan and pre-allocate per ILA-host prefixes beforehand, and
      configure the Tier-3 switches accordingly.  From operational risk
      perspective, persistent routing loops may form due to static
      routing, if a server is not properly configured.  Additionally, if
      the server is not present while the static route is configured on
      Tier-3 switch, packets destined to the corresponding /64 prefix
      will cause the switch to continuously generate IPv6 NDP packets
      ("gleaning"), which puts extra stress on the device's CPU.

   o  The servers may request the /64 prefix using IPv6 Prefix
      Delegation mechanism as defined in [RFC3633].  This allocation
      could be made "permanent" by proper DHCPv6 server configuration
      and ensuring the same prefix is always being delegated to the same
      server.  The Tier-3 switch would act as DHCPv6 relay and will
      install the corresponding /64 IPv6 route dynamically.  This
      approach addresses both the allocation and the routing problem,
      but makes the setup potentially more fragile operationally
      (reliance on additional protocol) and harder to debug (additional
      process involved).

   o  The server may run a routing daemon (e.g.  BGP process) and inject
      the allocated /64 prefix into Tier-3 switch.  The address



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      allocation in this case needs to happen by some other means.  This
      is more suitable for ad-hoc ILA testing and small, rapid
      deployments.

   The server itself may use one of the IPv6 addresses in /64 prefix for
   its own addressing, e.g. for remote access or management purposes.
   Alternatively, the server may obtain another IPv6 address from a
   different (non-locator) IPv6 address range allocated for the
   datacenter.  This document proposes using <locator>::1 as the special
   identifier, naming it as "Common Locator Address" (CLA).  Such choice
   of identifier make it easy to differentiate from regular identifiers.
   This identifier will be used as the source and destination identifier
   for the ILA redirect messages.

   Route summarization for the locator prefixes is highly desirable to
   reduce the stress on the network switches forwarding tables and
   improve control-plane stability, and need to be implemented at least
   on Tier-3 switches.  In simplest case, the switches could be
   statically preconfigured with the summary routes.  These routes need
   to agree with the prefixes that are assigned to the servers,
   especially in the case when dynamic prefix injection is used.  As a
   possible alternative, simple virtual aggregation could be employed,
   where hosts inject both the specific and the summary route, and
   installation of corresponding FIB entries is suppressed as per the
   rules defined in [RFC6769].  The latter approach does not improve the
   control plane scalability, but solves the issues with packet black-
   holing in presence of network summarization.  It also requires the
   network hardware support, which may not be present.

   In retrofitting scenarios, the servers are likely to already have
   128-bit IPv6 addresses assigned, allocated from the datacenter
   address space, e.g. by using a single /64 prefix per Tier-3 switch.
   In this case, the additional locator prefix needs to be assigned in
   the same way as described above for greenfield deployments.  The only
   difference is that the new prefix and the old server address may be
   allocated from different IPv6 address ranges.

5.  Deploying ILA routers

   ILA routers perform multiple functions within the ILA domain:

   o  Serve as the centralized store of the identifier-to-mapper
      information in the domain.  The mappings are delivered to the ILA
      routers as described in Section 7.

   o  Act as the gateway between the ILA hosts and non-ILA capable
      hosts, e.g. the Internet.




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   The ILA hosts will send the packets destined to identifiers they
   don't have mappings for to the ILA routers initially to perform the
   ILA mapping resolution, and the hosts outside of the ILA domain will
   use the ILA routers for all communications with the domain.  The ILA
   routers do not host any ILA identifiers themselves.

5.1.  Configuration parameters

   The ILA routers need the following configured for their operation:

   o  Regular, non-anycast 128-bit IPv6 address to connect the ILA
      router to the datacenter network.

   o  The /64 SIR prefix for the ILA domain, shared by all ILA routers.
      This prefix is advertised into the network in anycast fashion and
      "intercepts" all traffic destined from hosts outside of ILA
      domains to the identifiers in the domain.  The prefix could be
      injected in "always-on" fashion, e.g. by using BGP injectors on
      ILA routers.  This couples the ILA router's life-cycle with the
      prefix injection cycle.  Other, more sophisticated schemes are
      possible, e.g. stopping injecting the prefix based if ILA router's
      resource utilization gets too high, but discussing their
      implementation is outside the scope of this document.

   o  Control-plane configuration, i.e. the IPv6 addresses of BGP route
      reflectors, and possibly some configuration for the local BGP
      process.  This is discussed in more details in Section 7.

   o  Management settings, such as maximum rate of ILA redirect
      messages, and associated security attributes (e.g. the key pair
      used for message signing).

   o  A configuration flag that instructs the router whether the ILA
      redirect messages needs to be sent out.  The ILA router does not
      receive ILA redirect messages, since it does not host any
      identifiers.

5.2.  ILA router operation

   Upon booting, the ILA router is first required to join the control
   plane mesh and learn of the mappings that exist in the ILA domain.
   It is also aware of the SIR prefix that is used within its domain.
   After the router has learned of the mappings, it may inject the
   anycast SIR prefix in the datacenter network and join the operational
   group of ILA routers.






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   When ILA router receives a packet with the upper 64-bits of the
   destination IPv6 address matching its configured SIR prefix, it
   performs the following:

   o  Checks if the source IPv6 address matches the local SIR prefix.
      If it does, the packet is coming from the ILA hosts in this
      router's ILA domain, and the ILA router should check if the source
      identifier has a matching locator, discarding the packet if there
      is none found, to prevent possible identifier spoofing attacks.
      This operation should be logged, with rate-limit applied to
      logging messages.

   o  Attempts to find the locator matching for the destination
      identifier found in the bottom 64-bits of the destination IPv6
      address.  If the mapping for destination identifier is not found,
      the original packet is dropped, and an ICMPv6 "Destination
      Unreachable" message, type "3" is sent back to the message
      originator.  Otherwise, the router does the following:

      *  Rewrites the SIR prefix in the destination IPv6 address with
         the new locator and forwards the packet back to the datacenter
         network.

      *  If sending of ILA messages is permitted, the router sends the
         ILA redirect message back to the originator of the packet, by
         looking up the source identifier and finding the corresponding
         locator.  The redirect informs the source of the actual
         destination locator.  The redirect messages will be rate-
         limited to avoid sending ILA redirect for every incoming IPv6
         packet.

   For transit packets who's destination does not match the SIR prefix,
   the ILA router should discard the packets, as those are not supposed
   to be received by the ILA router.

   If the source IPv6 address check reveals that the packet is not
   coming from the ILA domain the router belongs to (i.e. it does not
   match the local SIR prefix), the ILA router does not need to send
   back the ILA redirection message, but instead simply continue to
   forward the packet as if the locator for the destination identifier
   could be found.  The ILA router will still send the ICMPv6
   "Destinationa Unreachable" message for unknown mappings.

5.3.  Scaling considerations

   Due to high load and reliability concerns, the ILA domain needs
   multiple ILA routers.  The simplest way to provide redundancy is by
   letting the ILA routers inject the /64 SIR IPv6 prefix into the



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   datacenter network in anycast fashion ([RFC4786]).  This will allow
   to naturally use the datacenter network's Equal-Cost Multipath (ECMP)
   capabilities to distribute traffic among the ILA routers.

   For redundancy purposes, the ILA routers would need to be spread
   across multiple physical racks in the datacenter.  More ILA routers
   could be added incrementally to reduce the load and scale capacity
   horizontally, and join the operational ILA group in non-disruptive
   fashion, after they have learned the full mapping table for the ILA
   domain.

   Use of anycast method does have some routing implications.  For
   example, using the network described in Section 4.1 will result in
   ILA hosts preferring to use the ILA routers in the same cluster,
   since those are closer based on the routing metric.  Thus, the
   network may not evenly spread their packets across all ILA routers in
   the datacenter.  It is therefore possible that some ILA routers will
   receive more traffic than the others.  This issue is specific to
   anycast routing, and not ILA in general.

6.  Deploying ILA hosts

   This section reviews the deployment considerations for the ILA hosts.

6.1.  Configuration parameters

   The ILA hosts need to be configured with the following:

   o  SIR prefix of the ILA domain.

   o  IPv6 addresses of the BGP route reflectors.

   o  The routable /64 locator assigned to the host.

   o  ILA mapping entries expiration time, to time out unused entries.

   o  Whether ILA redirection messages sending / receiving is enabled.

   By disabling both the ILA mapping expiration time and sending of ILA
   redirect messages the host is effectively configured for the "push"
   ILA mapping distribution distribution mode (see Section 8).  In this
   mode, the BGP (control plane) is assumed to populate all of the ILA
   mapping entries in response to the identifier move events.








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6.2.  Providing task isolation

   In simplest case, the host only needs to implement the ILA address
   rewrite function and inform the tasks starting on the host of the ILA
   addresses they can use.  However, it might be desirable to provide
   the tasks with strong networking isolation guarantees, i.e. making
   sure tasks are only allowed to use the IPv6 ILA address they have
   been allocated.  For instance, with Linux operating system, this is
   possible by using the [LINUX-NAMESPACES] and [IPVLAN] techniques
   together.

   Each task running on the host will be contained to its own networking
   namespace, and has the allocated ILA address bound to an interface
   that belongs to this namespace.  The task would then only be able to
   bind to the single IPv6 ILA addresses delegated to the namespace.

   With "ipvlan" technique, the packets arriving on physical host's NIC
   need to have their locator field adjusted before delivering to the
   task (the locator field is set to the /64 prefix assigned to the
   host).  No additional routing lookups need to be performed on the
   physical host.  On the egress path, all IPv6 lookups and rewrites
   happen in the default namespace, in Linux terminology.  The figure
   below demonstrates a host with two tasks running, each in its own
   networking namespace.  The namespace names are "ns0" and "ns1", and
   the corresponding task ILA identifiers are ID0 and ID1.

   +=============================================================+
   |  Host: host1                                                |
   |                                                             |
   |   +----------------------+      +----------------------+    |
   |   |   NS:ns0, ID0        |      |  NS:ns1, ID1         |    |
   |   |                      |      |                      |    |
   |   |                      |      |                      |    |
   |   |        ipvl0         |      |         ipvl1        |    |
   |   +----------#-----------+      +-----------#----------+    |
   |              #                              #               |
   |              ################################               |
   |                              # eth0                         |
   +==============================#==============================+

               Tasks running in Linux namespaces with ipvlan

   The use of "ipvlan"-like techniques is not strictly necessary.  An
   alternative would be use the ILA host as a proper IPv6 router and
   treating the attached namespaces as hosts.  This, however, has much
   higher performance overhead, due to multiple forwarding lookups that
   need to be done in the kernel.




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6.3.  ILA host operation

   When ILA host boots up, it joins the control-plane mesh by peering
   with the BGP route-reflectors.  It may learn the active ILA mappings
   from the BGP route reflectors, or may initially keep the ILA mapping
   table empty, depending whether "push" or "pull" distribution model
   has been selected.

   When a tasks starts it will have an ILA identifier allocated, and the
   corresponding IPv6 address (built out of SIR prefix + the allocated
   identifier) bound to an interface within the networking namespace
   created for the task.  The mapping is then propagated over BGP
   peering sessions to all ILA routers.

   For outgoing packets, the ILA host performs the following:

   o  Matches the destination IPv6 address against the SIR prefix.

   o  If prefix matches, attempts to look-up the identifier portion of
      the address in the local ILA mapping table.

   o  If a match is found in ILA mapping table, rewrite the destination
      address and replace the SIR prefix with the actual locator.

   For packets with destination IPv6 addresses no matching the SIR
   prefix, the usual forwarding rules apply.  If no match is found for
   the destination, the packet is sent as is, and is expected to be
   delivered to the ILA routers, since those advertise the SIR prefix
   into the routing domain (without getting the locator portion
   rewritten - the packet has the SIR prefix for the locator).

   For incoming packets, the ILA host should perform the following:

   o  Match their destination IPv6 addresses against the locator prefix
      (64 bits) of the host.

   o  If the destination address matches, deliver the packet to the
      corresponding namespace, based on the identifier portion.

   o  If the destination identifier in the incoming packet does not
      match any of the ILA mappings, and sending of ILA redirect message
      is enabled, the host sends an ILA redirect message back to the
      originator of the packet.  The message will have an empty locator
      value, and informs the sender that the mapping it has for the
      identifier is no longer valid, erasing the corresponding entry in
      the sender's ILA mapping table.





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   Sending an ILA redirect message by the ILA host requires the host to
   translate the source identifier of the original message.  Assuming
   that flow was likely bi-directional, the entry should be readily
   available in the local ILA mapping table.  If not, the ILA redirect
   message will be routed toward the originator via the ILA routers,
   i.e. sent back with locator equal to the SIR prefix.  It is possible
   that both source and destination identifiers of the flow have moved,
   resulting in mutual sending of ILA redirect messages, and temporarily
   falling back to using the ILA routers.

   If the ILA mapping entry expiration time is set to non-zero, the
   unused ILA mapping entries will eventually be deleted.  The entry
   expiration needs to be disabled if the mappings are learned in event-
   driven fashion via the BGP mesh ("push" distribution mode).

7.  Using BGP as the ILA control plane

   This section discusses the use of BGP for ILA mapping information
   dissemination.  The choice of BGP is made to allow for easier
   integration of hardware appliance, e.g. network switches with
   extended functionality, where BGP is commonly used as the control
   plane.  Furthermore, BGP itself offers a simple way of disseminating
   data and converging on a key-value mapping across multiple nodes in
   eventually consistent fashion, and has proven track record of use in
   the industry.  Furthermore, use of BGP allows for leveraging the
   monitoring extensions developed for the protocol.  For example,
   [I-D.ietf-grow-bmp] could be used to observe ILA mapping changes in
   the network using existing tooling.

7.1.  BGP topology

   Per the common practice, a group of BGP route-reflectors (see
   [RFC4456]) should be deployed and peered over IBGP with all hosts and
   routers in the ILA domain.  The reflectors themselves would also be
   peered in "full-mesh" fashion to provide backup paths for mapping
   information distribution, e.g. in case if one of reflectors loses a
   session to a host.  Those reflectors do not need to be in the data-
   path, but merely serve for the purpose of information distribution.
   The number of route-reflectors should be at least two, to allow for
   redundancy.  See below sections for discussion of route-reflection
   settings.

   It is possible to co-locate the BGP route-reflectors with the ILA
   routers.  This saves on having additional nodes for the purpose of
   just BGP route-reflection, but puts extra memory and CPU stress on
   the ILA routers, and therefore is less desirable.  Furthermore, it
   makes capacity-planning more difficult, and therefore is not
   recommended.



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   The route-reflectors are required to peer with potentially a very
   large number of ILA hosts, which may put scaling limits on the size
   of the ILA domain due to the overhead of maintaining large amount of
   BGP peering sessions.  To alleviate this problem, the pool of ILA
   hosts may be split into "shards" and each shard would peer with a
   different group of route-reflectors.  For example, the ILA domain may
   have four groups of route reflectors, each with four route-reflectors
   inside.  The sixteen route-reflectors may then peer in a full-mesh
   fashion, to exchange the mappings they have received from the
   corresponding "shard" of the ILA domain.  This method avoid the
   issues related to maintaining large amount of TCP sessions, but every
   BGP route-reflector is still required to maintain the full ILA
   mapping table.

   In addition to ILA AFI/SAFI's, other AFI/SAFIs could be configured on
   BGP speakers, e.g. using [I-D.lapukhov-bgp-opaque-signaling] for
   opaque information dissemination in the ILA domain, e.g. to
   facilitate in distributed address allocation.

7.2.  Any-to-any mapping distribution

   In this mode, the ILA routers could act as IBGP route-reflectors
   [RFC4456] for all of the IBGP sessions they have, and relay the
   mapping information among the ILA hosts.  This would allow the hosts
   to avoid initially sending packets to the ILA routers, at the expense
   of maintaining the ILA mapping table.  Additionally, this allows for
   completely disabling the ILA redirect messages and using only the
   mapping information propagated by BGP.

7.3.  Hub-and-spoke mapping distribution

   Alternatively, BGP could be used to deliver the mappings from ILA
   hosts to ILA routers only.  The hosts and the routers would establish
   IBGP peering sessions with the route-reflectors in hub-and-spoke
   fashion, with BGP reflectors being the hubs.  The ILA router sessions
   will be configured as the "route-reflector clients" on the route-
   reflectors, while the ILA hosts sessions will be left as ordinary
   IBGP sessions.  This will propagate all needed mappings to the ILA
   routers and allow them to properly redirect the hosts.  The ILA hosts
   are responsible for withdrawing and announcing the mappings as they
   change.

8.  Push vs pull mapping distribution modes

   The default mode of operations in ILA is "pull" mode, where mappings
   are learned by the ILA hosts via ILA redirect messages.  Effectively,
   the ILA mapping table fill process is reactive and driven by data-
   plane events.  In some case, e.g. upon identifier move, this may



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   result in short periods of packet loss, while the sender receives the
   ILA redirect message and switches back to forwarding via the ILA
   routers.  Furthermore, the use of ILA redirect messages requires
   security configuration to avoid message spoofing and cache poisoning
   attacks.

   An alternative to "pull" mapping distribution on the hosts, is "push"
   mode, where all ILA hosts receive exactly the same mapping
   information as the ILA routers.  In this case, the ILA message
   sending could be disabled in the ILA domain altogether.  The "push"
   mode allows for proactive creation of the ILA mappings, and avoiding
   the packet loss, provided that the new mapping reaches the sending
   host before the destination identifier has moved.  The trade-off here
   is the overhead of maintaining full mapping set on all ILA hosts.

   For simplicity, this document recommends that all ILA hosts in the
   domain operate either in "push" or "pull" modes.  In "push" mode the
   ILA mapping entries expiration needs to be turned off, along with
   sending of ILA messages.  If an ILA host receives a packet for the
   ILA address it cannot map to locally, it is expected to send an ILA
   redirect message.  If sending the ILA messages is disabled, the host
   must at least send an ICMPv6 "Destination Unreachable" message with
   code "3" - "Address Unreachable" to aid in debugging of missing
   mapping message.  Notice that the ILA routers always operate in
   "push" mode, i.e. they only learn of mappings via the control plane
   exchange.

9.  ILA address management

   The ILA control plane and redirect messages perform mapping
   information dissemination, but the identifier allocation needs to be
   done separately.  The address management process also depends on
   whether there is some hierarchy desired in the ILA namespace, e.g. if
   allocating a prefix per-tenant is needed.

9.1.  Decentralized address management

   In simplest case, each ILA host may independently allocate unique
   identifier per task when it first starts, and the task will retain it
   for the duration of its lifetime (see Appendix A of
   [I-D.herbert-nvo3-ila]).  The chances of collision are very low given
   the 60-bit value of the identifier.  The scheduler is responsible for
   starting and moving the task in the ILA domain.  The tasks belonging
   to the same tenant may discover each other's addresses by some out-
   of-band signaling mechanism, e.g. a key-value store such as
   ([MEMCACHED]) or [ETCD] or use BGP for the same purpose as described
   in [I-D.lapukhov-bgp-opaque-signaling].  For instance, the task may




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   publish its own identifier, consisting of the tenant name and task
   name, mapped to the SIR address of the task.

   Decentralized allocation is still possible even if the unit of
   address allocation is prefix, e.g. when multiple tenants are sharing
   the infrastructure, and unique VNID (see [I-D.herbert-nvo3-ila] for
   definition) is needed per tenant to build the 96-bit prefixes
   allocated to tenants from the /64 SIR prefix.  Since the size of VNID
   space is rather small, generating random VNIDs becomes more prone to
   collision.  In this case, decentralized address allocation schemes,
   such as one described in [RFC7695] could be used.  These techniques
   require the ILA nodes to have some shared communication medium for
   nodes to "claim" the prefixes and avoid collisions.  Once again,
   various distributed key-value stores could be used to accomplish
   this.

9.2.  Centralized address management

   In the case where high level of control is needed to allocate the
   addresses, e.g. per-tenant prefixes, centralized address management
   schemes could be used in the ILA domain.  This could be either
   proprietary address allocation system, or system built on top of
   protocols such as DHCPv6.

9.3.  Role of Task scheduler

   The ILA domain needs a tasks scheduler responsible for resource
   allocation and starting of tenant's tasks on the ILA nodes.  Defining
   functions of such scheduler is outside of scope of this document.  At
   the very minimum, the scheduler would need agents running on every
   ILA host, participating in ILA address allocation, and communicating
   with the ILA control plane to publish and remove the mappings.  Since
   it's the scheduler that is responsible for task movements, it makes
   sense for the scheduler to update the mappings in the domain.

   The schedule needs some kind of API to interact with the BGP process
   on the box.  Defining the exact API is outside of scope of this
   document, but as an option the scheduler may use a BGP session to
   inject prefixes into the BGP process running on the box.

10.  ILA domain federation

   In default operation mode, the ILA domains act as if the other domain
   is unaware of mappings that exist in another.  It is possible to let
   the two domains exchange the mapping information and honor the ILA
   redirect messages from another domain by "joining" full or partial
   mapping tables of the two domains.  For example, one can envision
   multiple compute clusters, each being its own ILA domain.  In



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   standard ILA model, those clusters would need to communicate via the
   ILA routers only, increasing stress on the data-plane.  To allow
   traffic flowing directly between the hosts in each cluster and
   bypassing the ILA routers, the ILA domains may exchange the mapping
   information, and program the ILA mappings in ILA hosts to facilitate
   direct paths.

   Since each domain may re-use the 64-bit identifier space on its own,
   the use of SIR prefix is requires to make the identifiers globally
   unique.  This requirement is easily fulfilled since the SIR prefix is
   required to be globally routable in the Internet.

   To enable ILA domain federation, the BGP route-reflectors in each
   domain need need to be fully meshed and configured to use the "VPN-
   ILA" SAFI with "ILA AFI" (see [I-D.lapukhov-bgp-ila-afi]).  This will
   propagate the mappings known to each route-reflector scoped with the
   SIR prefix of the local domain.  If multiple domains are federated in
   this way, intermediate route-reflectors could be used, and filtering
   techniques such as described in [RFC5291] and [RFC4684] could be
   employed.  The filtering may be further used to allow leaking of only
   select mappings, e.g. for the identifiers or tenants that carry lots
   of traffic.

   If "push" distribution model is chosen with ILA domain federation,
   the ILA hosts will need to be configured to use "VPN-ILA" SAFI on
   their peering sessions with the BGP route reflectors.  The ILA
   mapping entries lookup then need to be keyed both on the SIR prefix
   and the identifier to be resolved.  Given the large volume of
   mappings that may exist in federated model, the "pull" model might
   become more preferable.

11.  Operational Considerations

   ILA introduces additional step in packet routing and thus adds more
   complexity to network troubleshooting process.  At the same time,
   relative to the virtualization techniques that employ encapsulation
   and tunneling, ILA makes the underlying physical network fully
   visible to the tasks, and thus make tenant-driven troubleshooting
   simpler.  This section discusses some operational procedures specific
   to ILA and the additional fault models that are possible in presence
   of ILA.

11.1.  Operational procedures for ILA routers

   ILA routers may be added/removed from the network at any time.
   Adding a router is commonly needed to scale the capacity of the ILA
   router group when peak loads increases.  Adding an ILA router is non-
   disruptive procedure.  It starts by configuring the ILA router to



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   peer with the BGP mesh to learn of all mappings in the domain.  The
   use of BGP graceful restart (see [RFC4724]) would allow the new
   router to learn when all mappings have been advertised.  At this
   time, the router may inject the SIR prefix, joining the operational
   group of ILA routers and start forwarding ILA traffic.

   To gracefully take the ILA router out of service, it may be
   instructed to stop announcing the SIR prefix, or, in case of BGP,
   announce it with less preferable path attributes.  This will allow
   the router to still accept and forward all in-flight packets, but
   will redirect the remaining packets toward the remaining ILA routers.

11.2.  Multicast routing

   Defining multicast routing and group membership dissemination is
   outside of scope of this document.

11.3.  ILA mappint table complications

   Every packet egressing from an ILA host and matching the SIR prefix
   is subject to lookup and translation in the local ILA mapping table.
   If entry is not found, the packet is forwarded to the ILA routers by
   the virtue of SIR prefix injected in the datacenter network.  If the
   ILA router does not have the mapping, the ICMPv6 "Destination
   Unreachable" message will be sent back.  There are few observations
   to make here:

   o  Packets egressing the ILA host and not matching the SIR prefix are
      routed as usual.

   o  ILA destinations that are not yet present in the ILA mapping table
      will be initially routed toward the ILA routers (e.g. the ILA
      routers will show up in the initial "traceroute" command output).

   o  In case of missing identifier mapping, it's the ILA router that
      informs the sender of this event via an ICMPv6 "Destination
      Unreachable" message.

   Thus, the case of missing mapping is easily debuggable, though the
   "transition period" when the mapping is not yet in the ILA mapping
   table might confuse the operator using the "traceroute" command.

   Worst kind of ILA mapping table malfunction would be presence of
   incorrect mapping, i.e mappings pointing to a non-existent or
   incorrect locator.

   o  Non-existent locator.  This will route the packet through the
      network, and eventually result either in packet getting discarded



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      due to missing route or IPv6 NDP entry, or packet dropped due to
      routing loop and hop-limit expiration.  In either case, the
      original sender may detect this condition either via reception of
      ICMPv6 "Destination Unreachable" messages, or by observing the
      output of the "traceroute" command.  The ILA host may also be
      configured to make sure the identifiers fall within the known
      prefix range.

   o  Incorrect locator.  In this case, the packet will be delivered to
      the wrong ILA host, that does not have the mapping for the
      identifier.  Depending on whether the sending of ILA redirect
      messages is enabled on the host, two scenarios are possible:

      *  The destination ILA host sends back an ILA redirect message
         with empty locator, informing the sender that mapping is
         invalid.  The sender will invalidate the ILA mapping entry and
         switch over to forwarding via the ILA routers.  The latter will
         either inform if of the new mapping, or send an ICMPv6
         "Destination Unreachable" message back.

      *  The destination ILA host is not configured to send the ILA
         redirect messages back.  In this case, it simply responds with
         the ICMPv6 "Destination Unreachable" messages for the duration
         of time the sender keeps sending the packets using the
         incorrect mapping.  The mapping needs to be flushed our updated
         by some external mean.

   Next possible failure is dropped ILA redirect messages.  However,
   given that the ILA redirect message sending process has no memory,
   the recipient will eventually receive one of them, or at least finish
   the communication via an ILA router.

11.4.  ILA routers complications

   The ILA routers serve as proxies for traffic entering the ILA domain,
   as well as temporary transit hops for traffic between the ILA hosts
   when they don't have matching mappings, in case if "pull"
   distribution model is utilized.  The following operational
   observations apply:

   o  Traffic between the ILA domain and external world will necessarily
      flow asymmetrically.  The packets toward the ILA hosts sent from
      the outside will always cross the ILA routers (see Section 10 for
      exceptions from this case) and traffic returning from the ILA
      hosts to the external world will flow directly, bypassing the ILA
      routers.  This will show up in the outputs of the "traceroute"
      command running from sender and destination and showing asymmetric




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      paths.  This being said, asymmetric traffic flows are very common
      in modern networks, and thus it should be a problem on its own.

   o  A failure of ILA router should be handled by re-balancing the load
      automatically by means of ECMP re-hashing in the network, and
      therefore should be mostly transparent to the ILA hosts, unless
      the load increases significantly after the failure.  It is
      possible to have cascading failure and lose all ILA routers, or
      have them over-utilized.  This event should be detected by
      external monitoring system, and be acted upon by adding more ILA
      routers to the domain - either automatically or manually.  From
      troubleshooting perspective, the event will manifest itself via
      massive packet loss toward all hosts in the ILA domain.

   o  A malfunction of single ILA router (e.g. network interface card
      issue) would manifest itself in somewhat increased packet drop
      ratios for flows crossing the ILA routers, mostly traffic from
      external nodes.  The more ILA routers the domain has, the harder
      to notice this ratio would be, since ECMP mostly spreads traffic
      evenly over all the ILA routers.  This problem is more specific to
      ECMP behavior, and tooling exists to deal with it in datacenter
      networks.

   To sum the above up - the health of ILA router is critical to the ILA
   domain functions, even if "push" model is employed and the ILA
   routers are used mostly for external communications.  The ILA routers
   should be monitored closely for vital parameters, such as CPU and
   memory utilization, traffic rates on their network interfaces, and
   packet loss toward the ILA routers themselves.

12.  Deployment Scenario Primer

   Building upon the concepts presented above, this section provides a
   simple ILA deployment scenario.

   o  For locator addressing, unique-local addresses should be
      allocated, with 16-bit available for sub-allocation.  This allows,
      for example, supporting 1024 (2^10) Tier-3 switches with 64 (2^4)
      servers under each Tier-3 switch.  Using the Clos topology from
      section Section 4.1 one can build 32 clusters with 32 Tier-3
      switches each.

   o  The hosts in the network could use BGP to peer with Tier-3
      switches and inject their locator prefixes.  It's desirable, but
      not necessary to configure the route summarization on the network
      switches, depending on the size of the deployment.





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   o  Given the small to moderate scale of deployment, four IBGP route-
      reflectors could be deployed in the ILA domain, without the need
      for extra level of aggregation hierarchy.  Each route-reflector
      will need to be configured to accept the BGP sessions from all of
      ILA hosts validated to be able to maintain thousands of peering
      sessions.

   o  The ILA hosts and routers should be configured with a single SIR
      prefix, and set up for "push" mapping distribution model, by
      disabling sending the ILA redirection messages.  This will result
      in all ILA mappings propagated to all hosts and ILA routers via
      BGP.  Each ILA host and router will need to be running a BGP
      process and peer with all four route-reflectors.

   o  The ILA routers will inject the SIR prefix using BGP into the
      datacenter network.

   o  For tasks running on ILA hosts, the globally unique 60-bit ILA
      identifiers should be allocated independently in pseudo-random
      fashion by the host that first starts the task.

   o  As task is moved, the task scheduler will update the mapping and
      publish it via BGP, forcing the ILA routers and ILA hosts to
      update their ILA mapping tables.

   o  ILA domain federation is not used, making every ILA domain
      communicate to each other via the ILA routers only.

13.  IANA Considerations

   None

14.  Manageability Considerations

   TBD

15.  Security Considerations

   The ILA introduces new security considerations described below.

15.1.  ILA host security

   If unsecured ILA redirect messages are used, the ILA hosts could be
   exposed to cache poisoning attacks.  This calls for ILA redirect
   message authentication, e.g. by use of digital signatures, such as
   [ED25519].  This will also require to use some mechanism for
   propagation of public keys associated with the SIR prefix (the ILA




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   routers) and every locator in the domain, since the ILA redirect
   message could be sent by either.

   To prevent tasks from every being able to sent packets directly
   bypassing the mapping layer, the ILA hosts should prohibit the task
   from sending packets toward the address space associated with the
   locators.  Given that all locators will likely to belong to one large
   prefix, this could be accomplished by installing a single filtering
   rule on the ILA host.

15.2.  ILA router security

   TBD

15.3.  Tenant security

   ILA does not natively isolate the tenant traffic from each other, nor
   from the underlying physical infrastructure.  In fact, this is seen
   as one benefit that makes many troubleshooting processes easier.  The
   access control then become responsibility of the tenant itself, by
   employing traffic filtering rules.  To this point, implementing
   filtering rules gets simpler if the tenant is allocated single
   prefix, as opposed to each task getting an unique identifier.

16.  Acknowledgements

   TBD

17.  Informative References

   [RFC4271]  Rekhter, Y., Ed., Li, T., Ed., and S. Hares, Ed., "A
              Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4)", RFC 4271,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4271, January 2006,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4271>.

   [RFC4456]  Bates, T., Chen, E., and R. Chandra, "BGP Route
              Reflection: An Alternative to Full Mesh Internal BGP
              (IBGP)", RFC 4456, DOI 10.17487/RFC4456, April 2006,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4456>.

   [RFC4684]  Marques, P., Bonica, R., Fang, L., Martini, L., Raszuk,
              R., Patel, K., and J. Guichard, "Constrained Route
              Distribution for Border Gateway Protocol/MultiProtocol
              Label Switching (BGP/MPLS) Internet Protocol (IP) Virtual
              Private Networks (VPNs)", RFC 4684, DOI 10.17487/RFC4684,
              November 2006, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4684>.





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Internet-Draft        draft-lapukhov-ila-deployment           March 2016


   [RFC5291]  Chen, E. and Y. Rekhter, "Outbound Route Filtering
              Capability for BGP-4", RFC 5291, DOI 10.17487/RFC5291,
              August 2008, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5291>.

   [RFC6740]  Atkinson, RJ. and SN. Bhatti, "Identifier-Locator Network
              Protocol (ILNP) Architectural Description", RFC 6740,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6740, November 2012,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6740>.

   [RFC2791]  Yu, J., "Scalable Routing Design Principles", RFC 2791,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2791, July 2000,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2791>.

   [RFC3633]  Troan, O. and R. Droms, "IPv6 Prefix Options for Dynamic
              Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) version 6", RFC 3633,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3633, December 2003,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3633>.

   [RFC4724]  Sangli, S., Chen, E., Fernando, R., Scudder, J., and Y.
              Rekhter, "Graceful Restart Mechanism for BGP", RFC 4724,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4724, January 2007,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4724>.

   [RFC4760]  Bates, T., Chandra, R., Katz, D., and Y. Rekhter,
              "Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4", RFC 4760,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4760, January 2007,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4760>.

   [RFC4786]  Abley, J. and K. Lindqvist, "Operation of Anycast
              Services", BCP 126, RFC 4786, DOI 10.17487/RFC4786,
              December 2006, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4786>.

   [RFC6769]  Raszuk, R., Heitz, J., Lo, A., Zhang, L., and X. Xu,
              "Simple Virtual Aggregation (S-VA)", RFC 6769,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6769, October 2012,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6769>.

   [RFC6830]  Farinacci, D., Fuller, V., Meyer, D., and D. Lewis, "The
              Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP)", RFC 6830,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6830, January 2013,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6830>.

   [RFC7695]  Pfister, P., Paterson, B., and J. Arkko, "Distributed
              Prefix Assignment Algorithm", RFC 7695,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7695, November 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7695>.





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   [I-D.herbert-nvo3-ila]
              Herbert, T., "Identifier-locator addressing for network
              virtualization", draft-herbert-nvo3-ila-02 (work in
              progress), March 2016.

   [I-D.ietf-rtgwg-bgp-routing-large-dc]
              Lapukhov, P., Premji, A., and J. Mitchell, "Use of BGP for
              routing in large-scale data centers", draft-ietf-rtgwg-
              bgp-routing-large-dc-09 (work in progress), March 2016.

   [I-D.lapukhov-bgp-opaque-signaling]
              Lapukhov, P., Marques, P., and E. Nkposong, "Use of BGP
              for Opaque Signaling", draft-lapukhov-bgp-opaque-
              signaling-01 (work in progress), February 2016.

   [I-D.ietf-v6ops-dc-ipv6]
              Lopez, D., Chen, Z., Tsou, T., Zhou, C., and A. Servin,
              "IPv6 Operational Guidelines for Datacenters", draft-ietf-
              v6ops-dc-ipv6-01 (work in progress), February 2014.

   [I-D.lapukhov-bgp-ila-afi]
              Lapukhov, P., "Use of BGP for dissemination of ILA mapping
              information", draft-lapukhov-bgp-ila-afi-00 (work in
              progress), March 2016.

   [I-D.ietf-grow-bmp]
              Scudder, J., Fernando, R., and S. Stuart, "BGP Monitoring
              Protocol", draft-ietf-grow-bmp-17 (work in progress),
              January 2016.

   [I-D.ietf-nvo3-arch]
              Black, D., Hudson, J., Kreeger, L., Lasserre, M., and T.
              Narten, "An Architecture for Overlay Networks (NVO3)",
              draft-ietf-nvo3-arch-05 (work in progress), March 2016.

   [ED25519]  "Ed25519: high-speed high-security signatures",
              <https://ed25519.cr.yp.to>.

   [ETCD]     "coreos/etcd", <https://github.com/coreos/etcd>.

   [MEMCACHED]
              "Memcached", <https://memcached.org/>.

   [ROUTED-DESIGN]
              "High Availability Campus Network Design", 2008, <http://w
              ww.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/solutions/Enterprise/Campus/
              routed-ex.html>.




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   [LINUX-NAMESPACES]
              "Namespaces in operation, part 1: namespaces overview",
              2013, <https://lwn.net/Articles/531114/>.

   [IPVLAN]   "IPVLAN Driver HOWTO", 2013,
              <https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/master/
              Documentation/networking/ipvlan.txt>.

Author's Address

   Petr Lapukhov
   Facebook
   1 Hacker Way
   Menlo Park, CA  94025
   US

   Email: petr@fb.com


































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