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Versions: 00 draft-ietf-pce-interas-pcecp-reqs

Network Working Group                             J.-L. Le Roux (Editor)
Internet Draft                                            France Telecom






Category: Informational
Expires: April 2006
                                                            October 2005


 PCE Communication Protocol (PCECP) specific requirements for Inter-Area
                       (G)MPLS Traffic Engineering


             draft-leroux-pce-pcecp-interarea-reqs-00.txt


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Abstract

   For scalability purposes a network may comprise multiple IGP areas.
   An inter-area TE-LSP is an LSP that transits through at least two IGP
   areas. In a multi-area network, topology visibility remains local to
   a given area, and a head-end LSR cannot compute alone an inter-area
   shortest constrained path. One key application of the Path
   Computation Element (PCE) architecture is the computation of inter-
   area TE-LSP paths. In this context, this document lists a detailed
   set of PCE Communication Protocol (PCECP) specific requirements for
   support of inter-area TE-LSP path computation. It complements generic
   requirements for a PCE Communication Protocol.

Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119.

Table of Contents

   1.      Contributors................................................3
   2.      Terminology.................................................3
   3.      Introduction................................................4
   4.      Problem Statement...........................................5
   5.      Various approaches for PCE-based inter-area path
           computation.................................................6
   5.1.    Single PCE Computation......................................6
   5.2.    Multiple PCE path computation with inter-PCE
           communication...............................................8
   6.      Considerations on PCE location..............................9
   7.      Detailed Requirements on PCECP.............................10
   7.1.    Supported modes for PCE-based inter-area path
           computation................................................10
   7.2.    Control of area crossing...................................10
   7.3.    Objective functions........................................11
   7.4.    TE metric / IGP metric.....................................11
   7.5.    Recording path attributes..................................11
   7.6.    Strict Explicit path and Loose Path........................12
   7.7.    PCE-list enforcement and recording in Multiple PCE
           Computation................................................12
   7.8.    Inclusion of Area IDs in request...........................13
   7.9.    Load-Balancing.............................................13
   7.10.   Diverse Path computation...................................13
   7.11.   LSP failure handling.......................................14
   7.11.1. LSP Rerouting..............................................14
   7.11.2. Backup path computation....................................14
   7.12.   Inter-Area policies........................................15
   7.13.   Scalability................................................15
   8.      Manageability consideration................................16
   9.      Security Considerations....................................16
   10.     Acknowledgments............................................16

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   11.     Informative References.....................................16
   12.     Editor Address:............................................17
   13.     Contributors' Addresses....................................17
   14.     Intellectual Property Statement............................18


1. Contributors

   The following are the authors that contributed to the present
   document:

   Jerry Ash (AT&T)
   Dean Cheng (Cisco)
   Kenji Kumaki (KDDI)
   J.L. Le Roux (France Telecom)
   Eiji Oki (NTT)
   Nabil Bitar (Verizon)
   Raymond Zhang (BT Infonet)

2. Terminology

      LSR: Label Switching Router

      LSP: MPLS Label Switched Path

      TE-LSP: Traffic Engineering Label Switched Path

      IGP area: OSPF Area or IS-IS level

      ABR: IGP Area Border Router, a router that is attached to more
           than one IGP areas (ABR in OSPF or L1/L2 router in IS-IS)

      Inter-Area TE LSP: TE LSP that traverses more than one IGP area

      CSPF: Constraint Shortest Path First

      SRLG: Shared Risk Link Group

      PCE: Path Computation Element, an entity that can compute path
           based on a network graph and applying computational
           constraints

      PCC: Path Computation Client, any application that request path
           computation to be performed by a PCE

      PCECP: PCE Communication Protocol, a protocol for communication
             between PCCs and PCEs






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3. Introduction

   IGP hierarchy consists of separating an IGP domain into multiple IGP
   areas, and limiting the topology visibility local to an area. This
   mechanism significantly improves IGP scalability.

   [RFC4105] lists a set of motivations and requirements for setting up
   TE-LSPs across IGP area boundaries. These LSPs are called inter-area
   TE-LSPs. These requirements include the computation of inter-
   area shortest constrained paths with key guidelines being to respect
   the IGP hierarchy concept, and particularly the containment of
   topology information. The main challenge with inter-area MPLS-TE
   relies actually on path computation. The head-end LSR cannot compute
   an end-to-end shortest constrained path, as its topology visibility
   is limited to one area. Path computation can rely on loose hops with
   ERO expansion on each ABR, but this faces two issues: (1) it does not
   guarantee the computation of a shortest path that satisfies the TE-
   LSP constraints, and (2) it may result in several signalling
   crankback messages before it successfully sets up the path.

   The Path Computation Element (PCE) Architecture, defined in [PCE-
   ARCH] can provide a suitable framework for computing an inter-area
   shortest path for a TE-LSP.
   [PCE-ARCH] defines PCEs as entities that can compute paths based on a
   network graph and applying computational constraints. A PCE function
   can be located on a LSR or a network server. It defines a Path
   Computation Client (PCC) as an application requesting a path
   computation to be performed by a PCE. Typically a PCC can be a head-
   end LSR, a transit LSR requesting a TE-LSP path computation, or a PCE
   requesting a path computation of another PCE, in a collaborative
   mode.

   One of the key applications of the PCE architecture is inter-domain
   path computation, where head-end LSRs have a limited topology view
   beyond its own domain. This includes both inter-area and inter-AS
   path computation.
   Inter-area path computation requirements expressed in [RFC4105] may
   be achieved using the services of one or more PCEs.
   PCE-based inter-area path computation could rely for instance on a
   single multi-area PCE that has the TE database of all the areas in
   the IGP domain and can directly compute an end-to-end shortest
   constrained path.
   Alternatively, PCE-based inter-area path computation could rely on
   the cooperation between PCEs whereby each PCE covers one or more IGP
   areas and the full set of PCEs covers all areas.

   The generic requirements for a PCE Communication Protocol (PCECP),
   allowing a PCC to send path computation requests to a PCE and the PCE
   to sent path computation response to a PCC are listed in [PCE-COM-
   REQ]. The use of a PCE-based approach, for inter-area path
   computation implies specific requirements on a PCE Communication


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   Protocol, in addition to the generic requirements already listed in
   [PCE-COM-REQ].
   This document complements these generic requirements by listing a
   detailed set of PCECP requirements specific to the PCE-based
   computation of inter-area TE-LSPs.

   The problem statement is discussed in section 4. Various PCE-based
   modes for inter-area path computation are described in section 5.
   Considerations for PCE location are provided in section 6. Finally
   detailed requirements are listed in section 7.

   It is expected that a solution for a PCE Communication Protocol
   (PCECP) satisfies these requirements.

   Note that PCE-based inter-area path computation may require a
   mechanism for an automatic PCE discovery across areas, which is out
   of the scope of this document. Detailed requirements for such
   mechanism are discussed in [PCE-DISCO-REQ].

4. Problem Statement

   In intra-area MPLS-TE, a head-end LSR has complete topology
   visibility of the area and can compute an end-to-end shortest
   constrained path. IGP hierarchy allows improving IGP scalability,
   particularly in large networks with hundreds of nodes and thousands
   of links, by dividing the IGP domain into areas and limiting the
   flooding scope of topology information to area boundaries. A router
   in an area has full topology information for its own area but only
   reachability to routes in other areas._ Thus, a head-end LSR cannot
   compute an end-to-end constrained path that traverses more than one
   IGP area.

   A solution for computing inter-area TE-LSP path relies on a per
   domain path computation ([PD-COMP]). It is based on loose hop routing
   with an ERO expansion on each ABR. This can allow setting up a
   constrained path, but faces two major limitations:
        -This does not allow computing an optimal constrained path
        -This may lead to several signalling crankback messages and
         hence delay the LSP setup, and invoke routing activities.

   Note that, here, by optimal constrained path we mean the shortest
   constrained path across multiple areas, taking into account either
   the IGP or TE metric [METRIC]. In other words, such a path is the
   path that would have been computed by making use of some CSPF
   algorithm in the absence of multiple IGP areas.

   The PCE architecture is well suited to inter-area path computation,
   as it allows overcoming the path computation limitations resulting
   from the limited topology visibility, by introducing path computation
   entities with more topology visibility, or by allowing cooperation
   between path computation entities in each area.


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   Several PCE-based path computation approaches can be used to compute
   inter-area optimal constrained paths, they are discussed in next
   section.

   The use of a PCE-based approach, to perform inter-area path
   computation requires specific functions in a PCECP, in addition to
   the generic requirements listed in [PCE-COM-REQ]. Detailed
   requirements are discussed in section 7.

5. Various approaches for PCE-based inter-area path computation

   There are various possible modes for PCE-Based inter-area path
   computation.
   The computation of an inter-area optimal path could be done by:
         - a single PCE, that has enough topology visibility and can
           alone compute an end-to-end optimal path,
         - multiple PCEs, that have partial topology
           visibility and collaborate with each other so as to arrive at
           an end-to-end optimal path.

   These two modes are referred as to "Single PCE computation" and
   "Multiple PCE computation with inter-PCE communication" in [PCE-
   ARCH]. Note that these two modes may co-exist in a given multi-area
   network.

   Note that the per-area path computation mode relying on route
   expansion performed directly by ABRs on the path (which function has
   composite PCEs) , or on external PCEs contacted by the ABRs on the
   path, consists in fact of a simple concatenation of intra area paths.
   It actually only implies intra-area path computations and does not
   allow computing inter-area optimal paths. Hence this mode is not
   discussed in this document.

5.1. Single PCE Computation

   In this mode the inter-area path computation is directly performed by
   a single PCE that has enough topology information to compute an end-
   to-end optimal path.
   No inter-PCE communication is required in this mode.

   This mode requires that the PCE have at least the TED of all the
   crossed areas for a given LSP. The actual distribution of PCEs may
   vary, i.e., a PCE may have TE database base from two, three or more
   IGP areas. If the head-end and tail-end LSRs are located in two
   peripheral areas, the PCE must have the TED of the source, backbone,
   and destination areas. In the particular case where the head-
   end/tail-End LSR is located in the backbone area and the tail-
   end/head-end LSR is located in a peripheral area, the PCE only needs
   the TED of the backbone area and the peripheral area to compute the
   path.



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   Figure 1 below illustrates an example of single PCE inter-area
   computation.

                       ------
                      | PCE0 |
                   /   ------   \
                  /      |       \
                 /       |        \
                /        |         \
               /         |          \
     ------------------------------------------
    |            |               |             |
    |           ABR2            ABR3           |
   R1    area1   |    area0      |    area2    R2
    |           ABR1            ABR4           |
    |            |               |             |
     ------------------------------------------

   Figure 1: Example of single PCE computation.

   In this multi area network PCE0 has topology visibility in area1,
   area0 and area2 and can compute and end-to-end path from area 1 to
   area 2. To setup an inter-area LSP from R1 in area 1 to R2 in area 2,
   R1 has to directly contact PCE0.

   Note that this mode may rely on PCEs that have knowledge of topology
   in all areas. Such a PCE is called an "all-areas" PCE.
   Particular attention should be given on the potential limitations of
   this "all-areas" PCE approach, in terms of scalability. Such all-area
   PCEs may have to maintain a large topology and this raises
   scalability issues both in terms of memory to maintain the TED and
   processing to synchronize TED information.
   Also such all-area PCEs would potentially serve a large number of
   PCCs, and hence may face a huge path computation request overload
   during a network event such as link or node failure (that may impact
   a large number of TE-LSPs on a large number of head-end LSRs). This
   may significantly delay the TE-LSP recovery, and thus may diminish
   the benefits of such an approach.















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5.2. Multiple PCE path computation with inter-PCE communication

   In this mode the computation of an optimal inter-area TE-LSP path is
   distributed across multiple PCEs.
   There is at least one PCE per area, and those PCEs do not have enough
   topology visibility to compute and inter-area optimal path.
   PCEs in each area compute path segments in their respective areas and
   collaborate together to arrive at an end-to-end inter-area optimal
   path. Such collaboration is ensured thanks to inter-PCE
   communication.
   The actual distribution of PCEs may vary, i.e. a PCE may have TE
   database from one, two, or more IGP areas, and the important thing is
   that the collection of topology and TE information maintained by a
   set of PCEs collectively must cover all the IGP areas where all
   inter-area LSPs traverse.

   Figure 2 and 3 below illustrate two examples of multiple PCE inter-
   area computation

        ------          ------        ------
       | PCE1 |<------>| PCE0 |<---->| PCE2 |
        ------          ------        ------
          |               |              |
          |               |              |
     --------------------------------------------
    |            |                 |             |
    |           ABR2              ABR3           |
   R1    area1   |    area0        |    area2    R2
    |           ABR1              ABR4           |
    |            |                 |             |
     --------------------------------------------

   Figure 2: Cooperation between single-area PCEs

   Figure 2 above illustrates a multi-area network with 3 areas. PCE0,
   PCE1 and PCE2 are PCEs responsible for path computation respectively
   in area 0, 1 and 2. These PCEs have topology visibility limited to
   one area and are called single-area PCEs.
   To setup an inter-area LSP from R1 in area 1 to R2 in area 2, R1 has
   to contact PCE1. PCE1 then collaborates with PCE0, and PCE0 with PCE2
   so as to compute an end-to-end shortest constrained path.












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             ------             ------
            | PCE1 |   <---->  | PCE2 |
             ------             ------
            /      \            /    \
           /        \          /      \
     --------------------------------------------
    |            |                 |             |
    |           ABR2              ABR3           |
   R1    area1   |    area0        |    area2    R2
    |           ABR1              ABR4           |
    |            |                 |             |
     --------------------------------------------

   Figure 3: Cooperation between multi-area PCEs

   Figure 3 above illustrates a multi-area network with 3 areas. PCE1,
   and PCE2 are PCEs responsible for path computation respectively in
   area 0+1 and in area 0+2. This means that PCE1 and PCE2 have topology
   visibility in area0+area1 and area0+area2 respectively.
   To setup an inter-area LSP from R1 in area 1 to R2 in area 2, R1 has
   to contact PCE1. PCE1 then collaborates with PCE2, so as to compute
   an end-to-end shortest constrained path.

6. Considerations on PCE location

   As explained in [PCE-ARCH] a PCE can be a LSR or a network server.

   But note that in the inter-area context, it may be quite efficient
   for the ABRs to act as PCEs. Indeed, ABRs have topology information
   of the backbone area and at least one peripheral area. An inter-area
   TE-LSP optimal path computation could rely on a single ABR, if the
   path crosses only two IGP areas, or on collaboration between two ABRs
   in case the path crosses three IGP areas.
   For instance, in figure 2 above, ABR1 or ABR2 can play PCE1 role, and
   similarly ABR3 or ABR4 can play PCE2 role. Note that such ABRs are
   not necessarily transit LSRs on the computed inter-area TE LSP.

   With such PCE distribution on ABRs, the PCECP would run directly
   between LSRs. Note that if N peripheral areas are connected to one
   backbone area, with at least N ABRs, inter-area path computation
   would potentially require a full mesh of N^2 PCE-PCE communications
   between ABRs. This reinforces the requirement for communication
   protocol overhead minimization, expressed in [PCE-COM-REQ].










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7. Detailed Requirements on PCECP

   This section lists a set of additional requirements for the PCE
   Communication Protocol that complement requirements listed in [PCE-
   COM-REQ] and are specific to inter-area (G)MPLS TE path computation.

7.1. Supported modes for PCE-based inter-area path computation

   The PCECP MUST support the two PCE based inter-area path computation
   modes set forth in section 5.

   Multiple PCE inter-area path computation requires cooperation between
   PCEs. Hence the PCECP MUST support cooperation between PCEs so as to
   arrive at an inter-area optimal path. It MUST allow requests and
   replies for cooperative inter-area path computation.

   A simple cooperation may consists in exchanging intra or inter-area
   path Segments, and combine them to build an end-to-end optimal path.
   This is a basic cooperation level that allows building an inter-area
   optimal path in a recursive manner.
   The path segment combination could be done in the backward
   direction, in which case an inter-PCE response message includes a set
   of computed intra or inter-area path segments from a set of
   downstream ABRs to the destination, along with their respective cost.
   These path segments have to be completed by upstream PCEs in a
   recursive manner so as to build an end-to-end optimal path across
   areas. To support this collaboration mode, a response message MUST
   allow the inclusion of multiple intra-area or inter-area path
   segments from a set of downstream ABRs, to the destination, along
   with their respective cost (see also 8.4).

   Note that path segment combination in the forward direction is for
   further Study.

7.2. Control of area crossing

   In addition to the path constraints specified in section 6.1.16 of
   [PCE-COM-REQ] the request message MUST allow indicating whether area
   crossing is allowed or not.
   Indeed, for inter-area TE LSPs whose head-end and tail-end LSRs
   reside in the same IGP area, there may be intra-area and inter-area
   feasible paths, and, as set forth in [RFC4105], if the shortest path
   is an inter-area path, an operator either may want to avoid, as far
   as possible, crossing area and thus may prefer selecting a sub-
   optimal intra-area path or, conversely, may prefer to use a shortest
   path, even if it crosses areas.







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7.3. Objective functions

   *Editorial note: This section will be moved to the generic
   requirement draft [PCE-COM-REQ] as this requirement applies to
   various PCE applications*

   As specified in [PCE-COM-REQ] an objective function corresponds to
   the optimization criteria used for the computation of one path, or
   the synchronized computation of a set of paths.  In case of
   unsynchronized path computation, this can be, for example, the path
   cost or the residual bandwidth on the most loaded path link.  In case
   of synchronized path computation, this can be, for example, the
   global bandwidth consumption or the residual bandwidth on the most
   loaded network link.

   For the purpose of inter-area path computation the PCECP MUST support
   the following "unsynchronized" objective functions:
        -Minimum cost path (shortest path)
        -Least loaded path (widest path)
        -To be completed

   Also the PCECP SHOULD support the following "synchronized" objective
   functions:
        -Minimize aggregate bandwidth consumption on all links
        -Maximize the residual bandwidth on the most loaded link.
        -Minimize the cumulative cost of a set of diverse paths.

   Note that the absence of an objective function in this list does not
   mean that it must not be supported.  As per the extensibility
   requirement expressed in [PCE-COM-REQ], note that new objective
   functions can be added to this list without impacting the protocol.

7.4. TE metric / IGP metric

   The shortest path selection may rely either on the TE metric or on
   the IGP metric (see [METRIC]). Hence the PCECP request message MUST
   allow indicating the metric type (IGP or TE) to be used for shortest
   path selection.

7.5. Recording path attributes

   There are at least three aggregate path attributes defined in
   (G)MPLS-TE: the hop-count, the cumulated TE-metric, and the cumulated
   IGP-metric. The operator can actually give any semantic to the TE
   metric and IGP metric. As suggested in [METRIC], if the TE-metric
   encodes the link cost and the IGP metric the link delay, the
   cumulated TE-metric indicates the total cost of the LSP and the
   cumulated IGP metric the end-to-end propagation delay (provided that
   the LSR transit delay is neglected in a first approximation).

   A PCC may need to know the aggregate path attributes of an LSR, for
   instance to select a preferred path among a set of computed paths.

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   In an inter-area context, a PCC may not be able to deduce this
   information from the supplied path.
   Therefore the PCECP request message MUST allow indicating the set of
   aggregate path attributes (hop-count, cumulated TE-metric, cumulated
   IGP-Metric) that are required in the reply and the PCECP response
   message MUST support the inclusion of a set of aggregate path
   attributes.

   Note that if new TE link attributes are defined in the future to
   encode specific link parameters, and allowing to define specific
   aggregate path constraints, such as, e.g. delay, distance or power
   loss, the PCEPC will have to be extended to support them.

   Note that in case the computed path includes loose hops the PCE may
   not be able to give an accurate aggregate path attribute. Hence the
   response message MUST allow indicating that an aggregate path
   attribute is unknown.

7.6. Strict Explicit path and Loose Path

   A Strict Explicit Path is defined as a set of strict hops.
   A Loose Path is defined as a set of strict and loose hops.
   An inter-area path may be strictly explicit or loose (e.g. a list of
   ABRs as loose hops)
   It may be useful to indicate to the PCE if a Strict Explicit path is
   required or not.
   Hence the PCECP request message MUST allow indicating if a Strict
   Explicit Path is required/desired.

7.7. PCE-list enforcement and recording in Multiple PCE Computation

   In case of multiple-PCE path computation, a PCC may want to indicate
   a preferred list of PCEs to be used.
   Hence the PCECP request message MUST support the inclusion of a list
   of preferred PCEs.
   Note that this requires that a PCC in one area have knowledge of PCEs
   in other areas. This could rely on configuration or on a PCE
   discovery mechanism, allowing discovery across area boundaries (see
   [PCE-DISCO-REQ]).

   Also it would be useful to know the list of PCEs which effectively
   participated in the computation.
   Hence the request message MUST support requesting for PCE recording
   and the response message MUST support the recording of the set of one
   or more PCEs that took part into the computation.
   It may also be useful to know the path segments computed by each PCE.
   Hence the request message SHOULD allow requesting for the
   identification of path segment computed by a PCE, and the response
   message SHOULD allow identifying the path segments computed by each
   PCE.



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7.8. Inclusion of Area IDs in request

   The knowledge of the area in which the source and destination lie
   would allow selection of appropriate cooperating PCEs.
   A PCE may not be able to determine the location of the source and
   destination LSRs. Hence it would be useful that a PCC indicates the
   source area ID and destination area IDs.

   For that purpose the request message MUST support the inclusion of
   source and destination area IDs.
   Note that this information could be learned on the PCC by
   configuration.

7.9. Load-Balancing

   *Editorial note: This section will be moved to the generic
   requirement draft [PCE-COM-REQ] as this requirement applies to
   various PCE applications*

   In some cases a single inter-area path may not fit a TE-LSP bandwidth
   constraint. In this case it may be useful to setup a set of paths
   whose cumulated residual bandwidth fit the TE-LSP bandwidth request.
   This is what we call load balancing.
   So as to avoid ending up with a huge number of paths for a given
   request, and/or with low bandwidth paths, it is required to control
   the number of computed paths and the minimum path bandwidth.

   The request message MUST allow indicating if load-balancing is
   allowed or not. It MUST also include the number of paths in a load-
   balancing path group, and the minimum path bandwidth in a load-
   balancing path group. The response MUST support the inclusion of the
   set of computed paths of a load-balancing path group, as well as
   their respective bandwidth.

7.10. Diverse Path computation

   For various reasons including protection and load balancing, the
   computation of diverse inter-area paths may be required.
   There are various levels of diversity in an inter-area context:
        -Per area diversity (intra-area path segments are link, node or
         SRLG disjoint)
        -Inter-Area diversity (end-to-end inter-area paths are link,
         node or SRLG disjoint)

   Note that two paths may be disjoint in the backbone area but shared
   in peripheral areas. Also two paths may be node disjoints within
   areas but may share ABRs.

   The request message MUST allow requesting the computation of a set of
   diverse paths between a same couple of nodes or distinct couples of
   nodes. It MUST allow indicating the required level of intra-area


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   diversity (link, node, SRLG) on a per area basis, as well as the
   level of inter-area diversity (shared ABRs or ABR disjointness).

   The response message MUST allow indicating the level of diversity of
   a set of computed loose paths.

   Note that specific objective function may be requested for diverse
   path computation, such as to minimize the cumulated cost of a set of
   diverse paths (see also 7.3).

7.11. LSP failure handling

7.11.1. LSP Rerouting

   *Editorial note: This section will be moved to the generic
   requirement draft [PCE-COM-REQ] as this requirement applies to
   various PCE applications*

   Upon LSP failure, due to link, node or SRLG failure, a head-end LSR
   may send a request to the PCE so as to reroute the LSP over an
   alternate path. So as to ease the computation such request should
   include the previous path and the failed element (if it can be
   identified).

   Hence the request message MUST allow indicating if the computation is
   for an LSP restoration, and MUST support the inclusion of the
   previously computed path as well as the failed element.
   Note that the old path is actually useful only if the old LSP is not
   torn down yet. This is up to the PCC to decide if it includes the old
   path or not.

   Note that a network failure may impact a large number of LSPs. A
   potentially large number of PCCs, are going to simultaneously send a
   request to the PCE. Some jittering may be used on PCCs so as to delay
   a request to the PCE, under network failure condition.

   The PCECP MAY support  the inclusion, in a response message to a PCC,
   of an upper bound of the jitter to be used for further requests to
   the PCE (e.g. the PCC will wait for a random value between 0 and the
   upper bound before sending another request). This upper bound would
   depend on the level of congestion of the PCE.

7.11.2. Backup path computation

   ABRs can be protected using Fast Reroute (FRR) node protection [MPLS-
   FRR]. This requires setting up inter-area FRR backup LSPs (bypass or
   detour).
   The PCECP SHOULD support the computation of inter-area FRR backup
   LSPs (detour or bypass). Note that the objective function may be to
   minimize overhaul backup bandwidth consumption, by maximizing
   bandwidth sharing among backup LSPs protecting independent elements.


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   Detailed requirements for intra and inter-area PCE-based backup path
   computation are for further study and will be addressed in a separate
   document.

7.12. Inter-Area policies

   As already defined in Section 8.2 a request message MUST allow
   indicating whether area crossing is allowed or not.

   A PCE may want to apply policies based on the initiating PCC.
   In a multiple-PCE computation the address of the initiating PCC may
   no longer be part of the request messages sent between PCEs.
   Hence, the request message MUST support the inclusion of the address
   of the originator PCC.

   Note that in some case this is important to contain an inter-area
   path within a single AS. Hence the request message MUST allow
   indicating that AS crossing is not authorized.

7.13. Scalability

   As already pointed out in [PCE-COM-REQ] the PCECP MUST scale well, at
   least as good as linearly, with an increase of any of the following
   parameters:
      - number of PCCs communicating with a single PCE
      - number of PCEs communicated to by a single PCC
      - number of PCEs communicated to by another PCE
      - number of request per PCE per second in steady state
      - number of requests per PCE per second under emergency condition

   Note that these numbers will depend on the level of PCE distribution
   and on the PCE approach used (Single PCE computation, Multiple PCEs
   computation…)

   For instance in a network that comprises I IGP areas, with P PCCs
   per area and A ABRs per area boundary then
        -For single PCE computation with an all-areas PCE Server:
                -Number of PCCs communicating with a single PCE=I*P
                -Number of PCEs communicated to by a single PCC=1
                -Number of PCEs communicated to by another PCE=0

        -For multiple PCE computation with ABRs acting as PCEs:
                -Number of PCCs communicating with a single PCE=P
                -Number of PCE communicated to by a single PCC=I*A
                -Number of PCEs communicated to by another PCE=I*A

   Typical values for a large inter-area network can be: I=50, P=100,
   and A=2.

   Note also that the memory and CPU consumed to maintain and
   synchronize the TED on a PCE will directly depend on the number of


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   areas under control of the PCE. This may diminish the benefits of
   "all area" PCEs, but this is beyond the scope of this document.

8. Manageability consideration

    Manageability of inter-area PCEs must address the following
    consideration for section 7:

    - need for a MIB module for control plane and monitoring
    - need for built-in diagnostic tools
    - configuration implications for the protocol

9. Security Considerations

   IGP areas are administrated by the same entity. Hence the inter-area
   application does not imply new trust model, or new security issues
   beyond those already defined in [PCE-COM-REQ].

10. Acknowledgments

   We would also like to thank Adrian Farrel, Jean-Philippe Vasseur,
   Bruno Decraene and Yannick Le Louedec for their useful comments and
   suggestions.

11. Informative References

   [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
   Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3667] Bradner, S., "IETF Rights in Contributions", BCP 78, RFC
   3667, February 2004.

   [BCP79] Bradner, S., "Intellectual Property Rights in IETF
   Technology", RFC 3979, March 2005.

   [RFC4105] Le Roux J.L., Vasseur J.P., Boyle, J., et al. "Requirements
   for inter-area MPLS-TE" RFC 4105, June 2005.

   [PCE-ARCH] A. Farrel, JP. Vasseur and J. Ash, “Path Computation
   Element (PCE) Architecture”, draft-ietf-pce-architecture (work in
   progress).

   [PCE-COM-REQ] J. Ash, J.L Le Roux et al., “PCE Communication Protocol
   Generic Requirements”, draft-ietf-pce-comm-protocol-gen-reqs (work in
   progress).

   [PCE-DISC-REQ] J.L. Le Roux et al., “Requirements for Path
   Computation Element (PCE) Discovery”, draft-ietf-pce-discovery-reqs
   (work in progress).



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   [PD-COMP] Vasseur, J.P., Ayyangar, A., Zhang, R., " A Per-domain path
   computation method for computing Inter-domain Traffic Engineering
   (TE) Label Switched Path (LSP)", draft-ietf-ccamp-inter-domain-pd-
   path-comp, work in progress

   [METRIC] Le Faucheur, F., Uppili, R., Vedrenne, A., Merckx, P.,
   and T. Telkamp, "Use of Interior Gateway Protocol(IGP) Metric as a
   second MPLS Traffic Engineering (TE) Metric", BCP 87, RFC 3785, May
   2004.

   [ID-RSVP] Ayyangar, A., Vasseur, J.P., "Inter domain GMPLS Traffic
   Engineering - RSVP-TE extensions", draft-ietf-ccamp-inter-domain-
   rsvp-te, work in progress.


12. Editor Address:

   Jean-Louis Le Roux
   France Telecom
   2, avenue Pierre-Marzin
   22307 Lannion Cedex
   FRANCE
   Email: jeanlouis.leroux@francetelecom.com

13. Contributors' Addresses

   Jerry Ash
   AT&T
   Room MT D5-2A01
   200 Laurel Avenue
   Middletown, NJ 07748, USA
   Phone: +1-(732)-420-4578
   Email: gash@att.com

   Nabil Bitar
   Verizon
   40 Sylvan Road
   Waltham, MA 02145
   Email: nabil.bitar@verizon.com

   Dean Cheng
   Cisco Systems Inc.
   3700 Cisco Way
   San Jose CA 95134 USA
   Phone: +1 408 527 0677
   Email: dcheng@cisco.com

   Kenji Kumaki
   KDDI Corporation
   Garden Air Tower
   Iidabashi, Chiyoda-ku,
   Tokyo 102-8460, JAPAN

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   Phone: +81-3-6678-3103
   Email: ke-kumaki@kddi.com

   Eiji Oki
   NTT
   Midori-cho 3-9-11
   Musashino-shi, Tokyo 180-8585, JAPAN
   Email: oki.eiji@lab.ntt.co.jp

   Raymond Zhang
   BT INFONET Services Corporation
   2160 E. Grand Ave.
   El Segundo, CA 90245 USA
   Email: Raymond_zhang@bt.infonet.com


14. Intellectual Property Statement

   The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
   Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed to
   pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in
   this document or the extent to which any license under such rights
   might or might not be available; nor does it represent that it has
   made any independent effort to identify any such rights.  Information
   on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC documents can be
   found in BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any
   assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result of an
   attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use of
   such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this
   specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository at
   http://www.ietf.org/ipr.

   The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
   copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
   rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement
   this standard.  Please address the information to the IETF at
   ietf-ipr@ietf.org.

   Disclaimer of Validity

   This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
   OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET
   ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
   INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE
   INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
   WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

   Copyright Statement


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   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005).  This document is subject
   to the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78, and
   except as set forth therein, the authors retain all their rights.


















































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