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Internet Research Task Force                                   J. Levine
Internet-Draft                                      Taughannock Networks
Intended status: Experimental                          December 28, 2010
Expires: July 1, 2011


    An efficient method to publish ranges of IP addresses in the DNS
                       draft-levine-iprangepub-01

Abstract

   The DNS has long been used to publish lists of IPv4 address ranges in
   blacklists and whitelists.  The size of the IPv6 address space makes
   the entry-per-IP approach used for IPv4 lists impractical.  A new
   technique for publishing IP address ranges is described.  It is
   intended to permit efficient publishing and querying, and to have
   good DNS cache behavior.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on July 1, 2011.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as



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   described in the Simplified BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Assumptions and Goals  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  DNS record format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   4.  Lookup algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   5.  Details of blob representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   6.  Building and updating DNSBLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     6.1.  Building static DNSxLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     6.2.  Building and updating dynamic DNSxLs . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   7.  Estimated performance  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   8.  Security considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   9.  Topics for further consideration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   10. IANA considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     11.1. References - Normative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     11.2. References - Informative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   Appendix A.  Change Log  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     A.1.  Changes from -00 to -01  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11




























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1.  Introduction

   For many years, the Domain Name System[RFC1034] [RFC1035] has been
   the Internet's de facto distributed database.  Blacklists and
   whitelists of IPv4 addresses have been published in the DNS using a
   simple system adapted from rDNS[RFC5782].  A DNSxL (a DNSBL or DNSWL)
   is a DNS sub-tree, typically also a DNS zone, with each listed IP
   having an A and/or TXT record at a name corresponding to the IP
   address.  While this publication method has worked well for IPv4
   addresses, the size of the IPv6 address space makes an analogous
   approach unworkable.

   In an IPv4 Internet, each network is typically limited to a few
   thousand or at most a few million addresses.  A single host typically
   has a single address, or at most a few hundred addresses.  The
   limited size of each network forces a host to use its assigned
   address or addresses.  In IPv6 networks, hosts typically use
   Stateless Address Autoconfiguration [RFC4862] to select an IP
   address, with the low 64 bits of the address being almost entirely
   arbitrary.  A hostile host sending mail can easily switch to a new
   address for every message it sends, never reusing an address, due to
   the vast size of the IPv6 address space.

   An IPv6 DNS blacklist would use wildcards or a specialized server
   such as rbldnsd [RBLDNSD] to list entire /64 or larger ranges, but
   that does not help DNS performance.  Since wildcards are expanded by
   the DNS server, every query for a unique IP address causes a unique
   query to the DNSBL's server.  Moreover, every unique query will take
   up a cache entry in the client's local DNS cache, either a regular
   entry if the DNSBL lists the query's address, or a negative
   entry[RFC2308] if it doesn't.  In the event that hostile mailers
   (which we will call "spammers" for short) use a unique address per
   message, the normal DNSBL query traffic will both flood the DNSBL's
   server and fill local caches with useless single-use entries, forcing
   out other cached data and causing excess traffic to all the other
   servers the caches query as well.

   For blacklists, an obvious approach would be to limit the granularity
   of DNSBLs, so that, say, each /64 had a separate listing, and the
   queries only used the high 64 bits of each address.  While this might
   limit the damage from DNSBL queries, it is not helpful for DNS
   whitelists, which by their nature list individual IP addresses, and
   are likely to be far more popular with IPv6 mail than they have been
   with IPv4 mail.

   The problem of looking up an address in a sorted list of IP addresses
   stored on a remote DNS server is not unlike the problem of searching
   for a key in a sorted list of keys stored on a disk, a problem that



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   is common in database applications.  An approach called _B-trees_ has
   been widely used in databases since the 1970s, and is described in
   standard references such as [KNUTHV3].  The technique in this
   document stores ordered sets of IP address ranges in DNS records,
   using a straightforward adaptation of the way that B-trees store
   ordered sets of key strings in disk blocks.


2.  Assumptions and Goals

   This design is intended to meet this set of design goals:

   1.  Handle arbitrary mixtures of prefix ranges and individual IPs.

   2.  Work well with existing DNS servers and caches.  The number of
       different queries should be limited, both to limit cache->server
       traffic and the number of cache entries it uses.  I assume that
       client->cache queries are cheap, while cache->server queries are
       much more expensive.

   3.  Don't assume senders will be well behaved.  In particular, bad
       guys may use a new IPv6 address for every message, hopping around
       within each /64 (or whatever the network size is) in which a
       zombie lives, and there will be many zombies active at the same
       time.

   4.  Don't assume MTAs remember query results from one lookup to the
       next, so the necessary info should be available in the DNS cache.
       (If they do, it doesn't hurt.)

   5.  Be compatible with DNSSEC, but don't depend on DNSSEC.

   6.  Don't attempt to be compatible with existing DNSBLs.  I expect
       these lists will mostly be served from something like rbldnsd,
       although it would also be possible to have an external program
       create the zone files and serve them from a conventional DNS
       server such as BIND.


3.  DNS record format

   Each DNS record is a blob of bytes containing multiple self-
   describing logical entries, each of which is a an IP address prefix,
   which might be a single IP if the length of the prefix is 128 (IPv6)
   or 32 (IPv4).  In each blob, the prefixes are in address order from
   lowest to highest.  The address ranges of prefixes cannot overlap.
   The name of each record is the address entry that implicitly points
   to it, which is the entry immediately preceding it.  In this context,



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   there is no advantage to doing rDNS-style nibble reversed naming, so
   the name is just 32 ASCII characters for an IPv6 DNSxL or 8
   characters for an IPv4 DNSxL, the address as a hex number.  One blob
   is the tree root, which is named with all zeros, such as
   00000000000000000000000000000000.dnsxl.example or
   00000000.dnsxl.example.

   The simplest way to represent a blob is as a TXT record, with all the
   strings concatenated.  The more entries that fit in a blob, the
   better this will work, so although it would be possible for each
   logical entry to be a separate string in the TXT record, it doesn't
   to do that.

   Each blob contains a set of the prefixes that are in the DNSxL.  For
   blobs that are not leaves (identified by a per-blob flag, described
   below), the the entries in the blob also partition the address space,
   with the prefixes between the ones in the current blob in sub-blobs,
   each named by the entries in the current blob.

   To minimize edge cases, the root blob always contains the lowest and
   highest entries.


4.  Lookup algorithm

   A client looks up an IP address in the DNSxL as follows:

   1.  Make the root blob the current blob and fetch it.

   2.  Search through the current blob for a prefix entry that contains
       the target IP address.  If you find it, stop, the DNSxL contains
       the IP.

   3.  If the IP address is lower than the first entry in the current
       blob, or higher than the last entry, stop, the DNSxL does not
       contain the IP.

   4.  If this is a leaf blob, stop, the DNSxL does not contain the IP.

   5.  Find the entry in the current blob that is just below the IP.
       Use the address in that entry as the name of new blob, fetch that
       blob, and make it the current one.

   6.  Go to Paragraph 2.

   It should be evident that this is analogous to a binary tree search,
   except that each node has a lot more than two descendants.




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5.  Details of blob representation

   The first byte of each blob is a flag:

   L P P P P P P P

   The L bit is set if this is a leaf.  The PPPPPPP is the implicit
   prefix size.  If all of the addresses in the blob have the same
   initial bits as the name of the blob does, which is fairly likely due
   to the way that IPv6 addresses are allocated, this is the number of
   common initial bits.  The common prefix bits are not stored in the
   blob's entries, but are logically prefixed to each address in the
   blob.

   After that is some number of prefixes:

   X S S S S S S S
   Address

   X is reserved for now.  SSSSSSS is 0-127 (IPv6) or 0-31 (IPv4), the
   prefix size minus one.  The Address is 128-P-S or 32-P-S bits long,
   rounded up to a byte.  That is, it omits the common prefix bits which
   are obtained from the name of the blob, and the suffix bits beyond
   the prefix size.

   For example, say an entry is 2001:1234:5678:9ABC::/64, and the common
   prefix size is 16.  Then the entry would be (in hex)

   3f 12 34 56 78 9A BC

   The 3f is the prefix size (64-1), the 2001 is omitted since that's
   the prefix, and the rest is the address.

   Each blob is as big as will fit in a DNS answer.  If you don't
   believe in EDNS0, the limit is about 450 bytes.  If you do believe in
   EDNS0, it's whatever size you think clients ask for, probably in the
   2K to 4K range.


6.  Building and updating DNSBLs

   [[ Note: This section is somewhat speculative.  I have experience
   with disk-based B-trees, but haven't implemented any of this yet. ]]

   DNSxLs are typically compiled as a list of prefixes and lengths.
   They must be turned into a tree of named blobs before being served in
   the DNS.  The technique varies a little depending on whether the tree
   will be updated incrementally, or rebuilt from scratch if it changes.



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6.1.  Building static DNSxLs

   A static DNSxL should have the minimum number of blobs, each of which
   should be as full as possible.  The technique to build the tree is a
   direct adaptation of the B-tree building technique in [WPBTREE].

   Start with a sorted list of prefix entries.  Save one entry for the
   next pass, then take as many entries as possible and make a blob out
   of them.  Repeat saving an entry and creating a blob until all
   entries are used.  These will be the leaf blobs.  Now, take the list
   of saved entries and repeat to create the blobs at the next level up.
   Keep repeating to create each level of the tree until the process
   creates only one blob.  Insert the one saved entry into that blob
   which will be the root.  That might make the blob overflow, in which
   case split it in half and move the first, middle, and last entries
   into a new root blob.

   When the list changes, rebuild it from scratch.

6.2.  Building and updating dynamic DNSxLs

   One of the reasons that B-trees are so widely used is that it is
   possible to update them efficiently without rebuilding them.  The
   same should apply here.

   The general approach to updates is to add or delete an entry, then if
   that makes a blob too big or makes it empty, rebalance the tree to
   fix the problem.  If a blob is too big, move entries into an adjacent
   blob if possible, otherwise split the blob.  This will require
   updating the blob above, which in turn might overflow if the update
   involves adding rather than replacing an entry.  (It might overflow
   even with a replacement if it makes the compressible prefix shorter.)
   In that case, repeat the process, potentially all the way to the
   root.  When deleting an entry, if the blob becomes empty, move its
   pointer entry from the blob above up into one of the adjacent blobs,
   then adjust the upper blob as needed.  Again, this might cause
   overflow in which case move entries between blobs or split the full
   one.

   A tree in which each blob is completely full is quite expensive to
   update.  The first insertion will cause a leaf to overflow, with
   overflows rippling all way up the tree to the root.  It would
   probably be a good idea when building a list that is intended to be
   updated to leave some slack space in each blob, to limit the ripple
   effect from changes.

   A significant difference between this design and a conventional
   B-tree is the version skew due to DNS caching.  In a normal B-tree,



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   the pages (blobs) are locked while being changed, and the changes are
   immediately visible to all the clients.  In this case, the clients
   cache each blob for the DNS TTL.  If updates change the entries in
   non-leaf blobs, they will break the links between blobs since they
   use the entries as pointers.  A possible band-aid is to add temporary
   CNAME records at the former names pointing to the closest new name,
   so most (admittedly not all) of the entries can still be located.
   Once the TTL on the old blobs has expired, the CNAMEs can be deleted.


7.  Estimated performance

   The size of entries varies depending on the length of the prefixes
   and the amount of common prefix compression.  A /64 with no common
   prefix would take 9 bytes, so I'll use 10 bytes as an estimate of
   average entry size.  With EDNS0 and 4K records, that would allow 400
   entries per blob.  A two-level tree could hold 160,000 entries, a
   three level tree 64 million entries, which would need 160,000 blobs.
   Large v4 DNSBLs like the CBL have about seven million entries now, so
   this should be adequate.  If blobs have to fit in 512 byte responses,
   that would be about 40 entries per blob.  A five-level tree could
   hold 100 million entries in about 2.5 million blobs, still adequate.

   The number of queries for any particular lookup is the number of
   levels, which is unlikely to be more than five in a DNSxL of
   plausible size.  The cache behavior obviously depends on both the
   layout of the entries and the query pattern, but this design avoids
   some obvious worst cases.  If a /64 is either entirely listed, not
   listed at all, or just has a single /128 listed, all queries for
   addresses in that /64 will refetch the same four or five records.  If
   a large range of addresses is either listed in one prefix, or not
   listed at all, all queries will refetch the same set of blobs, which
   would be likely to be cached.

   The total number of DNS records used is always less than the number
   of records for a traditional entry-per-IP DNSxL for the same set of
   entries.  Since all the DNS queries are made by following the tree of
   entries, clients shouldn't make queries that fail, so there will be
   no negative cache entries.  (This isn't quite true due to version
   skew in updated DNSxLs, but it's hard to imagine a plausible scenario
   in which there would be a lot of different failing queries.)  This
   suggests that the overall cache behavior will be no worse than, and
   quite possibly much better than the behavior of traditional IPv4
   DNSxLs.







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8.  Security considerations

   Semantically, there is little difference between a DNSxL published
   using this scheme and one published using the traditional entry per
   IP approach, since both publish the operator's opinion about some
   subset of the IP address space.

   One significant practical difference is that it is much easier for
   clients to obtain copies of all or part of the database.  For a
   traditional DNSxL, the only way to determine its contents is to query
   the entire address space (or at least the active part of it) one
   address at a time, which would require several billion queries for
   IPv4, and is deterred by rate limiting the queries.  In this scheme,
   the names of all of the DNS records are easy for clients to
   determine, so they can efficiently walk the tree.  While rate
   limiting is possible, it is less effective since clients fetch more
   data with each query.  It is also easy for a client to fetch all the
   entries for a particular IP range, such as the range of a network the
   client controls to see what parts of it are blacklisted.


9.  Topics for further consideration

   o  Conventional IPv4 DNSBLs generally can return an A record or a TXT
      record.  The A record often has information coded in the low byte
      or two that identifies the type of listing, or which of several
      sub-lists the entry is on.  If it's important to return a byte or
      two of result, it would be straightforward to add the byte or two
      to each entry, at a modest increase in entry size and hence some
      loss in performance.  The TXT records are typically either all the
      same, or there's one per A value, perhaps with the IP address
      interpolated into the string to provide a URL to look up.  Those
      strings could be constructed in client libraries, with templates
      stored in the DNS, e.g. the string for code 42 might be in a TXT
      record at 42._strings.dnsxl.example.

   o  There might be better ways to do prefix compression, e.g., a per-
      entry field that says how many bits are the same as the previous
      entry.  Entries in blobs could be bit rather than byte aligned,
      although I expect that would be a lot more work for minimal extra
      compression.  There may be clever tricks to allocate entries into
      blobs to maximize the size of the prefix in each blob.  If a blob
      consists entirely of /128's it might be worth a special case,
      leaving out the length byte on each entry.

   o  When adding a new entry to a full leaf blob, another possibility
      would be to make the blob a non-leaf, and create two new leaves
      below it.  This would make updates faster and less disruptive, at



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      the cost of possibly slower lookups since some parts of the tree
      will be deeper.  Perhaps a hybrid approach would make sense,
      rebuild or rebalance the tree when it gets too ragged, with more
      than a one-level depth difference between the deepest and
      shallowest leaves.


10.  IANA considerations

   This document makes no requests to IANA.  All data are stored and
   queried using existing DNS record types and operations.


11.  References

11.1.  References - Normative

   [RFC1034]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities",
              STD 13, RFC 1034, November 1987.

   [RFC1035]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
              specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987.

11.2.  References - Informative

   [KNUTHV3]  Knuth, D., "The Art of Computer Programming: Volume 3,
              Sorting and Searching", 1998.

   [RBLDNSD]  Tokarev, M., "rbldnsd: Small Daemon for DNSBLs".

   [RFC2308]  Andrews, M., "Negative Caching of DNS Queries (DNS
              NCACHE)", RFC 2308, March 1998.

   [RFC4862]  Thomson, S., Narten, T., and T. Jinmei, "IPv6 Stateless
              Address Autoconfiguration", RFC 4862, September 2007.

   [RFC5782]  Levine, J., "DNS Blacklists and Whitelists", RFC 5782,
              February 2010.

   [WPBTREE]  Wikipedia, "B-tree", December 2010.


Appendix A.  Change Log

   *NOTE TO RFC EDITOR: This section may be removed upon publication of
   this document as an RFC.*





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A.1.  Changes from -00 to -01

   Change CIDRs to prefixes.  Allow for IPv4 addresses.

   Add possible updates producing unbalanced trees.


Author's Address

   John Levine
   Taughannock Networks
   PO Box 727
   Trumansburg, NY  14886

   Phone: +1 831 480 2300
   Email: standards@taugh.com
   URI:   http://jl.ly


































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