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Versions: 00

Network Working Group                                              Z. Li
Internet-Draft                                                   S. Peng
Intended status: Standards Track                     Huawei Technologies
Expires: May 7, 2020                                            D. Voyer
                                                             Bell Canada
                                                                  C. Xie
                                                           China Telecom
                                                                  P. Liu
                                                            China Mobile
                                                                  C. Liu
                                                            China Unicom
                                                              K. Ebisawa
                                                Toyota Motor Corporation
                                                              S. Previdi
                                                              Individual
                                                             J. Guichard
                                             Futurewei Technologies Ltd.
                                                       November 04, 2019


           Application-aware IPv6 Networking (APN6) Framework
                       draft-li-apn6-framework-00

Abstract

   A multitude of applications are carried over the network, which have
   varying needs for network bandwidth, latency, jitter, and packet
   loss, etc.  Some new emerging applications (e.g. 5G) have very
   demanding performance requirements.  However, in current networks,
   the network and applications are decoupled, that is, the network is
   not aware of the applications' requirements in a fine granularity.
   Therefore, it is difficult to provide truly fine-granularity traffic
   operations for the applications and guarantee their SLA requirements.

   This document proposes a new framework, named Application-aware IPv6
   Networking (APN6), which makes use of IPv6 encapsulation to convey
   the application characteristic information such as application
   identification and its network performance requirements into the
   network to facilitate service provisioning, perform application-level
   traffic steering and network resource adjustment.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute



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   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on May 7, 2020.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Specification of Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   4.  APN6 Framework and Key Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   5.  APN6 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     5.1.  Application-aware Information Conveying Requirements  . .   6
     5.2.  Application-aware Information Handling Requirements . . .   7
       5.2.1.  App-aware SLA Guarantee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       5.2.2.  App-aware network slicing . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       5.2.3.  App-aware deterministic networking  . . . . . . . . .   8
       5.2.4.  App-aware service function chaining . . . . . . . . .   9
       5.2.5.  App-aware network measurement . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     5.3.  Security requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   8.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   9.  Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   10. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     10.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     10.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11



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1.  Introduction

   A multitude of applications are carried over the network, which have
   varying needs for network bandwidth, latency, jitter, and packet
   loss, etc.  Some applications such as online gaming and live video
   streaming has very demanding network requirements and therefore
   require special treatment in the network.  However, in current
   networks, the network and applications are decoupled, that is, the
   network is not aware of the applications' requirements in a fine
   granularity.  Therefore, it is difficult to provide truly fine-
   granularity traffic operations for the applications and guarantee
   their SLA requirements accordingly.
   [I-D.li-apn6-problem-statement-usecases] describes the challenges of
   traditional differentiated service provisioning methods, such as five
   tuples used for ACL/PBR causing coarse granularity, DPI imposing high
   CAPEX & OPEX and security issues, as well as orchestration and SDN-
   based solution causing long control loops.

   This document proposes a new framework, named Application-aware IPv6
   Networking, aiming to guarantee fine-granularity SLA requirements of
   applications, which make use of IPv6 encapsulation to convey the
   application characteristic such as application identification and its
   network performance requirements into the network to determine the
   path, steer traffic, and perform network resource adjustment.

2.  Specification of Requirements

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

   This document is not a protocol specification and the key words in
   this document are used for clarity and emphasis of requirements
   language.

3.  Terminology

   ACL: Access Control List

   APN6: Application-aware IPv6 Networking

   DPI: Deep Packet Inspection

   PBR: Policy Based Routing

   QoE: Quality of Experience





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4.  APN6 Framework and Key Components

   The APN6 framework is shown in Figure 1.  The key components include
   Application-aware App, App-aware Edge Device, App-aware-process Head-
   End, App-aware-process Mid-Point, and App-aware-process End-Point.

   Packets carry application characteristic information (i.e.
   application-aware information) which includes the following
   information:

   o  Application-aware identification information: identifying
      application, the user of application, i.e. the packets as part of
      the traffic flow belonging to a specific SLA level/Application/
      User;

   o  Network performance requirements information: specifying at least
      one of the following parameters: bandwidth, delay, delay
      variation, packet loss ratio, security, etc.

 Client                                                          Server
 +-----+                                                         +-----+
 |App x|-\                                                    /->|App x|
 +-----+ |   +-----+  +---------+   +---------+   +---------+ |  +-----+
          \->|App- |  |App-aware|-A-|App-aware|-A-|App-aware|-/
 User side   |aware|--|process  |-B-|process  |-B-|process  |
          /->|Edge |  |Head-End |-C-|Mid-Point|-C-|End-Point|-\
 +-----+ |   +-----+  +---------+   +---------+   +---------+ |  +-----+
 |App y|-/                                                    \->|App y|
 +-----+           ----------  Uplink   ---------->              +-----+

               Figure 1 APN6 Framework and Key Components

   The key components are introduced as follows.

   1.  Application-aware App: The host obtains the application
   characteristic information of the Application-aware App and generates
   the packets which carry the application characteristic information in
   IPv6 encapsulation.  If carried in the packets, this information is
   used by the App-aware-process Head-End to determine the path between
   the App-aware-process Head-End and the App-aware-process End-Point
   for forwarding the packets to their destination, that is, to steer
   the packet in to a given policy which satisfies the application
   requirements.  In the APN6 framework, the application is not
   mandatory to be application-aware.

   2.  App-aware Edge Device: This network device receives packets from
   applications and obtains the application characteristic information.
   If the application is not Application-aware App, the application



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   characteristic information can be obtained by packet inspection,
   derived from services information such as double VLAN tagging (C-VLAN
   and S-VLAN), or added according to the local policies which is out of
   the scope of this document.  The App-aware Edge Device adds the
   application characteristic information in IPv6 encapsulation on
   behalf of the application.  The packets carrying the application
   characteristic information will be sent to the App-aware-process
   Head-End, and the application characteristic information will be used
   to determine the path between the App-aware-process Head-End and the
   App-aware-process End-Point for forwarding the packets.

   3.  App-aware-process Head-End: This network device receives packets
   and obtains the application characteristic information.  A set of
   paths, tunnels or SR policy, exist between the App-aware-process
   Head-End and the App-aware-process End-Point.  The App-aware-process
   Head-End maintains the matching relationship between the application
   characteristic information and the paths between the App-aware-
   process Head-End and the App-aware-process End-Point.  The App-aware-
   process Head-End determines the path between the App-aware-process
   Head-End and the App-aware-process End-Point according to the
   application characteristic information carried in the packets and the
   matching relationship with it, which satisfies the service
   requirements of the application.  If there is no such matching path
   found, the App-aware-process Head-End can set up a path towards the
   App-aware-process End-Point, and the matching relationship will be
   stored.  The App-aware-process Head-End forwards the packets along
   the path.  The application information conveyed by the packet
   received from the App-aware Edge Device can also be copied or be
   mapped to the out IPv6 extension header for further application-aware
   process.

   4.  App-aware-process Mid-Point: The Mid-Point provides the path
   service according to the path set up by the App-aware-process Head-
   End which satisfies the service requirements conveyed by the IPv6
   packets.  The Mid-Point may also adjust the resource locally to
   guarantee the service requirements depending on a specific policy and
   the application-aware information conveyed by the packet.  Policy
   definitions and mechanisms are out of the scope of this document.

   5.  App-aware-process End-Point: The process of the specific service
   path will end at the End-Point.  The service requirements information
   can be removed at the End-Point together with the outer IPv6
   encapsulation or go on to be conveyed with the IPv6 packets.

   In this way the network is aware of the service requirements
   expressed by the applications explicitly.  According to the service
   requirement information carried in the IPv6 packets the network is
   able to adjust its resources fast in order to satisfy the service



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   requirement of applications.  The flow-driven method also reduces the
   challenges of inter-operability and long control loop.

5.  APN6 Requirements

   Utilizing IPv6 encapsulation (e.g.  IPv6 header as well as, possibly,
   extension headers), the application-aware information is conveyed
   into the network which performs service provisioning, traffic
   steering, and SLA guarantee according to such information.  This
   section specifies the requirements for supporting the APN6 framework,
   including the requirements for conveying and handling the
   application-aware information and related security requirements.

5.1.  Application-aware Information Conveying Requirements

   The application-aware information includes application-aware
   identification information and network performance requirements
   information.

   1.  Application-aware identification information includes the
       following identifiers (IDs),

       *  SLA level: indicating the level of SLA requirement of the
          application such as Gold, Silver, Bronze.  In some cases,
          color (e.g. red, green) can be used to indicate the SLA level.

       *  Application ID: identifying an application.

       *  User ID: identifying the user of the application.

       *  Flow ID: identifying the flow which the application traffic
          belongs to.

       The different combinations of the IDs can be used to provide
       different granularity of the service provisioning and SLA
       guarantee for the traffic.

   2.  Network performance requirements information includes the
       following parameters,

       *  Bandwidth: the bandwidth requirement of the application
          traffic

       *  Latency: the latency requirement of the application

       *  Jitter: the jitter requirement of the application





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       The different combinations of the parameters are for further
       expressing the more detailed service requirements of an
       application, conveyed together with the Application-aware
       identifiers, which can be used to match to appropriate tunnels/SR
       Policies, queues that can satisfy these service requirements.  If
       not available, new tunnels/SR Policies can also be triggered to
       be set up.

   [REQ 1a].  Application-aware identification information MUST include
   Application ID to indicate the application that generates the packet.

   [REQ 1b].  SLA level is RECOMMENDED to be included in the
   Application-aware identification information.

   [REQ 1c].  User ID and Flow ID are OPTIONAL to be included in the
   Application-aware identification information.

   [REQ 1d].  Network performance requirements information is OPTIONAL.

   [REQ 1e].  All the nodes along the path SHOULD be able to process the
   application-aware information if needed.

   [REQ 1f].  The application-aware information can be generated
   directly by application, or by the application-aware edge devices
   though packet inspection or local policy.

   [REQ 1g].  The application-aware information SHOULD be kept intact
   when directly copied from the application-aware edge devices and
   carried in the IPv6 encapsulation.

5.2.  Application-aware Information Handling Requirements

   The app-aware-process Head-End and app-aware-process Mid-Point
   perform matching operation against the application-aware information,
   that is, to match IDs and/or service requirements to the
   corresponding network resources (tunnels/SR policies, queues).

5.2.1.  App-aware SLA Guarantee

   In order to achieve better Quality of Experience (QoE) of end users
   and engage customers, the network needs to be able to provide fine-
   granularity and even application-level SLA guarantee
   [I-D.li-apn6-problem-statement-usecases].

   [REQ 2-1a].  With the application-aware information, the App-aware-
   process Head-End SHOULD be able to steer the traffic to the tunnel/SR
   policy that satisfies the matching operation.




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   [REQ 2-1b].  With the application-aware information, the App-aware-
   process Head-End SHOULD be able to trigger the setup of the tunnel/SR
   policy that satisfies the matching operation.

   [REQ 2-1c].  With the application-aware information, the App-aware-
   process Head-End and Mid-Point SHOULD be able to steer the traffic to
   the queue that satisfies the matching operation.

   [REQ 2-1d].  With the application-aware information, the App-aware-
   process Head-End and Mid-Point SHOULD be able to trigger the
   configuration of the queue that satisfies the matching operation.

5.2.2.  App-aware network slicing

   Network slicing provides ways to partition the network infrastructure
   in either control plane or data plane into multiple network slices
   that are running in parallel.  The resources on each node need to be
   associated to corresponding slices.

   [REQ 2-2a].  With the application-aware information, the App-aware-
   process Head-End SHOULD be able to steer the traffic to the slice
   that satisfies the matching operation.

   [REQ 2-2a].  With the application-aware information, the App-aware-
   process Mid-Point SHOULD be able to associate the traffic to the
   resources in the slice that satisfies the matching operation.

5.2.3.  App-aware deterministic networking

   Along the path each node needs to provide guaranteed bandwidth,
   bounded latency, and other properties relevant to the transport of
   time-sensitive data for the Detnet flows that coexist with the best-
   effort traffic.

   [REQ 2-3a].  With the application-aware information, the App-aware-
   process Head-End SHOULD be able to steer the traffic to the
   appropriate path that satisfies the matching operation.

   [REQ 2-3b].  With the application-aware information, the App-aware-
   process Head-End SHOULD be able to trigger the setup of the
   appropriate path that satisfies the matching operation for the Detnet
   flows.

   [REQ 2-3c].  With the application-aware information, the App-aware-
   process Mid-Point SHOULD be able to associate the traffic to the
   resources along the path that satisfies the performance guarantee.





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   [REQ 2-3d].  With the application-aware information, the App-aware-
   process Mid-Point SHOULD be able to reserve the resources for the
   Detnet flows along the path that satisfies the performance guarantee.

5.2.4.  App-aware service function chaining

   The end-to-end service delivery often needs to go through various
   service functions, including traditional network service functions
   such as firewalls, DPI as well as new application-specific functions,
   both physical and virtual.  SFC is applicable to both fixed and
   mobile networks as well as data center networks.

   [REQ 2-4a].  With the application-aware information, the App-aware-
   process devices SHOULD be able to steer the traffic to the
   appropriate service function.

   [REQ 2-4b].  The App-aware-process devices SHOULD be able to process
   the application-aware information carried in the packets.

5.2.5.  App-aware network measurement

   Network measurement can be used for locating silent failure and
   predicting QoE satisfaction, which enables real-time SLA awareness/
   proactive OAM.

   [REQ 2-5a].  With the application-aware identification information,
   the App-aware-process devices SHOULD be able to perform IOAM based on
   the Application ID.

   [REQ 2-5a].  With the application-aware information, the network
   measurement results can be reported based on the Application ID and
   verify whether the performance requirements of the application are
   satisfied.

5.3.  Security requirements

   [REQ 3a].  The security mechanism defined for APN6 MUST allow an
   operator to prevent applications sending arbitrary application-aware
   information without agreement with the operator.

   [REQ 3b].  The security mechanism defined for APN6 MUST prevent an
   application requesting a service that is not entitled to get.

6.  IANA Considerations

   This document does not include an IANA request.





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7.  Security Considerations

   [I-D.li-apn6-problem-statement-usecases] and section 5.3 describe the
   security considerations and requirements for APN6.

8.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to acknowledge Robert Raszuk (Bloomberg LP)
   and Yukito Ueno (NTT Communications Corporation) for their valuable
   reviews and comments.

9.  Contributors

   Liang Geng
   China Mobile
   China

   Email: gengliang@chinamobile.com

   Chang Cao
   China Unicom
   China

   Email: caoc15@chinaunicom.cn

   Cong Li
   China Telecom
   China

   Email: licong.bri@chinatelecom.cn

10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.li-apn6-problem-statement-usecases]
              Li, Z., Peng, S., Voyer, D., Xie, C., Liu, P., Liu, C.,
              Ebisawa, K., Ueno, Y., Previdi, S., and J. Guichard,
              "Problem statement and use cases of Application-aware IPv6
              Networking (APN6)", draft-li-apn6-problem-statement-
              usecases-00 (work in progress), September 2019.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.





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   [RFC7665]  Halpern, J., Ed. and C. Pignataro, Ed., "Service Function
              Chaining (SFC) Architecture", RFC 7665,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7665, October 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7665>.

   [RFC8200]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", STD 86, RFC 8200,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8200, July 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8200>.

   [RFC8578]  Grossman, E., Ed., "Deterministic Networking Use Cases",
              RFC 8578, DOI 10.17487/RFC8578, May 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8578>.

10.2.  Informative References

   [RFC3272]  Awduche, D., Chiu, A., Elwalid, A., Widjaja, I., and X.
              Xiao, "Overview and Principles of Internet Traffic
              Engineering", RFC 3272, DOI 10.17487/RFC3272, May 2002,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3272>.

Authors' Addresses

   Zhenbin Li
   Huawei Technologies
   China

   Email: lizhenbin@huawei.com


   Shuping Peng
   Huawei Technologies
   China

   Email: pengshuping@huawei.com


   Daniel Voyer
   Bell Canada
   Canada

   Email: daniel.voyer@bell.ca









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   Chongfeng Xie
   China Telecom
   China

   Email: xiechf.bri@chinatelecom.cn


   Peng Liu
   China Mobile
   China

   Email: liupengyjy@chinamobile.com


   Chang Liu
   China Unicom
   China

   Email: liuc131@chinaunicom.cn


   Kentaro Ebisawa
   Toyota Motor Corporation
   Japan

   Email: ebisawa@toyota-tokyo.tech


   Stefano Previdi
   Individual
   Italy

   Email: stefano@previdi.net


   James N Guichard
   Futurewei Technologies Ltd.
   USA

   Email: jguichar@futurewei.com











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