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Information-Centric Networking Research Group                      R. Li
Internet-Draft                                                 H. Asaeda
Intended status: Informational                                      NICT
Expires: January 9, 2020                                    July 8, 2019

   Hop-by-Hop Authentication in Content-Centric Networking/Named Data


   The unpredictability of consumers, routers, copyholders, and
   publishers for the in-network data retrievals in Content-Centric
   Networking (CCN) / Named Data Networking (NDN) poses a challenge to
   design an authentication mechanism to inhibit the malicious consumers
   to flood data requests and prevent the fake data from being provided.
   Signature is adopted as the fundamental function in CCN / NDN, which
   however can only provide publisher authentication with additional
   certificate acquisition.  This document describes the the Hop-by-Hop
   Authentication mechanism (HopAuth) integrating certificate collection
   and packet forwarding potentially with the assistance from
   certificate authority to provide consumer authentication, copyholder
   authentication and path authentication to enable the in-network data
   retrieval to be trustworthy, besides the publisher authentication.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
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   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 9, 2020.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  System Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   4.  HopAuth Designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.1.  Initial Trust Establishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.2.  Data-centric Certificate Management . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       4.2.1.  Certificate Exchange  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       4.2.2.  Certificate Update and Revocation . . . . . . . . . .   8
     4.3.  Forwarding-Integrated Authenticable Data Retrieval  . . .   9
     4.4.  Suspension-Chain Model (SCM)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   5.  Protocol Message Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   7.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     7.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     7.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15

1.  Introduction

   Information-Centric Networks in general, and Content-Centric
   Networking (CCN) [3] or Named Data Networking (NDN) [4] in
   particular, are the emerging network architectures enabling in-
   network caching and data retrievals through their names.  In CCN/NDN,
   data can be cached at the intermediate routers, close to consumers
   for reducing delay and redundant bandwidth consumption or for the
   robustness under dynamic network environment.  It has been noticed
   that CCN/NDN is a promising approach for the application scenarios in
   disaster networking [5], video streaming [6], and Internet of Things
   (IoT) [7] .

   In CCN/NDN, the basic network operations and these use scenarios with
   in-network data caching and retrievals lead the network to be
   seriously vulnerable under a variety of attacks, such as the
   impersonation attack, malicious-request attack [8], [9], [10], and
   the data poisoning attack [11], [12], [13].  The unpredictability of
   consumers, routers, copy holders, and publishers during data

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   retrievals in CCN/NDN poses the novel challenge to design data-
   centric authentication to prevent these attacks.  This novel
   authentication should potentially enable the consumer authentication,
   copyholder authentication to authenticate the identity of the entity
   providing data, path authentication to authenticate the path from
   which data are retrieved, in addition to the publisher

   On the other hand, signature is already adopted as the fundamental
   function in CCN/NDN, which promises to achieve the integrity and
   publisher authentication.  It can partially prevent the above attacks
   and but still is insufficient to protect the unpredictable data
   retrievals in CCN/NDN.  The unpredictability with which copy holders
   provide data, routers cache data, and consumers request data leads to
   great difficulty in inhibiting malicious-request attacks and data-
   poisoning attacks.  To prevent data poisoning, consumers and routers
   need to verify data before caching them.  If the data are found to be
   fake, the copy holder providing the data and the path to retrieve the
   data also need to be discovered in order to disable the further
   spread of that fake data.  To prevent malicious-request attacks, copy
   holders need to verify the identities of the consumers.

   There are many the existing authentication mechanisms with key
   management schemes in Internet, such as Kerberos [14], MSEC [15],
   X.509 [16], PGP [17], RPKI [18].  They are designed to achieve
   different purposes with centralized or decentralized approach based
   on end-to-end communication paradigm within the Internet.  They can
   only provide the authentications between the consumers and publishers
   without considering data-centric authentication, and are unable to
   prevent the malicious-request and data-poisoning attacks.
   Furthermore, they rely on centralized servers to acquire keys or
   certificates, thereby increasing authentication delays, which we
   refer to herein as the delay-enlargement problem.  Obviously, they
   cannot satisfy the requirements for the emerging data-centric
   communication paradigm in CCN/NDN, because of different security and
   performance concerns.

   In this document, we elaborate HopAuth [19], where forwarding-
   integrated hop-by-hop certificate collection is performed together
   with the adaptive replacement for parts of chain with highly
   trustworthy certificates.  In HopAuth, a suspension-chain model (SCM)
   is used as the trust model, where the neighbor-trust-based
   certificate chain is suspended by certificate authority (CA)-based
   trust.  The HopAuth avoids reliance on centralized server(s) for
   chain construction and solves the delay-enlargement problem.

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2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [1].

   The following terminology is used throughout this document.

   o  Cryptographic key: A string of bits used by a cryptographic
      algorithm to transform plain-text into cipher-text or vice versa.

   o  Signature: A cryptographic value calculated through public key
      algorithm from the data and a secret key only known by the signer.
      It is to validate the authenticity and integrity of a message.

   o  Certificate: A data structure used to verifiably bind an identity
      to a cryptographic key.

   o  Consumer: A node requesting data.  It initiates communication by
      sending an interest packets.

   o  Publisher: A node providing data.  It originally creates or owns
      the data.

   o  Router: A node forwarding data.  It may hold memory to cache the

   o  Forwarding Information Base (FIB): A lookup table in a router
      containing the name prefix and corresponding destination interface
      to forward the interest packets.

   o  Pending Interest Table (PIT): A lookup table populated by the
      interest packets containing the name prefix of the requested data,
      and the outgoing interface used to forward the received data

   o  Content Store (CS): A storage space for a router to cache data
      objects.  It is also known as in-network cache.

   o  Physical entity: an entity that communicates using a physical
      device.  This could be a router or a publisher node (PN) that
      hosts applications.

   o  Logical entity: an entity that is involved in an application.
      This can be an authorizer, a sub-authorizer, or a publisher.

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3.  System Descriptions

   Here we briefly explain the background and basic network operations
   of CCN/NDN.  Different from the end-to-end communications in
   Internet, CCN/NDN provides data-name-based retrievals as in Fig. 1.
   It further requires the data-centric authentication, instead of the
   current end-to-end secure channel establishment.

           1.Interest    2.Interest    3.Interest    4.Interest
             +----+        +----+        +----+        +----+
             |    |        |    |        |    |        |    |
             |    v        |    v        |    v        |    v
    +--------+    +--------+    +--------+    +--------+    +---------+
    |Consumer|----| Router |----| Router |----| Router |----|Copy     |
    |        |    |   A    |    |   B    |    |   C    |    |Holder   |
    +--------+    +--------+    +--------+    +--------+    +---------+
             ^    |        ^    |        ^    |        ^    |
             |    |        |    |        |    |        |    |
             +----+        +----+        +----+        +----+
             8.Data        7.Data        6.Data        5.Data

     Figure 1: Request and reply messages forwarded by consumer, copy
                            holder and routers.

   In a CCN/NDN network, each router in a CCN/NDN network has three main
   data structures: a FIB for forwarding Interests, a CS for caching
   data, and a PIT for forwarding data.  Basically there are two types
   of packets: interest and data.  As in Fig. 1, consumer requests data
   by throwing an "interest" packet with the name of data to the
   network.  Regarding the difference to note here between CCN [3] and
   NDN [4] is that in later versions of CCN, interest packet must carry
   a full data name, while in NDN it may carry a data name prefix.

   Once a router receives an "interest" packet, it performs a series of
   the following look-up.

   The router first checks in the CS to see whether it holds the
   corresponding data or not.  If there is, it returns the data through
   the reverse path for forwarding interest packet as the copy holder in
   Fig. 1.  If not, it performs a look-up of the PIT.  If there is
   already a PIT entry matching the name of requested data, it is
   updated with the incoming interface of this new request and the
   interest is discarded.  If there is no matching entry, it creates an
   entry in the PIT that lists the data name and the interfaces from
   which it received the interest.  Then, the interest undergoes a FIB
   lookup to discover the outgoing interface.

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   Once a copy of the "data" packet is retrieved, the router sends it
   back to the data requester(s) using the trail of PIT entries and
   remove the PIT state every time that an interest is satisfied.
   Additionally, it may store the data in its CS.

   However, data retrieval with in-network caching in CCN/NDN has been
   identified to suffer from malicious data-request attacks [8], [9],
   [10], and the data poisoning attacks [11], [12], [13].  In the
   former, adversaries impersonate consumers to create a flood of
   interests, and in the latter, they impersonate copy holders (e.g.,
   routers or publishers) to provide fake data.  These attacks are
   severe, because data are cached in a distributed manner, and copy
   holders have no way to verify consumers' identities, consumers/
   routers have no way to verify copy holders' identities to avoid
   caching fake data, and the path to retrieve data cannot be verified.
   This form of attack can quickly pollute the router caches as the
   virus spreads, because routers cache the fake data, redistribute
   them, and other intermediate routers re-cache them.  It finally
   consumes much in-network caches and prevents consumers from
   retrieving the correct data.

4.  HopAuth Designs

   Herein we elaborate the design of HopAuth, which has three phases: 1)
   initial trust-establishment, 2) data-centric certificate management,
   and 3) forwarding-integrated authenticable data-retrieval.  The trust
   model for HopAuth is a suspension chain model (SCM).

   For the first phase, certificates are issued for neighboring entities
   and the certificate authority (CA) potentially issues certificates to
   a set of routers to form the highly trusted router group (HTRG).  Let
   CE(A->B) represent the public-key certificate issued from A to B.  In
   the second phase, routers exchange certificates within their
   neighborhoods, and any compromised entity can be shut down quickly.
   Finally, the third phase provides a hop-by-hop method for
   constructing a suspension chain consisting of a physical-entity
   certificate chain (peCEChain) and a logical-entity certificate chain
   (leCEChain) for data-centric authentication.

4.1.  Initial Trust Establishment

   The initial trust establishment has two components: self-certifiable
   naming and certificate issuing.

   Self-certifiable naming defines the rule for naming the principals,
   including entities, keys, and certificates, to enable the entities to
   be self-certifiable.  As the extension of the cryptographically
   generated address (CGA), we merge the hash-based self-certifying

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   names with hierarchical naming.  It embeds the public key into the
   name, which is self-certifiable.

   To issue a certificate, an entity should be convinced that a given
   public key truly belongs to another entity.  Under that situation, it
   issues a certificate for this entity such that the public key is
   bound to the entity name by its signature.  In HopAuth, certificate
   issuing is the initial trust establishment among entities having
   trust relationships, namely as neighbor-based trust for physical
   entities, CA-based trust, and authorization relationships for logical

   For neighbor-based trust, a physical entity creates a public key and
   the corresponding private key locally by itself.  It generates the
   names using the public key based on the self-certifiable naming
   method.  If physical entity B is a neighbor of entity A, B can
   announce its public key to A with the key name and A generates the
   certificate for B.

   CA-based trust between two entities is established using the CA as
   the ``introducer''.  The CA is managed by the network operator, and
   provides certificates to the owner's entities and the highly trusted
   physical entities close to them in the HTRG.  The entities in the
   HTRG then confer CA-based trust relationships and issue certificates
   to each other.

   All the highly trustable entities register at CA.  CA has the whole
   view of these entities and determines the neighboring relations among
   the entities in HTRG.  After determination of the neighboring
   relations, an entity, A, sends interest to CA to request the
   certificates of its neighbors.  CA replies with the related
   certificates to A, such as CE(CA->B).  After A receiving the
   certificates, A verifies them, issues certificates from itself to
   those neighbors, such as CE(A->B), and sends to CA.  CA verifies this
   certificate and forwards it to B when B requests.

   In HopAuth, the physical entities pre-keep the certificates and
   associate certificates with interfaces in FIB.  The physical entity
   knows the next hop of one interface, and it associates the
   certificate from that entity to itself with the forwarding interface.
   This mechanism enables the appending of the relevant certificate to
   the packets as required when forwarding them.

   For logical entities, the trust relationship is defined by the
   application.  Each logical entity also generates a public/private key
   pair by itself.  If logical entity A authorizes the right for entity
   B to manage a sub-category or publish data, A should provide a
   certificate for the true public key of B.

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4.2.  Data-centric Certificate Management

4.2.1.  Certificate Exchange

   Certificate exchange allows entities to share the certificates that
   they issue and hold.  Each physical entity has a local repository in
   which to store certificates securely.  In HopAuth, the physical
   entities request and keep all the certificates issued for or by their
   nearby highly trusted entities in the HTRG and by common neighboring
   physical entities.  To exchange the information of certificates they
   hold, each entity hashes the names of certificates and exchange
   hashes to see if there is one missed in the neighborhood.  If there
   is, the entity will send interest to its neighbor to retrieve that
   certificate.  Finally, the physical entities hold all the
   certificates within a two-hop distance and the certificates with
   nearby highly trusted entities in the HTRG.  These certificates are
   used to construct chains hop by hop, shorten certificate chains, and
   check the certificates appended by an up-stream entity.  This
   certificate check is performed by the next hop of the entity to check
   whether the certificate appended by this entity is the same as the
   one stored by it.  If the certificates are the same, the certificate
   passes the check.  Otherwise, this packet will be dropped because of
   the fake certificate.

   The certificates of the logical entities in an application should be
   stored in the repository of the PN.  When data are published, the
   trust chain from the PN to the publisher can be automatically formed
   and appended to the packet.  Meanwhile, the neighbors of the PN also
   keep all the certificates of the PN in order to check them during

4.2.2.  Certificate Update and Revocation

   To guarantee its validity, each certificate in the network is issued
   with a certificate expiration time, after which the certificate is

   For certificate updates using neighbor-based trust, the subject
   entity of the certificate should notify the issuer of its interest in
   updating the certificate.  On receiving this interest, the issuer
   checks whether this entity has been compromised.  It then checks
   whether the mapping between the name and the public key satisfies the
   naming rule.  If all the checks are passed, the issuer considers
   whether the public key of the subject entity is still trustworthy,
   generates an updated certificate, and replies with this updated
   certificate.  If any check is failed, the issuer does not provide a
   certificate update to that entity.  For certificate updates using CA-
   based trust in the HTRG, the subject entity of the certificate

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   requests the CA to issue an updated certificate and provide it to the
   related nearby highly trusted routers, who can further issue update

   If one entity no longer wishes to trust another entity, the former
   may revoke the certificate that it originally issued.  Because
   certificates are issued over a one-hop distance, it is easy to detect
   the misbehavior of an entity.  To revoke a certificate quickly, the
   revocation is announced over a two-hop distance.  The revocation
   initiator broadcasts the revocation information to all the entities
   within a two-hop distance.  Each entity receiving this information
   adds the compromised entity or certificate to its blacklist.  All the
   packets from the compromised entities are dropped for a rapid local

4.3.  Forwarding-Integrated Authenticable Data Retrieval

   Here, when forwarding interests and data, we define a forwarding-
   integrated hop-by-hop approach to construct the suspended chain from
   unpredictable copy holders to a consumer for authenticating interest,
   and from a consumer or router to data for authenticating copy holders
   or publishers or path to retrieve data.  We let highly trusted
   routers replace the parts of chain with highly trusted certificates
   induced by CA's suspended trust to enhance trustworthiness.

   The steps for data retrieval are as follows.

   Step 1: The consumer issues an interest appended with its signature.
   It knows its next hop is the router to which it is connected.  It
   then appends to this interest the certificate from the next-hop
   router to itself.  Finally, it sends out the interest.

   Step 2: When the interest is received by an router, it checks whether
   the previous certificates are correct.  If the check succeeds and it
   belongs to the HTRG, this router attempts to find the previous highly
   trusted router to replace the related part of the certificate chain
   with one highly trusted certificate in the suspended chain.  If this
   IPE does not belong to the HTRG, it directly finds the interface to
   the next hop and appends to the interest the relevant certificate
   from the next-hop router to itself.

   Step 3: This is executed if an router holds the requested data in its
   cache.  The router checks the suspended chain from it to the consumer
   through the process described later in the SCM.  If the verification
   succeeds, this router replies with the data packet.  In the data
   packet, the suspended chain from this router to the publisher and the
   certificate from the next router to this router are appended.  This

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   router sends this data packet to the interface in reply as specified
   in the PIT.

   Step 4: If the PN receives the interest, it verifies the suspended
   chain from itself to the consumer.  If the verification succeeds, the
   PN discovers the suspended chain from itself to the publisher in its
   storage, and appends this certificate chain with the certificate from
   the first router to itself.  Next, the PN replies with these data
   using the reverse path of the interest.

   Step 5: After the router receives the data packet, it performs
   forwarding and possibly caching.  When the router intends to cache
   the data, it first caches them in a temporary cache, which is
   separated from the data cache.  Second, it checks the suspended chain
   from itself to the publisher.  Only if the verification passes, these
   data can be cached in the data memory and the suspended chain from
   this router to the publisher will be cached along with the data.  The
   verification is performed offline, which does not affect the speed of
   data retrieval.  At the same time, this router checks the previous
   certificate.  If the check is successful and it belongs to the HTRG,
   it will discover the previous entity in the suspended chain belonging
   to the HTRG.  If there is a previous entity, the router replaces part
   of the related certificate path with a highly trusted certificate.
   Otherwise, the router directly finds the interface to the
   corresponding certificate from the next hop to itself and appends
   this certificate to the packet, then forwards this packet to the

   Step 6: After the consumer receives the data packet, there should be
   a certificate chain from it to the publisher.  It verifies this
   suspended chain.  If the verification passes, it believes that it
   gets the authentic public key of the publisher, and utilizes the key
   to verify the signature of the data.  The consumer can also verify
   the copy holder or the routers on the path.

4.4.  Suspension-Chain Model (SCM)

   A suspension-chain model (SCM) is the trust model in HopAuth.  It is
   a flexible series of neighbor-trust-based certificates suspended by
   CA's trust, which form a suspension chain.  In SCM, neighbor-based
   trust forms the certificate chain to realize data-centric
   authentication, whereas CA-based trust reduces the length of the
   chain to solve the trust degradation problem for certificate chain.
   For CA's trust, the CA assigns certificates to highly trusted routers
   as the suspension points based on CA's trust, which is the pre-trust
   between these routers and CA.

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   Public-key verification is the process for one entity to verify the
   authenticity of the public key of another entity.  Entity X
   authenticates the public key of the entity Y by verifying the
   suspension chain in the following steps.  First, X verifies the first
   certificate by its private key.  If it is correct, each intermediate
   public key is used to verify the next direct associated certificate.
   This process continues for multiple rounds until the final
   certificate is verified.  Finally, X obtains the true public key of
   the entity Y.

5.  Protocol Message Format

   HopAuth messages are encoded in the CCNx TLV format [2].  An example
   of HopAuth packet format with a certificate chain from consumer C0 to
   router R_n, (CE1(C0->R1), ..., CE_n(R_(n-1)->R_n)), is provided in
   Figure 2.  As in Figure 2, the HopAuth message consists HopAuth
   header, and HopAuth certificate TLVs.

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                          1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     |    Version    |  PT_CONTENT   |         PacketLength          |
     |            Reserved           |      Flags    | HeaderLength  |
     |           T_HOPAUTH           |           Length(=n)          |
     |           Total length of inserted T_HOPAUTH_CERT TLVs        |
     |            T_Object           |     Object Message Length     |
     /                         Object Message                        /
     |        T_VALIDATION_ALG       |  Validation Algorithm Length  |
     /                     Validation Algorithm Data                 /
     |      T_VALIDATION_PAYLOAD     |       Signature Length        |
     /                         Signature Data                        /
     |         T_HOPAUTH_CERT        |          CE1 Length           |
     /                          CE1(C0->R1)                          /
     /                               .                               /
     /                               .                               /
     |         T_HOPAUTH_CERT        |          CE_n Length          |
     /                        CE_n(R_(n-1)->R_n)                     /

               Figure 2: An Example of HopAuth packet format

   The HopAuth header is composed of the fields of type, Length, and
   Total length of inserted T_HOPAUTH_CERT's TLVs.  The type is
   T_HOPAUTH, the Length shows the number of inserted certificates, and
   Total length of inserted T_HOPAUTH_CERT's TLVs describes the total
   number of bits occupied by certificate TLVs.  In the part of HopAuth
   certificate TLVs, the certificate name, length and certificate data
   are included.  Take CE1(C0->R1) in Figure 2 as example.  The type is
   T_HOPAUTH_CERT, CE1 Length is the length of certificate CE1(C0->R1),
   and CE1(C0->R1) is the certificate data for CE1(C0->R1).

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6.  Security Considerations

   This document is entirely about authentication mechanism in CCN/NDN.

7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [1]        Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,

   [2]        Mosko, M., Solis, I., and C. Wood, "CCNx Messages in TLV
              Format", draft-irtf-icnrg-ccnxmessages-09 (work in
              progress), January 2019.

7.2.  Informative References

   [3]        Jacobson, V., Smetters, D., Thornton, J., Plass, M.,
              Briggs, N., and R. Braynard, "Networking Named Content",
              Proc. CoNEXT, ACM, December 2009.

   [4]        Zhang, L., Afanasyev, A., Burke, J., Jacobson, V., Claffy,
              K., Crowley, P., Papadopoulos, C., Wang, L., and B. Zhang,
              "Named data networking", ACM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.
              44, no. 3, July 2014.

   [5]        Seedorf, J., Arumaithurai, M., Tgami, A., Ramakrishnan,
              K., and N. Melazzi, "Research Directions for Using ICN in
              Disaster Scenarios", draft-irtf-icnrg-disaster-07 (work in
              progress), June 2019.

   [6]        Westphal, C., Lederer, S., Posch, D., Timmerer, C., Azgin,
              A., Liu, W., Mueller, C., Detti, A., Corujo, D., Wang, J.,
              Montpetit, M., and N. Murray, "Adaptive Video Streaming
              over Information-Centric Networking (ICN)", RFC 7933,
              August 2016.

   [7]        Ravindran, R., Zhang, Y., Grieco, L., Lindgren, A., Burke,
              J., Ahlgren, B., and A. Azgin, "Design Considerations for
              Applying ICN to IoT", draft-irtf-icnrg-icniot-03 (work in
              progress), May 2019.

   [8]        Afanasyev, A., Mahadevan, P., Moiseenko, I., Uzun, E., and
              L. Zhang, "Interest flooding attack and countermeasures in
              named data networking", Proc. IFIP Networking, IFIP, May

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   [9]        Compagno, A., Conti, M., Gasti, P., and G. Tsudik,
              "Poseidon: mitigating interest flooding ddos attacks in
              named data networking", Proc. LCN 2013, IEEE, October

   [10]       Nguyen, T., Cogranne, R., and G. Doyen, "An optimal
              statistical test for robust detection against interest
              flooding attacks in ccn", Proc. International Symposium on
              Integrated Network Management (INM), IFIP/IEEE, May 2015.

   [11]       Ghali, C., Tsudik, G., and E. Uzun, "Network-layer trust
              in named-data networking", ACM SIGCOMM Computer
              Communication Review, vol.44, no. 5, October 2014.

   [12]       Kim, D., Nam, S., Bi, J., and I. Yeom, "Efficient content
              verification in named data networking", Proc. ACM
              Conference on Information-Centric Networking, ACM,
              September 2015.

   [13]       Gasti, P., Tsudik, G., Uzun, E., and L. Zhang, "Dos and
              ddos in named data networking", Proc. IEEE ICCCN
              2013, IEEE, August 2013.

   [14]       Neuman, C., Yu, T., Hartman, S., and K. Raeburn, "The
              Kerberos Network Authentication Service (V5)", RFC 4120,
              July 2005.

   [15]       Baugher, M., Canetti, R., Dondeti, L., and F. Lindholm,
              "Multicast Security (MSEC) Group Key Management
              Architecture", RFC 4046, April 2005.

   [16]       Cooper, D., Santesson, S., Farrell, S., Boeyen, S.,
              Housley, R., and W. Polk, "Internet X.509 Public Key
              Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List
              (CRL) Profile", RFC 5280, May 2008.

   [17]       Callas, J., Donnerhacke, L., Finney, H., Shaw, D., and R.
              Thayer, "OpenPGP Message Format", RFC 4880, November 2007.

   [18]       Bush, R. and R. Austein, "The Resource Public Key
              Infrastructure (RPKI) to Router Protocol Version 1",
              RFC 8210, September 2017.

   [19]       Li, R., Asaeda, H., and J. Wu, "DCAuth: Data-Centric
              Authentication for Secure In-Network Big-Data Retrieval",
              IEEE Transactions on Network Science and Engineering, DOI:
              10.1109/TNSE.2018.2872049, September 2018.

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Authors' Addresses

   Ruidong Li
   National Institute of Information and Communications Technology
   4-2-1 Nukui-Kitamachi
   Koganei, Tokyo  184-8795

   Email: lrd@nict.go.jp

   Hitoshi Asaeda
   National Institute of Information and Communications Technology
   4-2-1 Nukui-Kitamachi
   Koganei, Tokyo  184-8795

   Email: asaeda@nict.go.jp

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