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Internet Engineering Task Force                                    Y. Ma
Internet-Draft                                                   Hitachi
Intended status: Informational                                    Z. Cao
Expires: January 13, 2014                                   China Mobile
                                                           July 12, 2013


   Implication of 3GPP Link Characteristics on Lightweight IP Design
                    draft-ma-lwig-3gpplink-imply-00

Abstract

   In 3GPP Release 12, the work item Machine Type Communication (MTC) is
   specifying low cost terminals for Machine to Machine communications.
   Since IETF has already developed a suite of protocols for device
   communication, it is useful to analyze the limitation of 3GPP MTC and
   the impact on the implementation of IETF protocol suite.  This
   document analyzes the feature of 3GPP MTC and the impact on light
   weight protocol implementation for the MTC terminals.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 13, 2014.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must



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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.1.  Conventions used in this document . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  3GPP MTC features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Impact on light weight implementation . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.1.  Network layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.2.  Transport Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.3.  Application Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   4.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   5.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   6.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     6.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     6.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6

1.  Introduction

   As the Internet of Things are booming, it is important for cellular
   networks to support the Machine to Machine communication.  In 3GPP
   one work item is set up since Release 10 to deal with the so called
   Machine Type Communication (MTC) in cellular network.

   At the same time, IETF has developed a suite of Internet protocols
   suitable for small devices, including 6LowPAN [RFC6282], 6LowPAN-ND
   [RFC6775], RPL[RFC6550], COAP[I-D.ietf-core-coap].

   This document tries to summarize the feature of 3GPP MTC and the
   impact on implementation of the IETF light-weight protocols suite in
   each layer.  Link characteristic implications on upper layer
   protocols are also analyzed in [I-D.hex-lwig-energy-efficient].

1.1.  Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL","SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]









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1.2.  Terminology

   The terminologies used in this document can be referred to
   [I-D.ietf-lwig-terminology].

2.  3GPP MTC features

   In 3GPP the scenarios for MTC and the features of the MTC is
   analyzed.  Following are the features which is considered specific
   for MTC.[TS22.368]

   1.  Low Mobility: It is intended for use with MTC Devices that do not
       move, move infrequently, or move only within a certain region.

   2.  Time Controlled: It is intended for use with MTC Applications
       that can tolerate to send or receive data only during defined
       time intervals and avoid unnecessary signalling outside these
       defined time intervals.

   3.  Small Data Transmissions: It is intended for use with MTC Devices
       that send or receive small amounts of data.  The observed size of
       many of the instances of data exchanges is on the order of 1K
       (1024) octets.

   4.  Infrequent Mobile Terminated: It is intended for use with MTC
       Devices that mainly utilize mobile originated communications.

   5.  MTC Monitoring: It is intended for monitoring MTC Device related
       events.

   6.  Secure Connection: It is intended for use with MTC Devices that
       require a secure connection between the MTC Device and MTC Server
       /MTC Application Server.

   7.  Group Based MTC Features: It is a MTC Feature that applies to a
       MTC Group.  Generally the system shall be optimized to handle MTC
       Groups.  The system shall provide a mechanism to associate an MTC
       Device to a single MTC Group.  There are two sub features for
       Group based MTC features.

       a.  Group Based Policing is intended for use with a MTC Group for
           which the network operator wants to enforce a combined QoS
           policy.

       b.  Group Based Addressing is intended for use with a MTC Group
           for which the network operator wants to optimize the message
           volume when many MTC Devices need to receive the same
           message.



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   On the other hand, IETF has developed multiple protocols to enable
   end-to-end IP communication between constrained nodes and fully
   capable nodes.  These works have witnessed the evolution of the
   traditional Interent protocol stack to the light-weight Internet
   protocol stack.  As show in the below , IETF has developed CoAP as
   the application layer, and 6LowPAN as the adaption layer to run IPv6
   on IEEE 802.15.4 and Bluetooth Low-Energy, with the support of
   routing from RPL and efficient neighbor discovery from 6LowPAN-ND.

   However according to the features of 3GPP MTC, not all IETF protocol
   suites are necessary to be implemented for cellular MTC devices.  In
   this document the impact of the MTC features on IETF protocol suites
   are analysed.

3.  Impact on light weight implementation

3.1.  Network layer

   IPv6 is mandatory for 3GPP terminals.  The consideration to implement
   IPv6 for 3GPP terminal is specified in [RFC3316].  As specified in
   RFC3316, standard IPv6 protocol stack is used.  The MTC device does
   not need to support 6lowpan, 6lowpan-ND, or RPL for the communication
   between MTC device and MTC server or application in the cellular
   network.

   However in cellular network deployment scenario, the MTC device is
   sometimes used as gateway device to bridge other resource constrained
   nodes to the cellular network.  So the MTC device needs to implement
   6lowpan-ND or RPL if other resource constrained nodes is connected
   through 802.15.4 or other wireless technologies.

3.2.  Transport Layer

   For MTC device, the assumed use case and scenario is about small data
   transmission.  And the reliability is not required.  Therefore the
   UDP based transport is suitable for MTC and should be mandatory for
   all cellular terminals.

   3GPP MTC needs to support secure connection between MTC device and
   MTC server/ MTC Application Server.  In this case the light-weight
   secure transport protocol such as DTLS should be supported by 3GPP
   MTC device.









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3.3.  Application Layer

   CoAP [I-D.ietf-core-coap]was designed as a restful application
   protocol, connecting the smart devices application and service to the
   world-wide-web.  It provides basic communication services such as
   service discovery and GET/POST/PUT/DELETE methods with a binary
   header.  It is assumed to work over IPv6 in the network layer.

   Although IPv6 is made mandatory for 3GPP terminals, IPv4 is still
   considered a default protocol for 3GPP MTC [TS23.888].  IPv4 based
   communication is used for communicaton between MTC device and MTC
   server.  Many CoAP features are based on IPv6 assumption.  For
   example, auto-configuration, resource discovery, etc.  Therefore if
   CoAP is used for cellular network, it is necessary to consider how to
   support IPv4 for the mentioned CoAP features.

4.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no IANA requests.

5.  Security Considerations

   The security implementation should follow both 3GPP and IETF
   specifications.

6.  References

6.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.hex-lwig-energy-efficient]
              Cao, Z., He, X., and M. Kovatsch, "Energy Efficient
              Implementation of IETF Protocols on Constrained Devices",
              draft-hex-lwig-energy-efficient-00 (work in progress),
              February 2013.

   [I-D.ietf-core-coap]
              Shelby, Z., Hartke, K., and C. Bormann, "Constrained
              Application Protocol (CoAP)", draft-ietf-core-coap-18
              (work in progress), June 2013.

   [I-D.ietf-lwig-terminology]
              Bormann, C., Ersue, M., and A. Keranen, "Terminology for
              Constrained Node Networks", draft-ietf-lwig-terminology-05
              (work in progress), July 2013.

   [I-D.kovatsch-lwig-class1-coap]





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              Kovatsch, M., "Implementing CoAP for Class 1 Devices",
              draft-kovatsch-lwig-class1-coap-00 (work in progress),
              October 2012.

   [TS22.368]
              3GPP, "TS 22.368: Service requirements for Machine-Type
              Communications", March 2013,
              <http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/22368.htm>.

   [TS23.888]
              3GPP, "TS 23.888: System improvements for Machine-Type
              Communications", September 2012,
              <http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/23888.htm>.

6.2.  Informative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3316]  Arkko, J., Kuijpers, G., Soliman, H., Loughney, J., and J.
              Wiljakka, "Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) for Some
              Second and Third Generation Cellular Hosts", RFC 3316,
              April 2003.

   [RFC6282]  Hui, J. and P. Thubert, "Compression Format for IPv6
              Datagrams over IEEE 802.15.4-Based Networks", RFC 6282,
              September 2011.

   [RFC6550]  Winter, T., Thubert, P., Brandt, A., Hui, J., Kelsey, R.,
              Levis, P., Pister, K., Struik, R., Vasseur, JP., and R.
              Alexander, "RPL: IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and
              Lossy Networks", RFC 6550, March 2012.

   [RFC6775]  Shelby, Z., Chakrabarti, S., Nordmark, E., and C. Bormann,
              "Neighbor Discovery Optimization for IPv6 over Low-Power
              Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)", RFC 6775,
              November 2012.

Authors' Addresses

   Yuanchen Ma
   Hitachi
   301, Tower C North, Raycom, 2 Kexuyuan Nanlu, Haidian District
   Beijing  100190
   P.R.China

   Email: ycma@hitachi.cn




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   Zhen Cao
   China Mobile
   Xuanwumenxi Ave. No.32
   Beijing  100871
   P.R.China

   Email: zehn.cao@gmail.com, caozhen@chinamobile.com












































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