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Versions: 00 01 02 03

Network Working Group                                           F. Maino
Internet-Draft                                                V. Ermagan
Intended status: Experimental                                Y. Hertoghs
Expires: April 21, 2014                                    Cisco Systems
                                                            D. Farinacci
                                                             lispers.net
                                                                M. Smith
                                                        Insieme Networks
                                                        October 18, 2013


         LISP Control Plane for Network Virtualization Overlays
                      draft-maino-nvo3-lisp-cp-03

Abstract

   The purpose of this draft is to analyze the mapping between the
   Network Virtualization over L3 (NVO3) requirements and the
   capabilities of the Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP) control
   plane.  This information is provided as input to the NVO3 analysis of
   the suitability of existing IETF protocols to the NVO3 requirements.

Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 21, 2014.

Copyright Notice





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   Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Definition of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  LISP Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.1.  LISP Site Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.2.  End System Provisioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.3.  End System Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.4.  Packet Flow and Control Plane Operations  . . . . . . . .   7
       3.4.1.  Supporting ARP Resolution with LISP Mapping System  .   8
     3.5.  End System Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     3.6.  L3 LISP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   4.  Reference Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     4.1.  LISP NVE Service Types  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       4.1.1.  LISP L2 NVE Services  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       4.1.2.  LISP L3 NVE Services  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   5.  Functional Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     5.1.  Generic Service Virtualization Components . . . . . . . .  14
       5.1.1.  Virtual Attachment Points (VAPs)  . . . . . . . . . .  15
       5.1.2.  Overlay Modules and Tenant ID . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       5.1.3.  Tenant Instance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       5.1.4.  Tunnel Overlays and Encapsulation Options . . . . . .  16
       5.1.5.  Control Plane Components  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   6.  Key Aspects of Overlay  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     6.1.  Overlay Issues to Consider  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       6.1.1.  Data Plane vs. Control Plane Driven . . . . . . . . .  17
       6.1.2.  Data Plane and Control Plane Separation . . . . . . .  17
       6.1.3.  Handling Broadcast, Unknown Unicast and Multicast
               (BUM) Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
   8.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
   9.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
   10. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     10.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     10.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18



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   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21

1.  Introduction

   The purpose of this draft is to analyze the mapping between the
   Network Virtualization over L3 (NVO3)
   [I-D.ietf-nvo3-overlay-problem-statement] requirements and the
   capabilities of the Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP) [RFC6830]
   control plane.  This information is provided as input to the NVO3
   analysis of the suitability of existing IETF protocols to the NVO3
   requirements.

   LISP is a flexible map and encap framework that can be used for
   overlay network applications, including Data Center Network
   Virtualization.

   The LISP framework provides two main tools for NVO3: (1) a Data Plane
   that specifies how Endpoint Identifiers (EIDs) are encapsulated in
   Routing Locators (RLOCs), and (2) a Control Plane that specifies the
   interfaces to the LISP Mapping System that provides the mapping
   between EIDs and RLOCs.

   This document focuses on the control plane for L2 over L3 LISP
   encapsulation, where EIDs are associated with MAC addresses.  As such
   the LISP control plane can be used with the data path encapsulations
   defined in VXLAN [I-D.mahalingam-dutt-dcops-vxlan] and in NVGRE
   [I-D.sridharan-virtualization-nvgre].  The LISP control plane can, of
   course, be used with the L2 LISP data path encapsulation defined in
   [I-D.smith-lisp-layer2].

   The LISP control plane provides the Mapping Service for the Network
   Virtualization Edge (NVE), mapping per-tenant end system identity
   information on the corresponding location at the NVE.  As required by
   NVO3, LISP supports network virtualization and tenant separation to
   hide tenant addressing information, tenant-related control plane
   activity and service contexts from the underlay network.

   The LISP control plane is extensible, and can support non-LISP data
   path encapsulations such as [I-D.sridharan-virtualization-nvgre], or
   other encapsulations that provide support for network virtualization.
   [RFC6832] specifies an open interworking framework to allow LISP to
   non-LISP sites communication.

   Broadcast, unknown unicast, and multicast in the overlay network are
   supported by either replicated unicast, or core-based multicast as
   specified in [RFC6831], [I-D.farinacci-lisp-mr-signaling], and
   [I-D.farinacci-lisp-te].




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   Finally, the LISP architecture has a modular design that allows the
   use of different Mapping Databases, provided that the interface to
   the Mapping System remains the same [RFC6833].  This allows for
   different Mapping Databases that may fit different NVO3 deployments.
   As an example of the modularity of the LISP Mapping System, a
   worldwide LISP pilot network is currently using an hierarchical
   Delegated Database Tree [I-D.ietf-lisp-ddt], after having been
   operated for years with an overlay BGP mapping infrastructure
   [RFC6836].

   The LISP mapping system supports network virtualization, and a single
   mapping infrastructure can run multiple instances, either public or
   private, of the mapping database.

   The rest of this document, after giving a quick a LISP overview in
   Section 3, follows the functional model defined in
   [I-D.ietf-nvo3-framework] that provides in Section 4 an overview of
   the LISP NVO3 reference model, and in Section 5 a description of its
   functional components.  Section 6 contains various considerations on
   key aspects of LISP NVO3, followed by security considerations in
   Section 7.

2.  Definition of Terms

      Flood-and-Learn: the use of dynamic (data plane) learning in VXLAN
      to discover the location of a given Ethernet/IEEE 802 MAC address
      in the underlay network.

      ARP-Agent Reply: the ARP proxy-reply of an agent (e.g. an ITR)
      with a MAC address of some other system in response to an ARP
      request to a target which is not the agent's IP address

   For definition of NVO3 related terms, notably Virtual Network (VN),
   Virtual Network Identifier (VNI), Network Virtualization Edge (NVE),
   Data Center (DC), please consult [I-D.ietf-nvo3-framework].

   For definitions of LISP related terms, notably Map-Request, Map-
   Reply, Ingress Tunnel Router (ITR), Egress Tunnel Router (ETR), Map-
   Server (MS) and Map-Resolver (MR) please consult the LISP
   specification [RFC6830].

3.  LISP Overview

   This section provides a quick overview of L2 LISP, with focus on
   control plane operations.

   The modular and extensible architecture of the LISP control plane
   allows its use with both L2 or L3 LISP data path encapsulation.  In



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   fact, the LISP control plane can be used even with other L2 overlay
   data path encapsulations such as VXLAN and NVGRE.  When used with
   VXLAN, the LISP control plane replaces the use of dynamic data plane
   learning (Flood-and-Learn), as specified in
   [I-D.mahalingam-dutt-dcops-vxlan] improving scalability and
   mitigating multicast requirements in the underlay network.

   For a detailed LISP overview please refer to [RFC6830] and related
   drafts.

   To exemplify LISP operations let's consider two data centers (LISP
   sites) A and B that provide L2 network virtualization services to a
   number of tenant end systems, as depicted in Figure 1.  The Endpoint
   Identifiers (EIDs) are encoded according to [I-D.ietf-lisp-lcaf] as
   an <IID,MAC> tuple that contains the Instance ID, or Virtual Network
   Identifier (VNI), and the endpoint Ethernet/IEEE 802 MAC address.

   The data centers are connected via a L3 underlay network, hence the
   Routing Locators (RLOCs) are IP addresses (either IPv4 or IPv6)
   encoded according to [I-D.ietf-lisp-lcaf].

   In LISP the network virtualization edge function is performed by
   Ingress Tunnel Routers (ITRs) that are responsible for encapsulating
   the LISP ingress traffic, and Egress Tunnel Routers (ETRs) that are
   responsible for decapsulating the LISP egress traffic.  ETRs are also
   responsible to register the EID-to-RLOC mapping for a given LISP site
   in the LISP mapping database system.  ITRs and ETRs are collectively
   referred as xTRs.

   The EID-to-RLOC mapping is stored in the LISP mapping database, a
   distributed mapping infrastructure accessible via Map Servers (MS)
   and Map Resolvers (MR).  [I-D.ietf-lisp-ddt] is an example of a
   mapping database used in many LISP deployments.  Another example of
   of mapping database is [RFC6836].

   For small deployments the mapping infrastructure can be very minimal,
   in some cases even a single system running as MS/MR.

                                      ,---------.
                                    ,'           `.
                                   (Mapping System )
                                    `.           ,'
                                      `-+------+'
                                   +--+--+   +-+---+
                                   |MS/MR|   |MS/MR|
                                   +-+---+   +-----+
                                       |        |
                                   .--..--. .--. ..



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                                  (    '           '.--.
                               .-.'        L3          '
                              (         Underlay       )
                               (                     '-'
                                ._.'--'._.'.-._.'.-._)
                       RLOC=IP_A //                  \\ RLOC=IP_B
                              +---+--+              +-+--+--+
                        .--.-.|xTR A |'.-.         .| xTR B |.-.
                       (      +---+--+    )       ( +-+--+--+   )
                      (                __.       (              '.
                    ..'  LISP Site A  )         .'   LISP Site B  )
                   (             .'-'          (             .'-'
                     '--'._.'.    )\            '--'._.'.    )\
                      /       '--'  \            /       '--'  \
                  '--------'    '--------'   '--------'   '--------'
                  :  End   :    :  End   :   :  End   :   :  End   :
                  : Device :    : Device :   : Device :   : Device :
                  '--------'    '--------'   '--------'   '--------'
                     EID=          EID=         EID=         EID=
                 <IID1,MAC_W>  <IID2,MAC_X> <IID1,MAC_Y> <IID1,MAC_Z>

                   Figure 1: Example of L2 NVO3 Services

3.1.  LISP Site Configuration

   In each LISP site the xTRs are configured with an IP address (the
   site RLOCs) per each interface facing the underlay network.

   Similarly the MS/MR are assigned an IP address in the RLOC space.

   The configuration of the xTRs includes the RLOCs of the MS/MR and a
   shared secret that is optionally used to secure the communication
   between xTRs and MS/MR.

   To provide support for multi-tenancy multiple instances of the
   mapping database are identified by a LISP Instance ID (IID), that is
   equivalent to the 24-bit VXLAN Network Identifier (VNI) or Tenant
   Network Identifier (TNI) that identifies tenants in
   [I-D.mahalingam-dutt-dcops-vxlan].

3.2.  End System Provisioning










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   We assume that a provisioning framework will be responsible for
   provisioning end systems (e.g. VMs) in each data center.  The
   provisioning system configures each end system with an Ethernet/IEEE
   802 MAC address and/or IP address and provisions the NVE with other
   end system specific attributes such as VLAN information, and TS/VLAN
   to VNI mapping information.  LISP does not introduce new addressing
   requirements for end systems.

   The provisioning infrastructure is also responsible to provide a
   network attach function, that notifies the network virtualization
   edge (the LISP site ETR) that the end system is attached to a given
   virtual network (identified by its VNI/IID) and that the end system
   is identified, within that virtual network, by a given Ethernet/IEEE
   802 MAC address.

3.3.  End System Registration

   Upon notification of end system network attach, that includes the
   EID=<IID,MAC> tuple that identifies that end system, the ETR sends a
   LISP Map-Register to the Mapping System.  The Map-Register includes
   the EID and RLOCs of the LISP site.  The EID-to-RLOC mapping is now
   available, via the Mapping System Infrastructure, to other LISP sites
   that are hosting end systems that belong to the same tenant.

   For more details on end system registration see [RFC6833].

3.4.  Packet Flow and Control Plane Operations

   This section provides an example of the unicast packet flow and the
   control plane operations when in the topology shown in Figure 1 end
   system W, in LISP site A, wants to communicate to end system Y in
   LISP site B. We'll assume that W knows Y's EID MAC address (e.g.
   learned via ARP).

   o  W sends an Ethernet/IEEE 802 MAC frame with destination
      EID=<IID1,MAC_Y> and source EID=<IID1,MAC_W>.

   o  ITR A does a lookup in its local map-cache for the destination
      EID=<IID1, MAC_Y>.  Since this is the first packet sent to MAC_Y,
      the map-cache is a miss, and the ITR sends a Map-request to the
      mapping database system looking up the EID=<IID1,MAC_Y>.

   o  The mapping systems forwards the Map-Request to ETR B, that is
      aware of the EID-to-RLOC mapping for <IID1,MAC_Y>.  Alternatively,
      depending on the mapping system configuration, a Map-Server which
      is part of the mapping database system may send a Map-Reply
      directly to ITR A.




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   o  ETR B sends a Map-Reply to ITR A that includes the EID-to-RLOC
      mapping: EID=<IID1,MAC_Y> -> RLOC=IP_B, where IP_B is the locator
      of ETR B, hence the locator of LISP site B. In order to facilitate
      interoperability, the Map-Reply may also include attributes such
      as the data plane encapsulations supported by the ETR.

   o  ITR A populates the local map-cache with the EID to RLOC mapping,
      and either L2 LISP, VXLAN, or NVGRE encapsulates all subsequent
      packets with a destination EID=<IID1,MAC_Y> with a destination
      RLOC=IP_B.

   It should be noted how the LISP mapping system replaces the use of
   Flood-and-Learn based on multicast distribution trees instantiated in
   the underlay network (required by VXLAN's dynamic data plane
   learning), with a unicast control plane and a cache mechanism that
   "pulls" on-demand the EID-to-RLOC mapping from the LISP mapping
   database.  This improves scalability, and simplifies the
   configuration of the underlay network.

3.4.1.  Supporting ARP Resolution with LISP Mapping System

   A large majority of data center applications are IP based, and in
   those use cases end systems are provisioned with IP addresses as well
   as MAC addresses.

   In this case, to eliminate the flooding of ARP traffic and further
   reduce the need for multicast in the underlay network, the LISP
   mapping system is used to support ARP resolution at the ITR.  We
   assume that as shown in Figure 2: (1) end system W has an IP address
   IP_W, and end system Y has an IP address IP_Y, (2) end system W knows
   Y's IP address (e.g. via DNS lookup).  We also assume that during
   registration Y has registered both its MAC address and its IP address
   as EID.  End system Y is then identified by the EID =
   <IID1,IP_Y,MAC_Y>.

                                      ,---------.
                                    ,'           `.
                                   (Mapping System )
                                    `.           ,'
                                      `-+------+'
                                   +--+--+   +-+---+
                                   |MS/MR|   |MS/MR|
                                   +-+---+   +-----+
                                       |        |
                                   .--..--. .--. ..
                                  (    '           '.--.
                               .-.'        L3          '
                              (         Underlay       )



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                               (                     '-'
                                ._.'--'._.'.-._.'.-._)
                       RLOC=IP_A //                  \\ RLOC=IP_B
                              +---+--+              +-+--+--+
                        .--.-.|xTR A |'.-.         .| xTR B |.-.
                       (      +---+--+    )       ( +-+--+--+   )
                      (                __.       (              '.
                    ..'  LISP Site A  )         .'   LISP Site B  )
                   (             .'-'          (             .'-'
                     '--'._.'.    )\            '--'._.'.    )\
                      /       '--'  \            /       '--'  \
                  '--------'    '--------'   '--------'   '--------'
                  :  End   :    :  End   :   :  End   :   :  End   :
                  : Device :    : Device :   : Device :   : Device :
                  '--------'    '--------'   '--------'   '--------'
                     EID=          EID=         EID=         EID=
                  <IID1,IP_W,  <IID2,IP_X,   <IID1,IP_Y,  <IID1,IP_Z,
                    MAC_W>        MAC_X>        MAC_Y>       MAC_Z>

                   Figure 2: Example of L3 NVO3 Services

   The packet flow and control plane operation are as follows:

   o  End system W sends a broadcast ARP message to discover the MAC
      address of end system Y. The message contains IP_Y in the ARP
      message payload.

   o  ITR A, acting as a L2 switch, will receive the ARP message, but
      rather than flooding it on the overlay network sends a Map-Request
      to the mapping database system for EID = <IID1,IP_Y,*>.

   o  The Map-Request is routed by the mapping system infrastructure to
      ETR B, that will send a Map-Reply back to ITR A containing the
      mapping EID=<IID1,IP_Y,MAC_Y> -> RLOC=IP_B, (the locator of ETR
      B).  Alternatively, depending on the mapping system configuration,
      a Map-Server in the mapping system may send directly a Map-Reply
      to ITR A.

   o  ITR A populates the map-cache with the received entry, and sends
      an ARP-Agent Reply to W that includes MAC_Y and IP_Y.

   o  End system W learns MAC_Y from the ARP message and can now send a
      packet to end system Y by including MAC_Y, and IP_Y, as
      destination addresses.

   o  ITR A will then process the packet as specified in Section 3.4.





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   This example shows how LISP, by replacing dynamic data plane learning
   (Flood-and-Learn) largely reduces the need for multicast in the
   underlay network, that is needed only when broadcast, unknown unicast
   or multicast are required by the applications in the overlay.  In
   practice, the LISP mapping system, constrains ARP within the
   boundaries of a link-local protocol.  This simplifies the
   configuration of the underlay network and removes the significant
   scalability limitation imposed by VXLAN Flood-and-Learn.

   It's important to note that the use of the LISP mapping system, by
   pulling the EID-to-RLOC mapping on demand, also improves end system
   mobility across data centers.

3.5.  End System Mobility

   This section shows how the LISP control plane deals with mobility
   when end systems are migrated from one Data Center to another.  We'll
   assume that a signaling protocol, as described in
   [I-D.kompella-nvo3-server2nve], signals to the NVE operations such as
   creating/terminating/migrating an end system.  The signaling protocol
   consists of three basic messages: "associate", "dissociate", and
   "pre-associate".

   Let's consider the scenario shown in Figure 3 where end system W
   moves from data center A to data center B.

                                     ,---------.
                                   ,'           `.
                                  (Mapping System )
                                   `.           ,'
                                     `-+------+'
                                  +--+--+   +-+---+
                                  |MS/MR|   |MS/MR|
                                  +-+---+   +-----+
                                      |        |
                                  .--..--. .--. ..
                                 (    '           '.--.
                              .-.'        L3          '
                             (         Underlay       )
                              (                     '-'
                               ._.'--'._.'.-._.'.-._)
                      RLOC=IP_A //                  \\ RLOC=IP_B
                             +---+--+              +-+--+--+
                       .--.-.|xTR A |'.-.         .| xTR B |.-.
                      (      +---+--+    )       ( +-+--+--+   )
                     (                __.       (              '.
                   ..'  LISP Site A  )         .'   LISP Site B  )
                  (             .'-'          (             .'-'



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                    '--'._.'.    )\            '--'._.'.    )\
                     /       '--'  \            /       '--'  \
                 '--------'   '--------'     '--------'   '--------'
                 :  End   :   :  End   : ==> :  End   :   :  End   :
                 : Device :   : Device : ==> : Device :   : Device :
                 '--------'   '--------'     '--------'   '--------'
                    EID=            EID=<IID1,MAC_W>         EID=
                <IID2,MAC_X>                             <IID1,MAC_Z>

                       Figure 3: End System Mobility

   As a result of the end system registration, described in Section 3.3,
   the Mapping System contains the EID-to-RLOC mapping for end system W
   that associates EID=<IID1, MAC_W> with the RLOC(s) associated with
   LISP site A (IP_A).

   The process of migrating end system W from data center A to data
   center B is initiated.

   ETR B receives a pre-associate message that includes EID=<IID1,
   MAC_W>.  ETR B sends a Map-Register to the mapping system registering
   RLOC=IP_B as an additional locator for end system W with priority set
   to 255.  This means that the RLOC MUST NOT be used for unicast
   forwarding, but the mapping system is now aware of the new location.

   During the migration process of end system W, ETR A receives a
   dissociate message, and sends a Map-Register with Record TTL=0 to
   signal the mapping system that end system W is no longer reachable at
   RLOC=IP_A. xTR A will also add an entry in its forwarding table that
   marks EID=<IID1, MAC_W> as non-local.  When end system W has
   completed its migration, ETR B receives an associate message for end
   system W, and sends a Map-Register to the mapping system setting a
   non-255 priority for RLOC=IP_B. Now the mapping system is updated
   with the new EID-to-RLOC mapping for end system W with the desired
   priority.

   The remote ITRs that were corresponding with end system W during the
   migration will keep sending packets to ETR A. ETR A will keep
   forwarding locally those packets until it receives a dissociate
   message, and the entry in the forwarding table associated with
   EID=<IID1, MAC_W> is marked as non-local.  Subsequent packets
   arriving at ETR A from a remore ITR, and destined to end system W
   will hit the entry in the forwarding table that will generate an
   exception, and will generate a Solicit-Map-Request (SMR) message that
   is returned to the remote ITR.  Upon receiving the SMR the remote ITR
   will invalidate its local map-cache entry for EID=<IID1, MAC_W> and
   send a new Map-Request for that EID.  The Map-Request will generate a
   Map-Reply that includes the new EID-to-RLOC mapping for end system W



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   with RLOC=IP_B. Similarly, unencapsulated packets arriving at ITR A
   from local end systems and destined to end system W will hit the
   entry in the forwarding table marked as non-local, and will generate
   an exception that by sending a Map-Request for EID=<IID1, MAC_W> will
   populate the map-cache of ITR A with an EID-to-RLOC mapping for end
   system W with RLOC=IP_B.

3.6.  L3 LISP

   The two examples above shows how the LISP control plane can be used
   in combination with either L2 LISP, VXLAN, or NVGRE encapsulation to
   provide L2 network virtualization services across data centers.

   There is a trend, led by Massive Scalable Data Centers, that is
   accelerating the adoption of L3 network services in the data center,
   to preserve the many benefits introduced by L3 (scalability, multi-
   homing, ...).

   LISP, as defined in [RFC6830], provides L3 network virtualization
   services over an L3 underlay network that, as an alternative to L2
   overlay solutions, matches the requirements for DC Network
   Virtualization.  L2 overlay solutions are necessary for Data Centers
   that rely on non IPv4/IPv6 protocols, but when IP is pervasive L3
   LISP provides a better and more scalable overlay.

4.  Reference Model

   Figure 4, taken from [I-D.ietf-nvo3-framework], introduces the NVO3
   reference model.

   In a LISP NVO3 network the Tenant Systems (TS) that are homed to a
   common NVE, having specific Endpoint Identifiers (EIDs), are part of
   a 'LISP site'.

   The network virtualization edge (NVE) function is performed by
   Ingress Tunnel Routers (ITRs) that are responsible for encapsulating
   the LISP ingress traffic, and Egress Tunnel Routers (ETRs) that are
   responsible for de-encapsulating the LISP egress traffic.

   The outer tunnel IP addresses (either IPv4 or IPv6) on the ITR and
   ETR NVE function are known as Routing Locators (RLOCs).

   ETRs are also responsible to register the EID-to-RLOC mapping for a
   given LISP site in the LISP mapping database system [RFC6833] .

   ITRs and ETRs, collectively referred as xTRs, provide for tenant
   separation, perform the encap/decap function, and interface with the
   LISP Mapping System that maps tenant addressing information (in the



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   EID name space) on the underlay L3 infrastructure (in the RLOC name
   space), with the encoding defined in [I-D.ietf-lisp-lcaf].

   The LISP Mapping system is a distributed mapping infrastructure,
   accessible via Map Servers (MS) and Map Resolvers (MR), that performs
   the NVA function.

   The LISP Mapping system can be scaled across various physical
   components e.g. across an EID based hierarchy as described in
   [I-D.ietf-lisp-ddt].  EID prefixes and/or address families can thus
   be scaled across the mapping infrastructure if needed.

   The NVA function can offer a northbound SDN interface in order to
   program the EID to RLOC mapping from e.g. an orchestration system.
   An example is given in [I-D.barkai-lisp-nfv] .

   As traffic reaches An ingress NVE, the corresponding ITR uses the
   LISP Map-Request/Reply service to determine the location of the
   destination End System.

   The LISP mapping system combines the distribution of address
   advertisement and (stateless) tunneling provisioning.

   LISP defines several mechanisms for determining RLOC reachability,
   including Locator Status Bits, "nonce echoing", and RLOC probing.
   Please see Sections 5.3 and 6.3 of [RFC6830].  However, given the
   fact that DC's are typically deployed with a single stage IGP
   hierarchy, the IGP responsible for the RLOC space offers enough
   reachability information.

                +--------+                                    +--------+
                | Tenant +--+                            +----| Tenant |
                | System |  |                           (')   | System |
                +--------+  |    .................     (   )  +--------+
                            |  +---+           +---+    (_)
                            +--|NVE|---+   +---|NVE|-----+
                               +---+   |   |   +---+
                               / .    +-----+      .
                              /  . +--| NVA |      .
                             /   . |  +-----+      .
                            |    . |               .
                            |    . |  L3 Overlay +--+--++--------+
                +--------+  |    . |   Network   | NVE || Tenant |
                | Tenant +--+    . |             |     || System |
                | System |       .  \ +---+      +--+--++--------+
                +--------+       .....|NVE|.........
                                      +---+
                                        |



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                                        |
                              =====================
                                |               |
                            +--------+      +--------+
                            | Tenant |      | Tenant |
                            | System |      | System |
                            +--------+      +--------+

                  Figure 4: NVO3 Generic Reference Model

4.1.  LISP NVE Service Types

   L2 NVE and L3 NVE service types thanks to the flexibility provided by
   the LISP Canonical Address Format [I-D.ietf-lisp-lcaf], that allows
   for EIDs to be encoded either as MAC addresses or IP addresses.

4.1.1.  LISP L2 NVE Services

   The frame format defined in [I-D.mahalingam-dutt-dcops-vxlan], has a
   header compatible with the LISP data path encapsulation header, when
   MAC addresses are used as EIDs, as described in section 4.12.2 of
   [I-D.ietf-lisp-lcaf].

   The LISP control plane is extensible, and can support non-LISP data
   path encapsulations such as NVGRE
   [I-D.sridharan-virtualization-nvgre], or other encapsulations that
   provide support for network virtualization.

4.1.2.  LISP L3 NVE Services

   LISP is defined as a virtualized IP routing and forwarding service in
   [RFC6830], and as such can be used to provide L3 NVE services.

5.  Functional Components

   This section describes the functional components of a LISP NVE as
   defined in Section 3 of [I-D.ietf-nvo3-framework].

5.1.  Generic Service Virtualization Components

   The generic reference model for NVE is depicted in
   [I-D.ietf-nvo3-framework].

                            +-------- L3 Network -------+
                            |                           |
                            |        Tunnel Overlay     |
                +------------+---------+       +---------+------------+
                | +----------+-------+ |       | +---------+--------+ |



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                | |  Overlay Module  | |       | |  Overlay Module  | |
                | +---------+--------+ |       | +---------+--------+ |
                |           |VN context|       | VN context|          |
                |           |          |       |           |          |
                |  +--------+-------+  |       |  +--------+-------+  |
                |  | |VNI|   .  |VNI|  |       |  | |VNI|   .  |VNI|  |
           NVE1 |  +-+------------+-+  |       |  +-+-----------+--+  | NVE2
                |    |   VAPs     |    |       |    |    VAPs   |     |
                +----+------------+----+       +----+-----------+-----+
                     |            |                 |           |
                     |            |                 |           |
                    Tenant Systems                 Tenant Systems

               Figure 5: Generic reference model for NV Edge

5.1.1.  Virtual Attachment Points (VAPs)

   In a LISP NVE, Tunnel Routers (xTRs) implement the NVE functionality
   on ToRs or Virtual Switches.  Tenant Systems attach to the Virtual
   Access Points (VAPs) provided by the xTRs (either a physical port or
   a virtual interface).

   The VAPs are identified by either a physical port or a virtual
   interface, e.g. Indexed by VLAN tags, a set, range, or set of ranges
   of VLAN tags in the case of a L2 service, or a virtual routed
   interface Indexed by a VLAN in case of a L3 service, or a combination
   of them in case of An L2/L3 service.

5.1.2.  Overlay Modules and Tenant ID

   The xTR also implements the function of NVE Overlay Module, by
   mapping the addressing information (EIDs) of the tenant packet on the
   appropriate locations (RLOCs) in the underlay network.  The Virtual
   Network Identifier (VNI) is encoded in the encapsulated packet
   (either in the 24-bit IID field of the LISP header for L2/L3 LISP
   encapsulation, or in the 24-bit VXLAN Network Identifier field for
   VXLAN encapsulation, or in the 24-bit NVGRE Tenant Network Identifier
   field of NVGRE).  In a LISP NVE globally unique (per administrative
   domain) VNIs are used to identify the Tenant instances.

   The mapping of the tenant packet address onto the underlay network
   location is "pulled" on-demand from the mapping system, and cached at
   the NVE in a per-VNI map-cache.

5.1.3.  Tenant Instance

   Tenants are mapped on LISP Instance IDs (IIDs), and the LISP Control
   Plane uses the IID to provide segmentation and virtualization.  The



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   ETR is responsible to register the Tenant System to the LISP mapping
   system, via the Map-Register service provided by LISP Map-Servers
   (MS).  The Map-Register includes the IID that is used to identify the
   tenant.

5.1.4.  Tunnel Overlays and Encapsulation Options

   The LISP control protocol, as defined today, provides support for L2
   LISP and VXLAN L2 over L3 encapsulation, and LISP L3 over L3
   encapsulation, as well as support for the Generic Protocol Extensions
   for LISP and VXLAN defined in [I-D.lewis-lisp-gpe] and
   [I-D.quinn-vxlan-gpe] respectively.  The Generic Protocol Extensions
   can be used to offer a concurrent L2 and L3 overlay across the same
   dataplane.

   We believe that the LISP control Protocol can be easily extended to
   support different IP tunneling options (such as NVGRE).

5.1.5.  Control Plane Components

5.1.5.1.  Auto-provisioning/Service Discovery

   The LISP framework does not include mechanisms to provision the local
   NVE with the appropriate Tenant Instance for each Tenant System.
   Other protocols, such as VDP (in IEEE P802.1Qbg), should be used to
   implement a network attach/detach function.

   The LISP control plane can take advantage of such a network attach/
   detach function to trigger the registration of a Tenant End System to
   the Mapping System.  This is particularly helpful to handle mobility
   across DC of the Tenant End System.

   It is possible to extend the LISP control protocol to advertise the
   tenant service instance (tenant and service type provided) to other
   NVEs, and facilitate interoperability between NVEs that are using
   different service types.

5.1.5.2.  Address Advertisement and Tunnel mapping

   As traffic reaches an ingress NVE, the corresponding ITR uses the
   LISP Map-Request/Reply service to determine the location of the
   destination End System.

   The LISP mapping system combines the distribution of address
   advertisement and (stateless) tunneling provisioning.






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   When EIDs are mapped on both IP addresses and MACs, the need to flood
   ARP messages at the NVE is eliminated resolving the issues with
   explosive ARP handling.

5.1.5.3.  Tunnel Management

   LISP defines several mechanisms for determining RLOC reachability,
   including Locator Status Bits, "nonce echoing", and RLOC probing.
   Please see Sections 5.3 and 6.3 of [RFC6830].

6.  Key Aspects of Overlay

6.1.  Overlay Issues to Consider

6.1.1.  Data Plane vs. Control Plane Driven

   The use of LISP control plane minimizes the need for multicast in the
   underlay network overcoming the scalability limitations of VXLAN
   dynamic data plane learning (Flood-and-Learn).

   Multicast or ingress replication in the underlay network are still
   required, as specified in [RFC6831],
   [I-D.farinacci-lisp-mr-signaling], and [I-D.farinacci-lisp-te], to
   support broadcast, unknown, and multicast traffic in the overlay, but
   multicast in the underlay is no longer required (at least for IP
   traffic) for unicast overlay services.

6.1.2.  Data Plane and Control Plane Separation

   LISP introduces a clear separation between data plane and control
   plane functions.  LISP modular design allows for different mapping
   databases, to achieve different scalability goals and to meet
   requirements of different deployments.

6.1.3.  Handling Broadcast, Unknown Unicast and Multicast (BUM) Traffic

   Packet replication in the underlay network to support broadcast,
   unknown unicast and multicast overlay services can be done by:

   o  Ingress replication

   o  Use of underlay multicast trees

   [RFC6831] specifies how to map a multicast flow in the EID space
   during distribution tree setup and packet delivery in the underlay
   network.  LISP-multicast doesn't require packet format changes in
   multicast routing protocols, and doesn't impose changes in the
   internal operation of multicast in a LISP site.  The only operational



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   changes are required in PIM-ASM [RFC4601], MSDP [RFC3618], and PIM-
   SSM [RFC4607].

7.  Security Considerations

   [I-D.ietf-lisp-sec] defines a set of security mechanisms that provide
   origin authentication, integrity and anti-replay protection to LISP's
   EID-to-RLOC mapping data conveyed via mapping lookup process.  LISP-
   SEC also enables verification of authorization on EID-prefix claims
   in Map-Reply messages.

   Additional security mechanisms to protect the LISP Map-Register
   messages are defined in [RFC6833].

   The security of the Mapping System Infrastructure depends on the
   particular mapping database used.  The [I-D.ietf-lisp-ddt]
   specification, as an example, defines a public-key based mechanism
   that provides origin authentication and integrity protection to the
   LISP DDT protocol.

8.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no IANA implications

9.  Acknowledgements

   The authors want to thank Victor Moreno and Paul Quinn for the early
   review, insightful comments and suggestions.

10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3618]  Fenner, B. and D. Meyer, "Multicast Source Discovery
              Protocol (MSDP)", RFC 3618, October 2003.

   [RFC4601]  Fenner, B., Handley, M., Holbrook, H., and I. Kouvelas,
              "Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM):
              Protocol Specification (Revised)", RFC 4601, August 2006.

   [RFC4607]  Holbrook, H. and B. Cain, "Source-Specific Multicast for
              IP", RFC 4607, August 2006.

10.2.  Informative References




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   [I-D.barkai-lisp-nfv]
              sbarkai@gmail.com, s., Farinacci, D., Meyer, D., Maino,
              F., and V. Ermagan, "LISP Based FlowMapping for Scaling
              NFV", draft-barkai-lisp-nfv-02 (work in progress), July
              2013.

   [I-D.farinacci-lisp-mr-signaling]
              Farinacci, D. and M. Napierala, "LISP Control-Plane
              Multicast Signaling", draft-farinacci-lisp-mr-signaling-03
              (work in progress), September 2013.

   [I-D.farinacci-lisp-te]
              Farinacci, D., Lahiri, P., and M. Kowal, "LISP Traffic
              Engineering Use-Cases", draft-farinacci-lisp-te-03 (work
              in progress), July 2013.

   [I-D.ietf-lisp-ddt]
              Fuller, V., Lewis, D., Ermagan, V., and A. Jain, "LISP
              Delegated Database Tree", draft-ietf-lisp-ddt-01 (work in
              progress), March 2013.

   [I-D.ietf-lisp-lcaf]
              Farinacci, D., Meyer, D., and J. Snijders, "LISP Canonical
              Address Format (LCAF)", draft-ietf-lisp-lcaf-03 (work in
              progress), September 2013.

   [I-D.ietf-lisp-sec]
              Maino, F., Ermagan, V., Cabellos-Aparicio, A., Saucez, D.,
              and O. Bonaventure, "LISP-Security (LISP-SEC)", draft-
              ietf-lisp-sec-04 (work in progress), October 2012.

   [I-D.ietf-nvo3-dataplane-requirements]
              Bitar, N., Lasserre, M., Balus, F., Morin, T., Jin, L.,
              and B. Khasnabish, "NVO3 Data Plane Requirements", draft-
              ietf-nvo3-dataplane-requirements-01 (work in progress),
              July 2013.

   [I-D.ietf-nvo3-framework]
              Lasserre, M., Balus, F., Morin, T., Bitar, N., and Y.
              Rekhter, "Framework for DC Network Virtualization", draft-
              ietf-nvo3-framework-03 (work in progress), July 2013.

   [I-D.ietf-nvo3-nve-nva-cp-req]
              Kreeger, L., Dutt, D., Narten, T., and D. Black, "Network
              Virtualization NVE to NVA Control Protocol Requirements",
              draft-ietf-nvo3-nve-nva-cp-req-00 (work in progress), July
              2013.




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   [I-D.ietf-nvo3-overlay-problem-statement]
              Narten, T., Gray, E., Black, D., Fang, L., Kreeger, L.,
              and M. Napierala, "Problem Statement: Overlays for Network
              Virtualization", draft-ietf-nvo3-overlay-problem-
              statement-04 (work in progress), July 2013.

   [I-D.kompella-nvo3-server2nve]
              Kompella, K., Rekhter, Y., Morin, T., and D. Black,
              "Signaling Virtual Machine Activity to the Network
              Virtualization Edge", draft-kompella-nvo3-server2nve-02
              (work in progress), April 2013.

   [I-D.lewis-lisp-gpe]
              Lewis, D., Agarwal, P., Kreeger, L., Quinn, P., Smith, M.,
              and N. Yadav, "LISP Generic Protocol Extension", draft-
              lewis-lisp-gpe-01 (work in progress), October 2013.

   [I-D.mahalingam-dutt-dcops-vxlan]
              Mahalingam, M., Dutt, D., Duda, K., Agarwal, P., Kreeger,
              L., Sridhar, T., Bursell, M., and C. Wright, "VXLAN: A
              Framework for Overlaying Virtualized Layer 2 Networks over
              Layer 3 Networks", draft-mahalingam-dutt-dcops-vxlan-04
              (work in progress), May 2013.

   [I-D.quinn-vxlan-gpe]
              Quinn, P., Agarwal, P., Fernando, R., Lewis, D., Kreeger,
              L., Smith, M., and N. Yadav, "Generic Protocol Extension
              for VXLAN", draft-quinn-vxlan-gpe-01 (work in progress),
              October 2013.

   [I-D.smith-lisp-layer2]
              Smith, M., Dutt, D., Farinacci, D., and F. Maino, "Layer 2
              (L2) LISP Encapsulation Format", draft-smith-lisp-
              layer2-03 (work in progress), September 2013.

   [I-D.sridharan-virtualization-nvgre]
              Sridharan, M., Greenberg, A., Wang, Y., Garg, P.,
              Venkataramiah, N., Duda, K., Ganga, I., Lin, G., Pearson,
              M., Thaler, P., and C. Tumuluri, "NVGRE: Network
              Virtualization using Generic Routing Encapsulation",
              draft-sridharan-virtualization-nvgre-03 (work in
              progress), August 2013.

   [RFC6830]  Farinacci, D., Fuller, V., Meyer, D., and D. Lewis, "The
              Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP)", RFC 6830, January
              2013.





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   [RFC6831]  Farinacci, D., Meyer, D., Zwiebel, J., and S. Venaas, "The
              Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP) for Multicast
              Environments", RFC 6831, January 2013.

   [RFC6832]  Lewis, D., Meyer, D., Farinacci, D., and V. Fuller,
              "Interworking between Locator/ID Separation Protocol
              (LISP) and Non-LISP Sites", RFC 6832, January 2013.

   [RFC6833]  Fuller, V. and D. Farinacci, "Locator/ID Separation
              Protocol (LISP) Map-Server Interface", RFC 6833, January
              2013.

   [RFC6836]  Fuller, V., Farinacci, D., Meyer, D., and D. Lewis,
              "Locator/ID Separation Protocol Alternative Logical
              Topology (LISP+ALT)", RFC 6836, January 2013.

Authors' Addresses

   Fabio Maino
   Cisco Systems
   170 Tasman Drive
   San Jose, California  95134
   USA

   Email: fmaino@cisco.com


   Vina Ermagan
   Cisco Systems
   170 Tasman Drive
   San Jose, California  95134
   USA

   Email: vermagan@cisco.com


   Yves Hertoghs
   Cisco Systems
   6a De Kleetlaan
   Diegem  1831
   Belgium

   Phone: +32-2778-435
   Fax:   +32-2704-6000
   Email: yves@cisco.com






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   Dino Farinacci
   lispers.net

   Email: farinacci@gmail.com


   Michael Smith
   Insieme Networks
   California
   USA

   Email: michsmit@insiemenetworks.com







































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