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SACM Working Group                                          A. Montville
Internet-Draft                                                 B. Munyan
Intended status: Standards Track                                     CIS
Expires: September 29, 2018                               March 28, 2018


   Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring (SACM) Architecture
                    draft-mandm-sacm-architecture-01

Abstract

   This memo documents an exploration of a possible Security Automation
   and Continuous Monitoring (SACM) architecture.  This work is built
   upon [I-D.ietf-mile-xmpp-grid], and is predicated upon information
   gleaned from SACM Use Cases and Requirements ([RFC7632] and [RFC8248]
   respectively), and terminology as found in
   [I-D.ietf-sacm-terminology].

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
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   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on September 29, 2018.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of




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   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.1.  Open Questions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.2.  Requirements notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Terms and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Architectural Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.1.  SACM Roles  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.2.  Exploring An XMPP-based Solution  . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   4.  Components, Capabilities, Interfaces, and Workflows . . . . .   7
     4.1.  Components  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.2.  Capabilities  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     4.3.  Interfaces  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     4.4.  (Candidate) Workflows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.4.1.  Vulnerability Management  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.4.2.  Configuration Management  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.4.3.  IT Asset Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   5.  Privacy Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   8.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     8.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     8.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   Appendix A.  Mapping to RFC8248 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   Appendix B.  Example Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     B.1.  Policy Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     B.2.  Software Inventory  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     B.3.  Datastream Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     B.4.  Network Configuration Collection  . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18

1.  Introduction

   The purpose of this draft is to document and track the outcome of
   solution discovery, with the intent of eventually describing an
   emerged architecture.  We have initially built our partial solution
   upon [I-D.ietf-mile-xmpp-grid] and [I-D.ietf-sacm-ecp], and believe
   these approaches complement each other to more completely meet the
   spirit of [RFC7632] and requirements found in [RFC8248].

   This solution gains the most advantage by supporting a variety of
   collection mechanisms.  In this sense, our solution ideally intends
   to enable a cooperative ecosystem of tools from disparate sources
   with minimal operator configuration.  The solution described in this
   document seeks to accommodate these recognitions by first defining a



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   generic abstract architecture, then making that solution somewhat
   more concrete.

   Keep in mind that, at this point, the draft is tracking ongoing work
   being performed primarily around and during IETF hackathons.  The
   list of hackathon efforts follows:

   o  [HACK99]: TODO: Provide description.

   o  [HACK100]: TODO: Provide description.

   o  [HACK101]: TODO: Provide description.

1.1.  Open Questions

   The following is a list of open questions we still have about the
   path forward with this exploration:

   o  What are the specific components participating in a SACM Domain?

   o  What are the capabilities we can expect these components to
      contain?

      *  How can we classify these capabilities?

      *  How do we define an extensible capability taxonomy (perhaps
         using IANA tables)?

   o  What are the present-day workflows we expect an operational
      enterprise to carry out?

      *  Can we prioritize these workflows in some way that helps us
         progress sensibly?

      *  How can these workflows be improved?

      *  Is it a straight path to improvement?

   o  Should workflows be documented in this draft or separate drafts?

   o  Should interfaces be documented in workflow drafts or separate
      drafts (or even this draft)?

1.2.  Requirements notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and




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   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC
   2119, BCP 14 [RFC2119].

2.  Terms and Definitions

   This draft defers to [I-D.ietf-sacm-terminology] for terms and
   definitions.

3.  Architectural Discovery

   The generic approach proposed herein recognizes the need to pull
   information from existing state collection mechanisms, and makes
   every attempt to respect [RFC7632] and [RFC8248].  At the foundation
   of any architecture are entities, or components, that need to
   communicate.  They communicate by sharing information, where, in a
   given flow one or more components are consumers of information and
   one or more components are providers of information.

   +----------+      +------+   +------------+
   |Repository|      |Policy|   |Orchestrator|
   +----^-----+      +--^---+   +----^-------+       +----------------+
     A  |            B  |          C |               | Downstream Uses|
        |               |            |               | +-----------+  |
   +----v---------------v------------v-------+       | |Evaluations|  |
   |             Message Transfer            <-------> +-----------+  |
   +----------------^------------------------+     D | +---------+    |
                    |                                | |Analytics|    |
                    |                                | +---------+    |
            +-------v---------                       | +---------+    |
            | Transfer System |                      | |Reporting|    |
            |    Connector    |                      | +---------+    |
            +-------^---------+                      +----------------+
                    |
                    |
            +-------v-------+
            |   Collection  |
            |     System    |
            +---------------+


                      Figure 1: Notional Architecture

   As shown in Figure 1, the notional SACM architecture consists of some
   basic SACM Components using a message transfer system to communicate.
   While not depicted, the message transfer system is expected to
   maximally align with the requirements described in [RFC8248], which
   means that the message transfer system will support brokered (i.e.
   point-to-point) and proxied data exchange.



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   Additionally, component-specific interfaces (i.e. such as A, B, C,
   and D in Figure 1) are expected to be specified logically then bound
   to one or more specific implementations.  This should be done for
   each capability related to the given SACM Component.

3.1.  SACM Roles

   This document suggests a variety of players in a cooperative
   ecosystem - we call these players SACM Components.  SACM Components
   may be composed of other SACM Components, and each SACM Component
   plays one of several roles relevant to the ecosystem.  Generally each
   role is either a consumer of information or a provider of
   information.  The "Components, Capabilities, Interfaces, and
   Workflows" section provides more details about SACM Components that
   play these types of roles.

3.2.  Exploring An XMPP-based Solution

   In Figure 2, we have a more detailed view of the architecture - one
   that fosters the development of a pluggable ecosystem of cooperative
   tools.  Existing collection mechanisms (ECP/SWIMA included) can be
   brought into this architecture by specifying the interface of the
   collector and creating the XMPP-Grid Connector binding for that
   interface.

   Additionally, while not directly depicted in Figure 2, this
   architecture does allows point-to-point interfaces.  In fact,
   [I-D.ietf-mile-xmpp-grid] provides brokering capabilities to
   facilitate such point-to-point data transfers).  Additionally, each
   of the SACM Components depicted in Figure 2 may be a provider, a
   consumer, or both, depending on the workflow in context.




















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  +----------+      +------+   +------------+
  |Repository|      |Policy|   |Orchestrator|
  +----^-----+      +--^---+   +----^-------+
       |               |            |
       |               |            |
  +----v---------------v------------v-----------------+     +-----------------+
  |                     XMPP-Grid+                    <-----> Downstream Uses |
  +-----^-------------^-------------^-------------^---+     +-----------------+
        |             |             |             |
        |             |             |             |
   +----v----+   +----v----+   +----v----+   +----v----+
   |XMPP-Grid|   |XMPP-Grid|   |XMPP-Grid|   |XMPP-Grid|
/~~|Connector|~~~|Connector|~~~|Connector|~~~|Connector|~~\
|  +----^----+   +----^----+   +----^----+   +----^----+  |
|       |             |             |             |       |
|  +----v----+   +----v-----+  +----v----+   +----v----+  |
|  |ECP/SWIMA|   |Datastream|  |YANG Push|   |  IPFIX  |  |
|  +---------+   +----------+  +---------+   +---------+  |
|                      Collectors                         |
\~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~/

                      Figure 2: Detailed Architecture

   At this point, [I-D.ietf-mile-xmpp-grid] specifies fewer features
   than SACM requires, and there are other XMPP extensions (XEPs) we
   need to consider to meet the needs of [RFC7632] and [RFC8248].  In
   Figure 2 we therefore use "XMPP-Grid+" to indicate something more
   than [I-D.ietf-mile-xmpp-grid] alone, even though we are not yet
   fully confident in the exact set of XMPP-related extensions we will
   require.  The authors propose work to extend (or modify)
   [I-D.ietf-mile-xmpp-grid] to include additional XEPs - possibly the
   following:

   o  Entity Capabilities (XEP-0115): May be used to express the
      specific capabilities that a particular client embodies.

   o  Form Discovery and Publishing (XEP-0346): May be used for
      datastream examples requiring some expression of a request
      followed by an expected response.

   o  Ad Hoc Commands (XEP-0050): May be usable for simple orchestration
      (i.e. "do assessment").

   o  File Repository and Sharing (XEP-0214): Appears to be needed for
      handling large amounts of data (if not fragmenting).

   o  Publishing Stream Initiation Requests (XEP-0137): Provides ability
      to stream information between two XMPP entities.



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   o  PubSub Collection Nodes (XEP-0248): Nested topics for
      specialization to the leaf node level.

   o  Security Labels In Pub/Sub (XEP-0314): Enables tagging data with
      classification categories.

   o  PubSub Since (XEP-0312): Persists published items, which may be
      useful in intermittent connection scenarios

   o  PubSub Chaining (XEP-0253): Federation of publishing nodes
      enabling a publish node of one server to be a subscriber to a
      publishing node of another server

   o  Easy User Onboarding (XEP-401): Simplified client registration

4.  Components, Capabilities, Interfaces, and Workflows

   The SACM Architecture consists of a variety of SACM Components, and
   named components are intended to embody one or more specific
   capabilities.  Interacting with these capabilities will require at
   least two levels of interface specification.  The first is a logical
   interface specification, and the second is at least one binding to a
   specific transfer mechanism.  At this point, we have been
   experimenting with XMPP as a transfer mechanism.

   The following subsections describe some of the components,
   capabilities, and interfaces we may expect to see participating in a
   SACM Domain.

4.1.  Components

   The following is a list of suggested SACM Component classes and
   specializations.

   o  Repository

      *  Vulnerability Information Repository

      *  Asset Inventory Repository

         +  Software Inventory Repository

         +  Device Inventory Repository

      *  Configuration Policy Repository

      *  Configuration State Repository




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   o  Collector

      *  Vulnerability State Collector

      *  Asset Inventory Collector

         +  Software Inventory Collector

         +  Device Inventory Collector

      *  Configuration State Collector

   o  Evaluator

      *  Vulnerability State Evaluator

      *  Asset Inventory Evaluator

         +  Software Inventory Evaluator

         +  Device Inventory Evaluator

      *  Configuration State Evaluator

   o  Orchestrator

      *  Vulnerability Management Orchestrator

      *  Asset Management Orchestrator

         +  Software Inventory Evaluator

         +  Device Inventory Evaluator

      *  Configuration Management Orchestrator

4.2.  Capabilities

   Repositories will have a need for fairly standard CRUD operations and
   query by attribute operations.  Collector interfaces may enable ad
   hoc assessment (on-demand processing), state item watch actions (i.e.
   watch a particular item for particular change), persisting other
   behaviors (i.e. setting some mandatory reporting period).  Evaluators
   may have their own set of interfaces, and an Assessor would represent
   both Collector and Evaluation interfaces, and may have additional
   concerns added to an Assessor Interface.





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   Not to be overlooked, whatever solution at which we arrive must, per
   [RFC8248], MUST support capability negotiation.  While not explicitly
   treated here, each interface will understand specific serializations,
   and other component needs to express those serializations to other
   components.

4.3.  Interfaces

   Interfaces should be derived directly from identified workflows,
   several of which are described in this document.

4.4.  (Candidate) Workflows

   The workflows described in this document should be considered as
   candidate workflows - informational for the purpose of discovering
   the necessary components and specifying their interfaces.

4.4.1.  Vulnerability Management

   TODO: Pull in some vulnerability management scenario text.

4.4.2.  Configuration Management

   TODO: Describe configuration management workflow (from policy
   creation to implementation to routine assessment).

4.4.3.  IT Asset Management

   TODO: Describe some ideas surrounding the notion of managing
   technology assets.  For example, we may consider software inventory
   for:

   o  Agent-based devices

   o  Non-agent based devices

   o  Virtual/Cloud environments (public/private) including containers

   o  Mobile devices

   o  Devices that are intermittently connected

   Ideally, this would provide hardware identification as well.








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5.  Privacy Considerations

   TODO

6.  Security Considerations

   TODO

7.  IANA Considerations

   IANA tables can probably be used to make life a little easier.  We
   would like a place to enumerate:

   o  Capability/operation semantics

   o  SACM Component implementation identifiers

   o  SACM Component versions

   o  Associations of SACM Components (and versions) to specific
      Capabilities

8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, <https://www.rfc-
              editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

8.2.  Informative References

   [draft-birkholz-sacm-yang-content]
              Birkholz, H. and N. Cam-Winget, "YANG subscribed
              notifications via SACM Statements", n.d.,
              <https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-birkholz-sacm-yang-
              content-01>.

   [HACK100]  "IETF 100 Hackathon - Vulnerability Scenario ECP+XMPP",
              n.d., <https://www.github.com/sacmwg/vulnerability-
              scenario/ietf-hackathon>.

   [HACK101]  "IETF 101 Hackathon - Configuration Assessment XMPP",
              n.d., <https://www.github.com/CISecurity/Integration>.






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   [HACK99]   "IETF 99 Hackathon - Vulnerability Scenario ECP", n.d.,
              <https://www.github.com/sacmwg/vulnerability-scenario/
              ietf-hackathon>.

   [I-D.ietf-mile-rolie]
              Field, J., Banghart, S., and D. Waltermire, "Resource-
              Oriented Lightweight Information Exchange", draft-ietf-
              mile-rolie-16 (work in progress), December 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-mile-xmpp-grid]
              Cam-Winget, N., Appala, S., Pope, S., and P. Saint-Andre,
              "Using XMPP for Security Information Exchange", draft-
              ietf-mile-xmpp-grid-05 (work in progress), February 2018.

   [I-D.ietf-sacm-ecp]
              Haynes, D., Fitzgerald-McKay, J., and L. Lorenzin,
              "Endpoint Compliance Profile", draft-ietf-sacm-ecp-01
              (work in progress), January 2018.

   [I-D.ietf-sacm-nea-swid-patnc]
              Schmidt, C., Haynes, D., Coffin, C., Waltermire, D., and
              J. Fitzgerald-McKay, "Software Inventory Message and
              Attributes (SWIMA) for PA-TNC", draft-ietf-sacm-nea-swid-
              patnc-01 (work in progress), March 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-sacm-terminology]
              Birkholz, H., Lu, J., Strassner, J., Cam-Winget, N., and
              A. Montville, "Security Automation and Continuous
              Monitoring (SACM) Terminology", draft-ietf-sacm-
              terminology-14 (work in progress), December 2017.

   [NIST800126]
              Waltermire, D., Quinn, S., Booth, H., Scarfone, K., and D.
              Prisaca, "SP 800-126 Rev. 3 - The Technical Specification
              for the Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP) - SCAP
              Version 1.3", February 2018,
              <https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/detail/sp/800-126/rev-
              3/final>.

   [NISTIR7694]
              Halbardier, A., Waltermire, D., and M. Johnson, "NISTIR
              7694 Specification for Asset Reporting Format 1.1", n.d.,
              <https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/detail/nistir/7694/
              final>.

   [RFC5023]  Gregorio, J., Ed. and B. de hOra, Ed., "The Atom
              Publishing Protocol", RFC 5023, DOI 10.17487/RFC5023,
              October 2007, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5023>.



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   [RFC7632]  Waltermire, D. and D. Harrington, "Endpoint Security
              Posture Assessment: Enterprise Use Cases", RFC 7632,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7632, September 2015, <https://www.rfc-
              editor.org/info/rfc7632>.

   [RFC8248]  Cam-Winget, N. and L. Lorenzin, "Security Automation and
              Continuous Monitoring (SACM) Requirements", RFC 8248,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8248, September 2017, <https://www.rfc-
              editor.org/info/rfc8248>.

   [XMPPEXT]  "XMPP Extensions", n.d., <https://xmpp.org/extensions/>.

Appendix A.  Mapping to RFC8248

   This section provides a mapping of XMPP and XMPP Extensions to the
   relevant requirements from [RFC8248].  In the table below, the ID and
   Name columns provide the ID and Name of the requirement directly out
   of [RFC8248].  The Supported By column may contain one of several
   values:

   o  N/A: The requirement is not applicable to this architectural
      exploration

   o  Architecture: This architecture (possibly assuming some
      components) should meet the requirement

   o  XMPP: The set of XMPP Core specifications and the collection of
      applicable extensions, deployment, and operational considerations.

   o  XMPP-Core: The requirement is satisfied by a core XMPP feature

   o  XEP-nnnn: The requirement is satisfied by a numbered XMPP
      extension (see [XMPPEXT])

   o  Operational: The requirement is an operational concern or can be
      addressed by an operational deployment

   o  Implementation: The requirement is an implementation concern

   If there is no entry in the Supported By column, then there is a gap
   that must be filled.

   +----------+----------------------------------------+---------------+
   | ID       | Name                                   |  Supported By |
   +----------+----------------------------------------+---------------+
   | G-001    | Solution Extensibility                 |   XMPP-Core   |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | G-002    | Interoperability                       |      XMPP     |



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   |          |                                        |               |
   | G-003    | Scalability                            |      XMPP     |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | G-004    | Versatility                            |   XMPP-Core   |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | G-005    | Information Extensibility              |   XMPP-Core   |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | G-006    | Data Protection                        |  Operational  |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | G-007    | Data Partitioning                      |  Operational  |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | G-008    | Versioning and Backward Compatibility  | XEP-0115/0030 |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | G-009    | Information Discovery                  |    XEP-0030   |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | G-010    | Target Endpoint Discovery              |   XMPP-Core   |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | G-011    | Push and Pull Access                   | XEP-0060/0312 |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | G-012    | SACM Component Interface               |      N/A      |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | G-013    | Endpoint Location and Network Topology |               |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | G-014    | Target Endpoint Identity               |   XMPP-Core   |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | G-015    | Data Access Control                    |               |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | ARCH-001 | Component Functions                    |      XMPP     |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | ARCH-002 | Scalability                            |   XMPP-Core   |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | ARCH-003 | Flexibility                            |   XMPP-Core   |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | ARCH-004 | Separation of Data and Management      |               |
   |          | Functions                              |               |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | ARCH-005 | Topology Flexibility                   |   XMPP-Core   |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | ARCH-006 | Capability Negotiation                 | XEP-0115/0030 |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | ARCH-007 | Role-Based Authorization               |   XMPP-Core   |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | ARCH-008 | Context-Based Authorization            |               |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | ARCH-009 | Time Synchronization                   |  Operational  |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | IM-001   | Extensible Attribute Vocabulary        |      N/A      |
   |          |                                        |               |



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   | IM-002   | Posture Data Publication               |      N/A      |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | IM-003   | Data Model Negotiation                 |      N/A      |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | IM-004   | Data Model Identification              |      N/A      |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | IM-005   | Data Lifetime Management               |      N/A      |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | IM-006   | Singularity and Modularity             |      N/A      |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | DM-001   | Element Association                    |      N/A      |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | DM-002   | Data Model Structure                   |      N/A      |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | DM-003   | Search Flexibility                     |      N/A      |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | DM-004   | Full vs. Partial Updates               |      N/A      |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | DM-005   | Loose Coupling                         |      N/A      |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | DM-006   | Data Cardinality                       |      N/A      |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | DM-007   | Data Model Negotiation                 |      N/A      |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | DM-008   | Data Origin                            |      N/A      |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | DM-009   | Origination Time                       |      N/A      |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | DM-010   | Data Generation                        |      N/A      |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | DM-011   | Data Source                            |      N/A      |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | DM-012   | Data Updates                           |      N/A      |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | DM-013   | Multiple Collectors                    |      N/A      |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | DM-014   | Attribute Extensibility                |      N/A      |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | DM-015   | Solicited vs. Unsolicited Updates      |      N/A      |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | DM-016   | Transfer Agnostic                      |      N/A      |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | OP-001   | Time Synchronization                   |               |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | OP-002   | Collection Abstraction                 |               |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | OP-003   | Collection Composition                 |               |
   |          |                                        |               |



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   | OP-004   | Attribute-Based Query                  |               |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | OP-005   | Information-Based Query with Filtering |               |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | OP-006   | Operation Scalability                  |               |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | OP-007   | Data Abstraction                       |               |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | OP-008   | Provider Restriction                   |               |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | T-001    | Multiple Transfer Protocol Support     |  Architecture |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | T-002    | Data Integrity                         |  Operational  |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | T-003    | Data Confidentiality                   |  Operational  |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | T-004    | Transfer Protection                    |               |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | T-005    | Transfer Reliability                   |               |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | T-006    | Transfer-Layer Requirements            |               |
   |          |                                        |               |
   | T-007    | Transfer Protocol Adoption             |  Architecture |
   +----------+----------------------------------------+---------------+

Appendix B.  Example Components

B.1.  Policy Services

   Consider a policy server conforming to [I-D.ietf-mile-rolie].
   [I-D.ietf-mile-rolie] describes a RESTful way based on the ATOM
   Publishing Protocol ([RFC5023]) to find specific data collections.
   While this represents a specific binding (i.e.  RESTful API based on
   [RFC5023]), there is a more abstract way to look at ROLIE.

   ROLIE provides notional workspaces and collections, and provides the
   concept of information categories and links.  Strictly speaking,
   these are logical concepts independent of the RESTful binding ROLIE
   specifies.  In other words, ROLIE binds a logical interface (i.e.
   GET workspace, GET collection, SET entry, and so on) to a specific
   mechanism (namely an ATOM Publication Protocol extension).

   It is not inconceivable to believe there could be a different
   interface mechanism, or a connector, providing these same operations
   using XMPP-Grid as the transfer mechanism.

   Even if a [I-D.ietf-mile-rolie] server were external to an
   organization, there would be a need for a policy source inside the



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   organization as well, and it may be preferred for such a policy
   source to be connected directly to the ecosystem's communication
   infrastructure.

B.2.  Software Inventory

   The SACM working group has accepted work on the Endpoint Compliance
   Profile [I-D.ietf-sacm-ecp], which describes a collection
   architecture and may be viewed as a collector coupled with a
   collection-specific repository.

                                 Posture Manager              Endpoint
                Orchestrator    +---------------+        +---------------+
                +--------+      |               |        |               |
                |        |      | +-----------+ |        | +-----------+ |
                |        |<---->| | Posture   | |        | | Posture   | |
                |        | pub/ | | Validator | |        | | Collector | |
                |        | sub  | +-----------+ |        | +-----------+ |
                +--------+      |      |        |        |      |        |
                                |      |        |        |      |        |
Evaluator       Repository      |      |        |        |      |        |
+------+        +--------+      | +-----------+ |<-------| +-----------+ |
|      |        |        |      | | Posture   | | report | | Posture   | |
|      |        |        |      | | Collection| |        | | Collection| |
|      |<-----> |        |<-----| | Manager   | | query  | | Engine    | |
|      |request/|        | store| +-----------+ |------->| +-----------+ |
|      |respond |        |      |               |        |               |
|      |        |        |      |               |        |               |
+------+        +--------+      +---------------+        +---------------+


                   Figure 3: ECP Collection Architecture

   In Figure 3, any of the communications between the Posture Manager
   and ECP components to its left could be performed directly or
   indirectly using a given message transfer mechanism.  For example,
   the pub/sub interface between the Orchestrator and the Posture
   Manager could be using a proprietary method or using
   [I-D.ietf-mile-xmpp-grid] or some other pub/sub mechanism.
   Similarly, the store connection from the Posture Manager to the
   Repository could be performed internally to a given implementation,
   via a RESTful API invocation over HTTPS, or even over a pub/sub
   mechanism.

   Our assertion is that the Evaluator, Repository, Orchestrator, and
   Posture Manager all have the potential to represent SACM Components
   with specific capability interfaces that can be logically specified,




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   then bound to one or more specific transfer mechanisms (i.e.  RESTful
   API, [I-D.ietf-mile-rolie], [I-D.ietf-mile-xmpp-grid], and so on).

B.3.  Datastream Collection

   [NIST800126], also known as SCAP 1.3, provides the technical
   specifications for a "datastream collection".  The specification
   describes the "datastream collection" as being "composed of SCAP data
   streams and SCAP source components".  A "datastream" provides an
   encapsulation of the SCAP source components required to, for example,
   perform configuration assessment on a given endpoint.  These source
   components include XCCDF checklists, OVAL Definitions, and CPE
   Dictionary information.  A single "datastream collection" may
   encapsulate multiple "datastreams", and reference any number of SCAP
   components.  Datastream collections were intended to provide an
   envelope enabling transfer of SCAP data more easily.

   The [NIST800126] specification also defines the "SCAP result data
   stream" as being conformant to the Asset Reporting Format
   specification, defined in [NISTIR7694].  The Asset Reporting Format
   provides an encapsulation of the SCAP source components, Asset
   Information, and SCAP result components, such as system
   characteristics and state evaluation results.

   What [NIST800126]did not do is specify the interface for finding or
   acquiring source datastream information, nor an interface for
   publishing result information.  Discovering the actual resources for
   this information could be done via ROLIE, as described in the Policy
   Services section above, but other repositories of SCAP data exist as
   well.

B.4.  Network Configuration Collection

   [draft-birkholz-sacm-yang-content] illustrates a SACM Component
   incorporating a YANG Push client function and an XMPP-grid publisher
   function. [draft-birkholz-sacm-yang-content] further states "the
   output of the YANG Push client function is encapsulated in a SACM
   Content Element envelope, which is again encapsulated in a SACM
   statement envelope" which are published, essentially, via an XMPP-
   Grid Connector for SACM Components also part of the XMPP-Grid.

   This is a specific example of an existing collection mechanism being
   adapted to the XMPP-Grid message transfer system.








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Authors' Addresses

   Adam W. Montville
   Center for Internet Security
   31 Tech Valley Drive
   East Greenbush, NY  12061
   USA

   Email: adam.w.montville@gmail.com


   Bill Munyan
   Center for Internet Security
   31 Tech Valley Drive
   East Greenbush, NY  12061
   USA

   Email: bill.munyan.ietf@gmail.com

































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