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Versions: 00 01 draft-ietf-roll-building-routing-reqs

Networking Working Group                                J. Martocci, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                     Johnson Controls Inc.
Intended status: Informational                            Pieter De Mil
Expires: March 3, 2009                          Ghent University - IBCN
                                                           W. Vermeylen
                                                    Arts Centre Vooruit
                                                       September 3, 2008


      Commercial Routing Requirements in Low Power and Lossy Networks
               draft-martocci-roll-building-routing-reqs-00


Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that
   any applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is
   aware have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she
   becomes aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of
   BCP 79.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on March 3, 2009.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008).

Abstract

   The ROLL Working Group was recently chartered by the IETF to define
   routing characteristics for low power embedded devices.  ROLL would
   like to serve the Industrial, Commercial (Building), Home and Urban
   markets.  Pursuant to this effort, this document defines the



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   functional requirements for installing integrated facility management
   systems in commercial facilities.  The body of this document defines
   the routing requirements for commercial building application.  Other
   commercial building requirements such as cost and installation
   requirements have been included in Appendix A for reference.



Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119 Error!
   Reference source not found..

Table of Contents


   1. Terminology....................................................4
   2. Introduction...................................................7
      2.1. FMS Topology..............................................8
         2.1.1. Introduction.........................................8
         2.1.2. Sensors/Actuators....................................9
         2.1.3. Area Controllers.....................................9
         2.1.4. Zone Controllers.....................................9
      2.2. Installation Methods.....................................10
         2.2.1. Wired Communication Media...........................10
         2.2.2. Device Density......................................10
   3. Building Automation Applications..............................12
      3.1. Locking and Unlocking the Building.......................12
      3.2. Building Energy Conservation.............................13
      3.3. Inventory and Remote Diagnosis of Safety Equipment.......13
      3.4. Life Cycle of Smoke Detectors............................13
      3.5. Surveillance.............................................14
      3.6. Emergency................................................14
      3.7. Public Address...........................................14
      3.8. Positioning..............................................14
   4. Building Automation Routing Requirements......................15
      4.1. Installation.............................................15
         4.1.1. Computer-free installation..........................15
         4.1.2. Fixed addressing....................................15
         4.1.3. Network Setup Time..................................16
         4.1.4. Battery Powered devices.............................16
         4.1.5. Local Testing.......................................16
      4.2. Scalability..............................................16
         4.2.1. Network Domain......................................16
         4.2.2. Communication Distance..............................16


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         4.2.3. Automatic Gain Control..............................17
         4.2.4. Peer-to-peer Communication..........................17
      4.3. Mobility.................................................17
         4.3.1. Mobile Device Association...........................17
      4.4. Resource Constrained Devices.............................17
         4.4.1. Cost................................................17
         4.4.2. Limited Processing Power Sensors/Actuators..........18
         4.4.3. Limited Processing Power Controllers................18
         4.4.4. Parenting for Constrained Devices...................18
         4.4.5. Adjustable System Table Sizes.......................18
      4.5. Prioritized Routing......................................18
         4.5.1. QoS.................................................18
      4.6. Addressing...............................................19
         4.6.1. Unicast/Multicast/Anycast...........................19
         4.6.2. Unique Addresses....................................19
      4.7. Manageability............................................19
         4.7.1. Device Replacement..................................19
         4.7.2. Firmware Upgrades...................................19
         4.7.3. Diagnostics.........................................20
         4.7.4. Trace Route.........................................20
      4.8. Compatibility............................................20
         4.8.1. IPv4 Compatibility..................................20
         4.8.2. Maximum Packet Size.................................20
      4.9. Route Selection..........................................20
         4.9.1. Path Cost...........................................21
         4.9.2. Path Adaptation.....................................21
         4.9.3. Route Redundancy....................................21
         4.9.4. Route Preference....................................21
         4.9.5. Path Symmetry.......................................21
         4.9.6. Path Persistence....................................21
      4.10. Reliability.............................................22
         4.10.1. Device Integrity...................................22
   5. Traffic Pattern...............................................22
   6. Open issues...................................................22
   7. Security Considerations.......................................23
   8. IANA Considerations...........................................23
   9. Acknowledgments...............................................23
   10. References...................................................23
      10.1. Normative References....................................23
      10.2. Informative References..................................24
   Disclaimer of Validity...........................................25
   11. APPENDIX A - Additional Building Requirements (Informative)..26
      11.1. Additional Commercial Product Requirements..............26
         11.1.1. Wired and Wireless Imlementations..................26
         11.1.2. World-wide Applicability...........................26
         11.1.3. Support of Building Protocol - BACnet..............27
         11.1.4. Support of Building Protocol - LON.................27


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         11.1.5. Energy Harvested Sensors...........................27
      11.2. Additional Installation and Commissioning Requirements..27
         11.2.1. Device Setup Time..................................27
         11.2.2. Unavailability of an IT network....................27
      11.3. Additional Network Requirements.........................27
         11.3.1. TCP/UDP............................................27
         11.3.2. Data Rate Performance..............................27
         11.3.3. Interference Mitigation............................28
         11.3.4. Real-time Performance Measures.....................28
         11.3.5. Packet Reliability.................................28





1. Terminology

   Access Point: The access point is an infrastructure device that
                 connects the low power and lossy network system to the
                 Internet, possibly via a customer premises local area
                 network (LAN).

   Actuator:     A field device that controls and/or modulates a flow
                 of a gas or liquid; or controls electricity
                 distribution.

   ASHRAE:       American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-
                 Conditioning Engineers

   BAS:          Building Automation System.  This term is synonymous
                 with Facility Management System (FMS).

   BMS:          Building Automation System.  This term is synonymous
                 with Facility Management System (FMS).

   Channel:      Radio frequency sub-band used to transmit a modulated
                 signal carrying packets.

   Channel Hopping   An algorithm by which field devices synchronously
                 change channels during operation

   Commissioning Tool:  Any physical or logical device temporarily added
                 to the network for the expressed purpose of setting up
                 the network and device operational parameters.





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   Controller:   A field device that can receive sensor input and
                 automatically change the environment in the facility
                 by manipulating digital or analog actuators.

   Downstream:   Data direction traveling from a Local Area Network
                 (LAN) to a Personal Area Network (PAN) device.

   Field Device: Physical devices placed in the plant's operating
                 environment (both RF and environmental).  Field
                 devices include sensors and actuators as well as
                 network routing devices and access points



   Fire:         The term used to describe building equipment used to
                 monitor, control and evacuate an internal space in
                 case of a fire situation.  Equipment includes smoke
                 detectors, pull boxes, sprinkler systems and
                 evacuation control.

   FFD:          Full Function Device.  An 802.15.4 device that can
                 route messages across the mesh in addition to
                 providing an end application.  Most FFD are line
                 powered since they must always be ready to forward
                 messages.

   FMS:          Facility Management System.  A global term applied
                 across all the vertical designations within a building
                 including, HVAC, Fire, Security, Lighting and Elevator
                 control.

   HVAC:         Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning.  A term
                 applied to the comfort level of an internal space.

   IETF:         Internet Engineering Task Force

   Intrusion Protection:   A term used to protect resources from
                 external infiltration.  Intrusion protection systems
                 utilize door locks, window tampers and card readers.

   LAN:          Local Area Network.

   PAN:          Personal Area Network.
                 A geographically limited wireless network based on
                 e.g. 802.15.4 or Z-Wave radio.

   ROLL:          Routing Over Low-power and Lossy networks


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   ROLL device:  A ROLL network node with constrained CPU and memory
                 resources; potentially constrained power resources.

   Sensor:       A PAN device that measures data and/or detects an
                 event.

   Upstream:     Data direction traveling from a PAN to a LAN device.

   LLN:          Low power and Lossy networks (LLNs) are typically
                 composed of many embedded devices with limited power,
                 memory, and processing resources interconnected by a
                 variety of links, such as IEEE 802.15.4, Bluetooth,
                 Low Power WiFi

   Lighting:     The term used to describe building equipment used to
                 monitor and control an internal or external lighted
                 space.  Equipment includes occupancy sensors, light
                 switches and ballasts.

   LLN:          Low power and Lossy Network.

   PAN:          Personnel Area Network

   RF:           Radio Frequency

   RFD:          Reduced Function Device.  An 802.15.4 device that can
                 send messages on the network; receive messages from
                 the network; but cannot route messages across the
                 network.  In most cases these devices are edge devices
                 of the network..  RFDs may be line powered, but also
                 can be battery powered since they play no role on the
                 mesh.

   ROLL:         Routing over Low power and Lossy networks.  This IETF
                 working group will develop routing characteristics and
                 rules for supporting LLNs utilizing 6LoWPAN.

   Security:     The term used to describe building equipment used to
                 monitor and control occupant and equipment safety
                 inside a building.  Equipment includes window tamper
                 switches, door access systems, infrared detection
                 systems, and video cameras.

   Sensors:      A field device that monitors an environmental
                 condition in a building and reports its findings to
                 higher order devices for control and alarming
                 operations.


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   Superframe:   A collection of timeslots repeating at a constant
                 rate.

   TC:           Trust Center. A logical device on the network that is
                 trusted by the network members.  The TC administers
                 security policy.

   Timeslot:     A fixed time interval that may be used for the
                 transmission or reception of a packet between two
                 field devices.  A timeslot used for communications is
                 associated with a slotted-link

   Upstream:     Data direction travelling from the field device to the
                 host application.



2. Introduction

   Commercial buildings have been fitted with pneumatic and subsequently
   electronic communication pathways connecting sensors to their
   controllers for over one hundred years.  Recent economic and
   technical advances in wireless communication allow facilities to
   increasingly utilize a wireless solution in lieu of a wired solution;
   thereby reducing installation costs while maintaining highly reliant
   communication.  Wireless solutions will be adapted from their
   existing wired counterparts in many of the building applications
   including, but not limited to HVAC, Lighting, Physical Security,
   Fire, and Elevator systems.  These devices will be developed to
   reduce installation costs; while increasing installation and retrofit
   flexibility.  Sensing devices may be battery or mains powered.
   Actuators and area controllers will be mains powered.

   Facility Management Systems (FMS) are deployed in a large set of
   vertical markets including universities; hospitals; government
   facilities; K-12; pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities; and
   single-tenant or multi-tenant office buildings. These buildings range
   in size from 100K sqft structures (5 story office buildings), to 1M
   sqft skyscrapers (100 story skyscrapers) to complex government
   facilities such as the Pentagon.  The described topology is meant to
   be the model to be used in all these types of environments, but
   clearly must be tailored to the building class, building tenant and
   vertical market being served.

   The following sections describe the sensor, actuator, area controller
   and zone controller layers of the topology.  (NOTE: The Building
   Controller and Enterprise layers of the FMS are excluded from this


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   discussion since they typically deal in communication rates requiring
   WLAN communication technologies.  Each section describes the basic
   functionality of the layer, its networking model, power requirements
   and a brief description of the communication requirements.



2.1. FMS Topology

        2.1.1. Introduction

   To understand the network systems requirements of a facility
   management system in a commercial building, this document uses a
   framework to describe the basic functions and composition of the
   system. An FMS is a horizontally layered system of sensors,
   actuators, controllers and user interface devices.  Additionally, an
   FMS may also be divided vertically across alike, but different
   building subsystems such as HVAC, Fire, Security, Lighting, Shutters
   and Elevator control systems as denoted in Figure 1.

   Much of the makeup of an FMS is optional and installed at the behest
   of the customer.  Sensors and actuators have no standalone
   functionality. All other devices support partial or complete
   standalone functionality.  These devices can optionally be tethered
   to form a more cohesive system.  The customer requirements dictate
   the level of integration within the facility.  This architecture
   provides excellent fault tolerance since each node is designed to
   operate in an independent mode if the higher layers are unavailable.



              +------+ +-----+ +------+ +------+ +------+ +------+

Bldg App'ns   |      | |     | |      | |      | |      | |      |

              |      | |     | |      | |      | |      | |      |

Building Cntl |      | |     | |   S  | |   L  | |   S  | |  E   |

              |      | |     | |   E  | |   I  | |   H  | |  L   |

Area Control  |  H   | |  F  | |   C  | |   G  | |   U  | |  E   |

              |  V   | |  I  | |   U  | |   H  | |   T  | |  V   |

Zone Control  |  A   | |  R  | |   R  | |   T  | |   T  | |  A   |



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              |  C   | |  E  | |   I  | |   I  | |   E  | |  T   |

Actuators     |      | |     | |   T  | |   N  | |   R  | |  O   |

              |      | |     | |   Y  | |   G  | |   S  | |  R   |

Sensors       |      | |     | |      | |      | |      | |      |

              +------+ +-----+ +------+ +------+ +------+ +------+

                  Figure 1 - Building Systems and Devices



2.1.2. Sensors/Actuators

   As Figure 1 indicates an FMS may be composed of many functional
   stacks or silos that are interoperably woven together via Building
   Applications.  Each silo has an array of sensors that monitor the
   environment and actuators that effect the environment as determined
   by the upper layers of the FMS topology.  The sensors typically are
   the leaves of the network tree structure providing environmental data
   into the system.  The actuators are the sensors counterparts
   modifying the characteristics of the system based on the input sensor
   data and the applications deployed.

2.1.3. Area Controllers

   An area describes a small physical locale within a building,
   typically a room.  As noted in Figure 1 the HVAC, Security and
   Lighting functions within a building address area or room level
   applications.  Area controls are fed by sensor inputs that monitor
   the environmental conditions within the room.  Common sensors found
   in many rooms that feed the area controllers include temperature,
   occupancy, lighting load, solar load and relative humidity.  Sensors
   found in specialized rooms (such as chemistry labs) might include air
   flow, pressure, CO2 and CO particle sensors.  Room actuation includes
   temperature setpoint, lights and blinds/curtains.

2.1.4. Zone Controllers

   Zone Control supports a similar set of characteristics as the Area
   Control albeit to an extended space.  A zone is normally a logical
   grouping or functional division of a commercial building.  A zone may
   also coincidentally map to a physical locale such as a floor.




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   Zone Control may have direct sensor inputs (smoke detectors for
   fire), controller inputs (room controllers for air-handlers in HVAC)
   or both (door controllers and tamper sensors for security).  Like
   area/room controllers, zone controllers are standalone devices that
   operate independently or may be attached to the larger network for
   more synergistic control.



2.2. Installation Methods

2.2.1. Wired Communication Media

   Commercial controllers are traditionally deployed in a facility using
   twisted pair serial media following the EIA 485 electrical standard
   operating nominally at 38400 to 76800 baud.  This allows runs to 5000
   ft without a repeater.  With the maximum of three repeaters, a single
   communication trunk can serpentine 15000 ft.

   Most sensors and virtually all actuators currently used in commercial
   buildings are "dumb", non-communicating hardwired devices.  However,
   sensor buses are beginning to be deployed by vendors which are used
   for smart sensors and point multiplexing.   The Fire industry deploys
   addressable fire devices, which usually use some form of proprietary
   communication wiring driven by fire codes.

2.2.2. Device Density

   Device density differs depending on the application and code
   requirements.  The following sections detail typical installation
   densities for different applications.

2.2.2.1. HVAC Device Density

   HVAC room applications typically have sensors and controllers spaced
   about 50ft apart.  In most cases there is a 3:1 ratio of sensors to
   controllers.  That is, for each room there is an installed
   temperature sensor, flow sensor and damper controller for the
   associated room controller.

   HVAC equipment room applications are quite different.  An air handler
   system may have a single controller with upwards to 25 sensors and
   actuators within 50 ft of the air handler.  A chiller or boiler is
   also controlled with a single equipment controller instrumented with
   25 sensors and actuators.  Each of these devices would be
   individually addressed.  Air handlers typically serve one or two
   floors of the building.  Chillers and boilers may be installed per


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   floor, but many times service a wing, building or the entire complex
   via a central plant.

   These numbers are typical.  In special cases, such as clean rooms,
   operating rooms, pharmaceuticals and labs, the ratio of sensors to
   controllers can increase by a factor of three.  Tenant installations
   such as malls would opt for packaged units where much of the sensing
   and actuation is integrated into the unit.  Here a single device
   address would serve the entire unit.

2.2.2.2. Fire Device Density

   Fire systems are much more uniformly installed with smoke detectors
   installed about every 50 feet.  This is dictated by local building
   codes.  Fire pull boxes are installed uniformly about every 150 feet.
   A fire controller will service a floor or wing.  The fireman's fire
   panel will service the entire building and typically is installed in
   the atrium.

2.2.2.3. Lighting Device Density

   Lighting is also very uniformly installed with ballasts installed
   approximately every 10 feet.  A lighting panel typically serves 48 to
   64 zones.  Wired systems typically tether many lights together into a
   single zone.  Wireless systems configure each fixture independently
   to increase flexibility and reduce installation costs.

2.2.2.4. Physical Security Device Density

   Security systems are non-uniformly oriented with heavy density near
   doors and windows and lighter density in the building interior space.
   The recent influx of interior and perimeter camera systems is
   increasing the security footprint.  These cameras are atypical
   endpoints requiring upwards to 1mbps data rates per camera as
   contrasted by the few kbps needed by most other FMS sensing
   equipment.  To date, camera systems have been deployed on a
   proprietary wired high speed network or on enterprise VLAN.  Camera
   compression technology now supports full-frame video over wireless
   media.

2.2.2.5. Installation Procedure

   Wired FMS installation is a multifaceted procedure depending on the
   extent of the system and the software interoperability requirement.
   However, at the sensor/actuator and controller level, the procedure
   is typically a two or three step process.



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   Most FMS equipment is 24 VAC equipment that can be installed by a
   low-voltage electrician.  He/she arrives on-site during the
   construction of the building prior to the sheet wall and ceiling
   installation.  This allows him/her to allocate wall space, easily
   land the equipment and run the wired controller and sensor networks.
   The Building Controllers and Enterprise network are not normally
   installed until months later.  The electrician completes his task by
   running a wire verification procedure that shows proper continuity
   between the devices and proper local operation of the devices.

   Later in the installation cycle, the higher order controllers are
   installed, programmed and commissioned together with the previously
   installed sensors, actuators and controllers.  In most cases the IP
   network is still not operable.  The Building Controllers are
   completely commissioned using a crossover cable or a temporary IP
   switch together with static IP addresses.

   Once the IP network is operational, the FMS may optionally be added
   to the enterprise network.  Wireless installation will necessarily
   need to keep the same work flow.  The electrician will install the
   products as before and run continuity tests between the wireless
   devices to assure operation before leaving the job.   The electrician
   does not carry a laptop so the commissioning must be built into the
   device operation.



3. Building Automation Applications

   Vooruit is an arts centre in a restored monument which dates from
   1913.  This complex monument consists of 366 different rooms
   including a concert hall, theater hall, several bars, etc.  About
   2000 activities take place at Vooruit on a yearly basis, some
   activities simultaneously with a total maximum of 3500 visitors.  A
   number of use cases regarding Vooruit are described in the following
   text.  The situations and needs described in these use cases can also
   be found in all automated large buildings, such as airports and
   hospitals.

3.1. Locking and Unlocking the Building

   The member of the cleaning staff arrives first in the morning
   unlocking the building (or a part of it) from the control room.  This
   means that several doors are unlocked; the alarms are switched off;
   the heating turns on; some lights switch on, etc.  Similarly, the
   last person leaving the building has to lock the building.  This will



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   lock all the outer doors, turn the alarms on, switch off heating and
   lights, etc.

   This use case is also useful in the home automation scenario,
   although the requirement about preventing the "popcorn effect" [REF
   HOME AUTOMATION] can be relaxed a little bit in building automation.
   It would be nice if lights, roll-down shutters and other actuators in
   the same room or areas with transparent walls execute the command
   around the same time (a tolerance of 200 ms is allowed).

3.2. Building Energy Conservation

   A room that is not in use should not be heated, air conditioned or
   ventilated and the lighting should be turned off.  In a building with
   366 rooms it can happen quite frequently that someone forgets to
   switch off the HVAC and lighting.  This is a real waste of valuable
   energy.  To prevent this from happening, the janitor can program the
   building according to the day's schedule.  This way lighting and HVAC
   is turned on prior to the use of a room, and turned off afterwards.
   Using such a system Vooruit has realized a saving of 35% on the gas
   and electricity bills.  Making the control of the building management
   system wireless (e.g. over a PDA) would be an advantage as you do not
   have to cross the complete building to the control room to change the
   temperature of a single room.

3.3. Inventory and Remote Diagnosis of Safety Equipment

   Each month Vooruit is obliged to make an inventory of its safety
   equipment.  This task takes two working days.  Each fire extinguisher
   (100), fire blanket (10), fire-resisted door (120) and evacuation
   plan (80) must be checked for presence and proper operation.  Also
   the battery and lamp of every safety lamp must be checked before each
   public event (safety laws).  Automating this process would heavily
   cut into working hours.

3.4. Life Cycle of Smoke Detectors

   A smoke detector must be replaced periodically.  A secure mechanism
   is needed to remove the old device and install the new device.
   During construction work, the safety can be augmented by temporarily
   adding extra sensing and/or actuating devices.

   This life cycle management use case is valid for each type of device
   we wish to add or to replace.  What is the maximum of the time we
   allow for each task (adding a new device, removal of a device,
   replacement of a device)?  The negative impact on the functionality
   of the network should be minimal.


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3.5. Surveillance

   To protect the building against burglary a guard must be able to
   monitor and control all entrances (open/close, latch moved) and
   lights (activated outside the opening hours).  It should also be
   possible to view video streams from several security cameras either
   from the control room or on a PDA of an in-the-field security person.
   The arriving and exiting visitors also must be monitored from the
   control room to guarantee their security.

3.6. Emergency

   In case of an emergency it is very important that all the visitors be
   evacuated as quickly as possible.  The fire and smoke detectors have
   to set off an alarm, and alert the mobile personnel on their internal
   mobile telephone system and/or PDAs.  All emergency exits have to be
   instantly unlocked and the emergency lighting has to guide the
   visitors to these exits.  The necessary sprinklers have to be
   activated and the electricity grid has to be monitored and if it
   becomes necessary to shut down some parts of the building. Emergency
   services have to be notified instantly.  A wireless system could
   bring in some extra safety features.  Locating fire fighters and
   guiding them through the building could be a life-saving application.
   This is also the case for wireless camera surveillance which is
   monitored via PDA.

3.7. Public Address

   It should be possible to send video, audio and text messages to the
   visitors in the building.  These messages can be very diverse, e.g.
   commercials on televisions in the bar, ASCII text boards displaying
   the name of the event in a room, video screens with an outline of the
   upcoming events at Vooruit, audio announcements such as delays in the
   program, lost and found children, evacuation orders, etc.

3.8. Positioning

   Person localization / equipment theft: 2s - room accuracy required -
   high responsiveness required to cope with movement Interaction
   positioning: detect vicinity of two nodes (people or equipment): 1s -
   sub-room accuracy - high responsiveness required to cope with
   movement Equipment localization: 2-4s Or Asset Management - room
   accuracy required - medium responsiveness.






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4. Building Automation Routing Requirements

   Following are the building automation routing requirements for a
   network used to integrate building sensor actuator and control
   products.  These requirements have been limited to 'routing'
   requirements only.  These requirements are written not presuming any
   preordained network topology, physical media (wired) or radio
   technology (wireless).  See Appendix A for additional requirements
   that have been deemed outside the scope of this document yet will
   pertain to the successful deployment of building automation systems.



4.1. Installation

   Building control systems typically are installed and tested by
   electricians having little computer knowledge and no network
   knowledge whatsoever.  These systems are often installed during the
   building construction phase before the drywall and ceilings are in
   place.  There is never an IP network in place during this
   installation.

   In retrofit applications, pulling wires from sensors to controllers
   can be costly and in some applications (e.g. museums) not feasible.

   Local testing of sensors and room controllers must be completed
   before the tradesperson can complete his/her work.  System level
   commissioning will later be deployed using a more computer savvy
   person with access to a laptop computer.  The completely installed
   and commissioned IP network may or may not be in place at this time.
   Following are the installation routing requirements.

4.1.1. Computer-free installation

   It MUST be possible to fully commission devices without requiring any
   additional commissioning device (e.g. laptop). The device MAY be
   completely configured for network operation by setting a bank of
   switches. The number of switches MUST not exceed 16 switches.

4.1.2. Fixed addressing

   The device network address MUST be settable and henceforth fixed for
   the device without the need for other system devices such as DHCP
   servers.





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4.1.3. Network Setup Time

   Network setup MUST support device commissioning times of no more than
   15 minutes per sensor/controller pair.

4.1.4. Battery Powered devices

   Sensing devices must be able to utilize battery power yet still be
   viable devices on a ROLL network.  Batteries must be operational for
   at least 5 years when the sensing device is transmitting its data (64
   bytes) once per minute.

4.1.5. Local Testing

   The local sensors and requisite actuators and controllers must be
   testable within the locale (e.g. room) to assure communication
   connectivity and local operation.





4.2. Scalability

   Building control systems are designed for facilities from 50000 sq.
   ft. to 1M+ sq. ft.  The networks that support these systems must
   cost-effectively scale accordingly.  In larger facilities
   installation may occur simultaneously on various wings or floors, yet
   the end system must seamlessly merge.  Following are the scalability
   requirements.

4.2.1. Network Domain

   A network MUST operationally support at least 1000 routing and 1000
   non-routing devices.

   Subnetworks (e.g. rooms, primary equipment) within the network must
   support upwards to 255 sensors and/or actuators.

   Subnetworks MUST seamlessly merge into networks.  Networks MUST
   seamlessly merge into internetworks.

4.2.2. Communication Distance

   A source device may be upwards to 1000 feet from its destination.
   Communication MUST be established between these devices without



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   needing to install other intermediate 'communication only' devices
   such as repeaters.

4.2.3. Automatic Gain Control

   For wireless implementations, the routing algorithms SHOULD
   incorporate automatic transmit power regulation to maximize packet
   transfer and minimize network interference regardless of network size
   or density.

4.2.4. Peer-to-peer Communication

   Network devices MUST be able to communicate in a peer-to-peer manner
   with all other devices on the network without being subject to
   intermediate bridge or gating devices.





4.3. Mobility

   Most devices are affixed to walls or installed on ceilings within
   buildings.  Hence the mobility requirements for commercial buildings
   are few.  However, in wireless environments location tracking of
   occupants and assets is gaining favor.

4.3.1. Mobile Device Association

   Mobile devices SHOULD be capable of unjoining from an old network
   joining onto a new network within 15 seconds.





4.4. Resource Constrained Devices

   Sensing and actuator device processing power and memory may be 4
   orders of magnitude less (i.e. 10,000x) than many more traditional
   client devices on an IP network.  The routing algorithms must
   therefore be tailored to fit these resource constrained devices.

4.4.1. Cost

   The total installed infrastructure cost including but not limited to
   the media, required infrastructure devices (amortized across the


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   number of devices); labor to install and commission the network MUST
   not exceed $1.00/foot for wired implementations.

   Wireless implementations (total installed cost) must cost no more
   than 80% of wired implementations.

4.4.2. Limited Processing Power Sensors/Actuators

   The software stack requirements for sensors and actuators MUST be
   implementable in 8-bit devices with no more than 128kb of flash
   memory (including at least 32Kb for the application code) and no more
   than 8Kb of RAM (including at least 1Kb RAM available for
   application).

4.4.3. Limited Processing Power Controllers

   The software stack requirements for room controllers SHOULD be
   implementable in 8-bit devices with no more than 256kb of flash
   memory (including at least 32Kb for the application code) and no more
   than 8Kb of RAM (including at least 1Kb RAM available for
   application)

4.4.4. Parenting for Constrained Devices

   The routing algorithms must support in-bound packet caches for sensor
   and actuator devices when these devices are not accessible on the
   network.  The cached packets need to be delivered to its destination
   when the device is accessible on the network.

4.4.5. Adjustable System Table Sizes

   ROLL routing MUST support adjustable router table entry sizes on a
   per node basis to maximize limited RAM in the devices.



4.5. Prioritized Routing

   Network and application routing prioritization is required to assure
   that mission critical applications (e.g. Fire Detection) cannot be
   deferred while less critical application access the network.

4.5.1. QoS

   Routers MUST support quality of service prioritization to assure
   timely response for critical FMS packets (e.g. Fire and Security
   events).


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4.6. Addressing

   Facility Management systems require different communication schema to
   solicit or post network information. Broadcasts or anycasts need be
   used to resolve unresolved references within a device when the device
   first joins the network.  Devices operating within a specified locale
   such as a room will need to multicast to all devices within the room.

4.6.1. Unicast/Multicast/Anycast

   Routing MUST support anycast, unicast, multicast and broadcast
   services (or IPv6 equivalent).

4.6.2. Unique Addresses

   Sensor/Actuator/Controller addressability MUST be unique site-wide.
   All addressable nodes MUST be accessible to all other nodes in the
   internetwork.





4.7. Manageability

   In addition to the initial installation of the system (see Section
   4.1), the ongoing maintenance of the system is equally important to
   be simple and inexpensive.

4.7.1. Device Replacement

   Replacement devices must be plug-n-play with no additional setup than
   what is normally required for a new device.  No bound information
   from other nodes MUST need be reconfigured.

4.7.2. Firmware Upgrades

   To support high speed code downloads, a mechanism MUST be defined to
   download firmware to devices in parallel yet support guaranteed
   delivery. Devices receiving a high speed download MAY cease normal
   operation, but upon completion of the download MUST automatically
   resume normal operation.





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4.7.3. Diagnostics

   To improve diagnostics, the network layer SHOULD be able to be placed
   in and out of 'verbose' mode.  Verbose mode is a temporary debugging
   mode that provides additional communication information including at
   least total number of packets sent, packets received, number of
   failed communication attempts, neighbor table and routing table
   entries.

4.7.4. Trace Route

   Network diagnostics such as PING and Trace Route SHOULD be supported
   with extensions in Trace Route describing wireless parameter
   information when applicable.



4.8. Compatibility

   The building automation industry adheres to application layer
   protocol standards to achieve vendor interoperability.  These
   standards are BACnet and LON.  It is estimated that fully 80% of the
   customer bid requests received world-wide will require compliance to
   one or both of these standards.  The ROLL routing algorithms will
   therefore need to dovetail to these application protocols to assure
   acceptance in the building automation industry.  These protocols have
   been in place for over 10 years.  Many sites will require backwards
   compatibility with the existing legacy devices.

4.8.1. IPv4 Compatibility

   The routing protocol MUST define a communication scheme to assure
   compatibility of IPv4 and IPv6 devices.

4.8.2. Maximum Packet Size

   Routing algorithms must support packet sizes to 1526 octets.



4.9. Route Selection

   Route selection determines reliability and quality of the
   communication paths among the devices. Optimizing the routes over
   time resolve any nuances developed at system startup when nodes are
   asynchronously adding themselves to the network.  Route adaptation



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   also reduces latency if the new route costs consider hop count as a
   cost attribute.

4.9.1. Path Cost

   Path selection MUST be based on path quality, rather than signal
   strength only.  Path quality includes signal strength, available
   bandwidth, hop count and communication error rates.

4.9.2. Path Adaptation

   Communication paths MUST adapt toward signal quality optimality in
   time.

4.9.3. Route Redundancy

   To reduce real-time latency, the network layer SHOULD be configurable
   to allow secondary and tertiary paths to be established and used upon
   failure of the primary path

4.9.4. Route Preference

   The route discovery mechanism SHOULD allow a source node (sensor) to
   dictate a configured destination node (controller) as a preferred
   routing path.

4.9.5. Path Symmetry

   The network layer SHOULD support both asymmetric and symmetric routes
   as requested by the application layer.  When the application layer
   selects asymmetry the network layer MAY elect to find either
   asymmetric or symmetric routes.  When the application layer requests
   symmetric routes, then only symmetric routes MUST be utilized.  The
   default MUST be asymmetric routes.

4.9.6. Path Persistence

   Devices SHOULD optionally persist communication paths across boots











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4.10. Reliability

4.10.1. Device Integrity

   Commercial Building devices MUST all be periodically scanned to
   assure that the device is viable and can communicate data and alarm
   information as needed.



5. Traffic Pattern

   The independent nature of the automation systems within a building
   plays heavy onto the network traffic patterns.  Much of the real-time
   sensor data stays within the local environment.  Alarming and other
   event data will percolate to higher layers.

   Systemic data may be either polled or event based.  Polled data
   systems will generate a uniform packet load on the network.  This
   architecture has proven not scalable.  Most vendors have developed
   event based systems which passes data on event.  These systems are
   highly scalable and generate low data on the network at quiescence.
   Unfortunately, the systems will generate a heavy load on startup
   since all the initial data must migrate to the controller level.
   They also will generate a temporary but heavy load during firmware
   upgrades.  This latter load can normally be mitigated by performing
   these downloads during off-peak hours.

   Devices will need to reference peers occasionally for sensor data or
   to coordinate across systems.  Normally, though, data will migrate
   from the sensor level upwards through the local, area then
   supervisory level.  Bottlenecks will typically form at the funnel
   point from the area controllers to the supervisory controllers.





6. Open issues

   Other items to be addressed in further revisions of this document
   include:

     Need to complete the Acknowledgement section below and develop
     Reference and Normative Reference sections.




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7. Security Considerations

   Security policies, especially wireless encryption and overall device
   authentication need to be considered.  These issues are out of scope
   for the routing requirements, but could have an impact on the
   processing capabilities of the sensors and controllers.

   As noted above, the FMS systems are typically highly configurable in
   the field and hence the security policy is most often dictated by the
   type of building to which the FMS is being installed.



8. IANA Considerations

   This document includes no request to IANA.



9. Acknowledgments

   J. P. Vasseur, Ted Humpal and Zach Shelby are gratefully acknowledged
   for their contributions to this document.

   This document was prepared using 2-Word-v2.0.template.dot.

10. References

   TBD

10.1. Normative References

   TBD














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10.2. Informative References

Authors' Addresses


   Jerry Martocci
   Johnson Control
   507 E. Michigan Street
   Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 53202
   USA

   Phone: 414.524.4010
   Email: jerald.p.martocci@jci.com




   Nicolas Riou
   ?
   ?
   ?

   Phone: ?
   Email: nicolas.riou@fr.schneider-electric.com



   Pieter De Mil
   Ghent University - IBCN
   G. Crommenlaan 8 bus 201
   Ghent  9050
   Belgium

   Phone: +32-9331-4981
   Fax:   +32--9331--4899
   Email: pieter.demil@intec.ugent.be




   Wouter Vermeylen
   Arts Centre Vooruit
   ???
   Ghent  9000
   Belgium

   Phone: ???


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   Fax:   ???
   Email: wouter@vooruit.be





Intellectual Property Statement

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Disclaimer of Validity

   This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
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   WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008).





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   This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
   contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
   retain all their rights.

Acknowledgment

   Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
   Internet Society.

















11. APPENDIX A - Additional Building Requirements (Informative)

   Appendix A contains additional building requirements that were deemed
   out of scope for the routing document yet provided ancillary
   informational substance to the reader.  The requirements will need to
   be addressed by ROLL or other WGs before adoption by the building
   automation industrial will be considered.



11.1. Additional Commercial Product Requirements

11.1.1. Wired and Wireless Imlementations

   Solutions MUST support both wired and wireless implementations.

11.1.2. World-wide Applicability

   Wireless devices MUST be supportable at the 2.4Ghz ISM band Wireless
   devices SHOULD be supportable at the 900 and 868 ISM bands as well.




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11.1.3. Support of Building Protocol - BACnet

   Devices implementing the ROLL features MUST be able to support the
   BACnet protocol.

11.1.4. Support of Building Protocol - LON

   Devices implementing the ROLL features MUST be able to support the
   LON protocol.

11.1.5. Energy Harvested Sensors

   RFDs SHOULD target for operation using viable energy harvesting
   techniques such as ambient light, mechanical action, solar load, air
   pressure and differential temperature.



11.2. Additional Installation and Commissioning Requirements

11.2.1. Device Setup Time

   Network setup by the installer MUST take no longer than 20 seconds
   per device installed.

11.2.2. Unavailability of an IT network

   Product commissioning MUST be performed by an application engineer
   prior to the installation of the IT network.



11.3. Additional Network Requirements

11.3.1. TCP/UDP

   Connection based and connectionless services MUST be supported

11.3.2. Data Rate Performance

   An effective data rate of 20kbps is the lowest acceptable operational
   data rate acceptable on the network.





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11.3.3. Interference Mitigation

   The network MUST automatically detect interference and migrate the
   network to a better 802.15.4 channel to improve communication.
   Channel changes and nodes response to the channel change MUST occur
   within 60 seconds.

11.3.4. Real-time Performance Measures

   A node transmitting a 'request with expected reply' to another node
   MUST send the message to the destination  and receive the response
   in not more than 120 msec.  This response time SHOULD be achievable
   with 5 or less hops in each direction.This requirement assumes
   network quiescence and a negligible turnaround time at the
   destination node.

11.3.5. Packet Reliability

   Reliability MUST meet the following minimum criteria :

   < 1% MAC layer errors on all messages; After no more than three
   retries

   < .1% Network layer errors on all messages;

   After no more than three additional retries;

   < 0.01% App?n layer errors on all messages.

   Therefore application layer messages will fail no more than once
   every 100,000 messages.


















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