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Network Working Group                                       N. Matsuhira
Internet-Draft                                           Fujitsu Limited
Intended status: Informational                           January 6, 2013
Expires: July 10, 2013


  Applicability of Stateless automatic IPv4 over IPv6 Encapsulation /
                    Decapsulation Technology (SA46T)
                 draft-matsuhira-sa46t-applicability-05

Abstract

   This document provide IPv6 transition scenario using Stateless
   Automatic IPv4 over IPv6 Encapsulation / Decapsulation Technology
   (SA46T) and applicability of SA46T. SA46T is just one of automatic
   Encapsulation / Decapsulation technology, so there are several usage
   with SA46T. This document shows such possible applicability.

Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on July 10, 2013.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents



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   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
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   described in the Simplified BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  IPv6 Transition scenario with SA46T  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  Applicability of SA46T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.1.  IPv6 only backbone network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.2.  IPv4 VPNs over IPv6 backbone network . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.3.  IPv4 address reuse over IPv6 backbone network  . . . . . .  7
     3.4.  IPv4 address separation in Data Center . . . . . . . . . .  9
   4.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   5.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   6.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   7.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     7.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     7.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10


























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1.  Introduction

   This document provide IPv6 transition scenario using Stateless
   Automatic IPv4 over IPv6 Encapsulation / Decapsulation Technology
   (SA46T) and applicabilities of SA46T.

   SA46T [I-D.draft-matsuhira-sa46t-spec] require IPv6, so if SA46T
   deploy, IPv6 also deploy too.  SA46T is just one of automatic
   tunnling technologies, so there are several usage with SA46T. This
   document shows such possible applicability.

   Translation between IPv6 and IPv4 is out of scope of this document.


2.  IPv6 Transition scenario with SA46T

   The basic strategy for IPv6 deployment is dual stack.  More careful
   viewing, IPv6 deployment could be think independently, that mean host
   deployment and network deployment could be treat different thing in
   technically.  Today, hosts that have a capabiliry generating IPv6
   traffic are very common and widely deployed, so network which treat
   both IPv4 and IPv6 traffic is not the point already.  The network
   which can treat both IPv4 and IPv6 is precondition already, the point
   is how network treat both IPv4 and IPv6 traffic.  The important thing
   is provided some options which can suitabele in time and place, or
   type of network.  The solution maight be different in each network.

   In general, three basic method is considered for network which enable
   to treat both IPv4 and IPv6 traffic.  Figure 1 shows such relation
   and below is some description about these.  SA46T correspond IPv4
   over IPv6 Tunneling technologies at IPv6 only network base.

    +--------------+------------------------+------------------------+
    |              | IPv4 Traffic           | IPv6 Traffic           |
    |              | (IPv4 only or Dual     | (IPv6 only or Dual     |
    |              | stack host exist)      | stack host exist)      |
    +--------------+------------------------+-------- ---------------+
    | IPv4 only    |       native           | Enable with IPv6 over  |
    | network base |                        | IPv4 Tunnel            |
    +--------------+------------------------+------------------------+
    | Dual Stack   |       native           |       native           |
    | network base |                        |                        |
    +--------------+------------------------+------------------------+
    | IPv6 only    | Enable with IPv4 over  |       native           |
    | network base | IPv6 Tunnel (SA46T)    |                        |
    +--------------+------------------------+------------------------+

                                 Figure 1



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   IPv4 only network base

      Based on current existing IPv4 network, and adding IPv6 over IPv4
      Tunneling technologies.  Maybe early stage method in IPv6
      transition

   Dual Stack network base

      Favorite method.

   IPv6 only network bse

      Considered in final transition stage.

   Thinking with time scale, following three stages are considered,
   these are starting IPv4 only network base, then Dual stack network
   base, and finally IPv6 only network base.  IPv6 only network base is
   final transition stage.  However, when the network is newly
   constructed, starting from dual stack network base may be common in
   current situation, and maybe starting with IPv6 only network base
   with SA46T may possible.  These approach may skip some investment,
   such as IPv6 over IPv4 tunneling at IPv4 only network base.  Figure 2
   shows such stages and starting options.




























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                              :              :
    IPv4 only                 :  Dual Stack  :   IPv6 only
    network base              :  network     :   network base
                              :  base        :
   (Start from IPv4 only)     :              :
   +---------+   +----------+ : +----------+ : +---------+   +---------+
   |IPv4 only|-->|IPv4 only |-->|Dual Stack|-->|IPv6 only|-->|IPv6 only|
   |network  |   |network w/| : |network   | : |network  |   |network  |
   |         |   |v6 over v4| : |          | : |with     |   |         |
   |         |   |Tunnel    | : |          | : |SA46T    |   |         |
   +---------+   +----------+ : +----------+ : +---------+   +---------+
  ............................:              :
                           ..................:
  (Start from Dual Stack)  :
   +----------+            :    +----------+                 +---------+
   |Dual Stack|---------------->|IPv6 only |---------------->|IPv6 only|
   |network   |            :    |network   |                 |network  |
   |          |            :    |with      |                 |         |
   |          |            :    |SA46T     |                 |         |
   +----------+            :    +----------+                 +---------+
  .........................:

  (Start from IPv6 only)
   +----------+                                              +---------+
   |IPv6 only |--------------------------------------------->|IPv6 only|
   |network   |                                              |network  |
   |with      |                                              |         |
   |SA46T     |                                              |         |
   +----------+                                              +---------+


                                 Figure 2

   On a well stable IPv4 network, enabling IPv6 may bring something not
   predictable and not desirable.  Nobody can say something should
   happen, or something does not happen, because there are no
   experiences.  It may be pressure for opeator.  If operator can stop
   the service, some test for enabling IPv6 should be done in out of
   service time.  Enterprise network may be stop in holiday, however
   network service for consumer may be difficult to stop.

   One solution for such case, well stable network should leave as it is
   and buiding new network, that should be IPv6 base, and well test and
   get more stable with early adaptor, and then starting trial service,
   and finally staring formal service.  At this IPv6 based network, IPv4
   over IPv6 Tunneling should also test from the beginning, and after
   this new network get stable, moving IPv4 service from old IPv4 only
   based network to new IPv6 based network with SA46T. Figure 3 shows



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   such transition scenario.  Adding IPv6 over IPv4 Tunnel to existing
   IPv4 only network may possible for providing early IPv6 service.


 -//------------------------------------------+
   IPv4 only network (exinting & stable )     |
                                              |Stop old network
                                              | operation
 -//---+--------------------------------------+
       : add IPv6 over IPv4 Tunnel (option)   :
       +......................................+
               |               |              |
          early adaptor   trial user      all user
               |               |              |
               v               v              v
       +---------------------------------------------------//-------//--
       | IPv6 only network
       |
       |   test phase  -> trial servie -> formal service
       +---------------------------------------------------//---+---//--
       | SA46T                                                  |
       +---------------------------------------------------//---+
                                                   Shutdown IPv4 service
                                                   after IPv4 Traffic
                                                   disappear
                                                   (Just remove SA46T)


                                 Figure 3

   There may be other transition senarios, anyway, SA46T provide the
   scenario that start with new IPv6 only network base, and transition
   from existing IPv4 based network to new IPv6 based network.


3.  Applicability of SA46T

3.1.  IPv6 only backbone network

   As descrive above, SA46T make IP backbone network IPv6 only.  This
   case, IPv4 plane ID does not needed.  Type of possible network
   described below.

   Intranet

      Campus backbone network, Corporate backbone network, Enterprise
      backbone network, etc.  In technically, may using IPv4 private
      address and connect to the Internet via firewall.



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   ISP backbone

      ISP backbone network.

   Access Network

      xDSL, FTTH, CATV are example for access network.

   WIreless access network

      Public Wireless LAN servie is example of wireless access network.

   Data Center network

      DataCenter network.

3.2.  IPv4 VPNs over IPv6 backbone network

   SA46T can provide IPv4 VPN (Virtual Private Network) service for
   enterprise using IPv4 network plane id.  This mechanism also provide
   closed IPv4 service.

   Type of VPN like service describe below.

   o  IPv4 VPN service

   o  IPv4 based extranet

   o  Closed IPv4 service

   If allocated SA46T global address [I-D.draft-matsuhira-sa46t-gaddr],
   inter AS service would possible using SA46T global address.  These
   service may not recommended, however providing network service for
   IPv4 service may be useful for service provider who does not have
   enough readyness for IPv6 version.  This mean SA46T may provide
   smooth service transition network infrastructure from IPv4 to IPv6.

3.3.  IPv4 address reuse over IPv6 backbone network

   After IPv4 address running out, some provider may still want IPv4
   address.  Using SA46T's IPv4 network plane ID, private address can
   reuse in different IPv4 network plane which provided SA46T. This
   case, IPv4 network plane may connect with the Internet via NAT
   (Network address translator).  Figure 4 shows such example.  In this
   case, communication between hosts in the same IPv4 network plane can
   be done in IP layer directly.





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  /--------\                  /------------\
  |        |    ...<plane#1>..|............|............................
  |        |  +-:-+  +-----+  |            |  +-----+  /-------------\ :
  |        |  |   |  |     |  |            |--|SA46T|--|Stub Network | :
  |        |--|NAT|--|SA46T|--| Access     |  +-----+  \-------------/ :
  |        |  |   |  |     |  |            |  +-----+  /-------------\ :
  |  The   |  |   |  |     |  | Network    |--|SA46T|--|Stub Network | :
  |        |  +-:-+  +-----+  |(IPv6 only) |  +-----+  \-------------/ :
  |Internet|    :.............|............|...........................:
  |        |                  |            |
  |        |    ...<plane#2>..|............|............................
  |        |  +-:-+  +-----+  |            |  +-----+  /-------------\ :
  |        |  |   |  |     |  |            |--|SA46T|--|Stub Network | :
  |        |--|NAT|--|SA46T|--|            |  +-----+  \-------------/ :
  |        |  |   |  |     |  |            |  +-----+  /-------------\ :
  |        |  |   |  |     |  |            |--|SA46T|--|Stub Network | :
  |        |  +-:-+  +-----+  |            |  +-----+  \-------------/ :
  |        |    :.............|............|...........................:
  |        |                  |            |
  |        |    ...<plane#3>..|............|............................
  |        |  +-:-+  +-----+  |            |  +-----+  /-------------\ :
  |        |  |   |  |     |  |            |--|SA46T|--|Stub Network | :
  |        |--|NAT|--|SA46T|--|            |  +-----+  \-------------| :
  |        |  |   |  |     |  |            |  +-----+  /-------------\ :
  |        |  |   |  |     |  |            |--|SA46T|--|Stub Network | :
  |        |  +-:-+  +-----+  |            |  +-----+  \-------------/ :
  |        |    :.............|............|...........................:
  |        |                  |            |
  |        |                  |            |
  |        |    ...<plane#N>..|............|............................
  |        |  +-:-+  +-----+  |            |  +-----+  /-------------\ :
  |        |  |   |  |     |  |            |--|SA46T|--| Stub Network| :
  |        |--|NAT|--|SA46T|--|            |  +-----+  \-------------/ :
  |        |  |   |  |     |  |            |  +-----+  /-------------\ :
  |        |  |   |  |     |  |            |--|SA46T|--|Stub Network | :
  |        |  +-:-+  +-----+  |            |  +-----+  \-------------/ :
  |        |    :.............|............|...........................:
  |        |                  |            |
  \--------/                  \------------/


                                 Figure 4

   DS-Lite [I-D.draft-ietf-softwire-dual-stack-lite] specify tunneling
   method.  SA46T may one of the option for IPv4 over IPv6 tunneling
   technology which used with DS-Lite.





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3.4.  IPv4 address separation in Data Center

   In data center, there are many servers which owned corporate, and
   accessed from corporate network.  These server may have private
   address which managed owner corporate.  Viewing from data center,
   there should be servers which static allocated same IPv4 private
   address, so data center network should separate IP address space.
   There are several separation method, one is physically separated (
   not connected each other), other is using IEEE802.1Q VLAN
   technologies, other is using MPLS VPN technologies.  SA46T also
   provide such separation using IPv4 network plane ID.

   With IEEE802.1Q VLAN, up to 4095 separation possible, that mean, up
   to 4095 company's server could be hosting.  SA46T provide over 4096
   separation and up to 4.3 billion possible with 32bits IPv4 network
   plane id, that mean there are no limmit for such separation.


4.  IANA Considerations

   This document makes no request of IANA.

   Note to RFC Editor: this section may be removed on publication as an
   RFC.


5.  Security Considerations

   This document shows tranition scenario and applicability.  There is
   no need description concerning about security.


6.  Acknowledgements

   Originally, SA46T is an abbreviation for "Stateless Automatic IPv4
   over IPv6 Tunneling".  Now, SA46T is an abbreviation for "Stateless
   Automatic IPv4 over IPv6 Encapsulation / Decapsulation Technology".
   This change was made in response to the indication from the softwire
   WG chair at 4th softwire interim meeting in September 2011.


7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.draft-matsuhira-sa46t-gaddr]
              Matsuhira, N., "Stateless Automatic IPv4 over IPv6
              Encapsulation / Decapsulation Technology: Global SA46T



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              Address Format", January 2013.

   [I-D.draft-matsuhira-sa46t-spec]
              Matsuhira, N., "Stateless Automatic IPv4 over IPv6
              Encapsulation / Decapsulation Technology: Specification",
              January 2013.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

7.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.draft-ietf-softwire-dual-stack-lite]
              Durand, A., Droms, R., Haberman, B., Woodyatt, J., Lee,
              Y., and R. Bush, "Dual-Stack Lite Broadband Deployments
              Following IPv4 Exhaustion", March 2010.


Author's Address

   Naoki Matsuhira
   Fujitsu Limited
   1-1, Kamikodanaka 4-chome, Nakahara-ku
   Kawasaki,   211-8588
   Japan

   Phone: +81-44-754-3466
   Fax:
   Email: matsuhira@jp.fujitsu.com






















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