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Network Working Group                                       N. Matsuhira
Internet-Draft                                           Fujitsu Limited
Intended status: Experimental                           January 23, 2015
Expires: July 27, 2015


    Stateless Automatic IPv4 over IPv6 Encapsulation / Decapsulation
                Technology: Global SA46T Address Format
                     draft-matsuhira-sa46t-gaddr-10

Abstract

   This document proposes Stateless Automatic IPv4 over IPv6
   Encapsulation / Decapsulation Technology (SA46T) Global Address
   Format.

   SA46T can apply to organization's network individually, but if
   coordination between the organizations made, the total number of
   times of encapsulations and decapusulations can be reduced.  That
   coordination is achieved by using same SA46T address format, that is
   Global address.  This document proposes SA46T Global address format.

   SA46T is a gateway technology, not protocol.  But SA46T Global
   Address needs IANA assignment, so this document should be categorized
   standard track or experimental.

Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on July 27, 2015.



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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  SA46T Global Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.1.  Option 1: Allocate new SA46T address prefix  . . . . . . .  5
     2.2.  Option 2: Adjustment with IPv6 address with Embedded
           IPv4 addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   3.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   4.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   5.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   6.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     6.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     6.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10





















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1.  Introduction

   This document proposes Stateless Automatic IPv4 over IPv6
   Encapsulation / Decapsulation Technology (SA46T) Global Address
   Format.

   SA46T [I-D.draft-matsuhira-sa46t-spec]can apply to organization's
   network individually.  Figure 1 shows such example.  Organization A
   applies SA46T and makes backbone network to IPv6 only, and this
   operation has no effect to Organization B and others.


    <------- Organization A -------> : <------- Organization B ------->
                                     :
                        +-------+    :    +-------+
                        |Router +----:----+Router |
                        |(Dual) |    :    |(Dual) |
                        +---+---+    :    +---+---+
                            |        :        |
                        +-------+    :        |
                        | SA46T |    :        |
                        +---+---+    :        |
                            |        :        |
    /-----------------------+-----\  :  /-----+-----------------------\
    |                             |  :  |                             |
    |      Backbone Network       |  :  |      Backbone Network       |
    |        (IPv6 only)          |  :  |        (Dual Stack)         |
    |                             |  :  |                             |
    \-----+----------------+------/  :  \-----+----------------+------/
          |                |         :        |                |
      +-------+        +-------+     :        |                |
      | SA46T |        | SA46T |     :        |                |
      +-------+        +-------+     :        |                |
          |                |         :        |                |
    /-----+------\   /-----+------\  :  /-----+------\   /-----+------\
    |            |   |            |  :  |            |   |            |
    |Stub Network|   |Stub Network|  :  |Stub Network|   |Stub Network|
    |(IPv4 only) |   |(Dual Stack)|  :  |(IPv4 only) |   |(Dual Stack)|
    |            |   |            |  :  |            |   |            |
    \------------/   \------------/  :  \------------/   \------------/
                                     :

                                 Figure 1

   If organization B applies SA46T, network is just like Figure 2.  In
   this network configuration, communication between IPv4 host in
   organization A and IPv4 host in organization B, IPv4 packet is
   encapsulated to IPv6 Packet, and decapsulated to IPv4, and



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   encapsulated to IPv6, and decapsulated to IPv4.  There are two times
   encapsulations, and two times decapusulations.  If number of
   organization which applies SA46T increase, number of encapsulations
   and decapusulation will increase.


    <------- Organization A -------> : <------- Organization B ------->
                                     :
                        +-------+    :    +-------+
                        |Router +----:----+Router |
                        |(Dual) |    :    |(Dual) |
                        +-------+    :    +-------+
                            |        :        |
                        +-------+    :    +-------+
                        | SA46T |    :    | SA46T |
                        +-------+    :    +-------+
                            |        :        |
    /-----------------------+-----\  :  /-----+-----------------------\
    |                             |  :  |                             |
    |      Backbone Network       |  :  |      Backbone Network       |
    |        (IPv6 only)          |  :  |        (IPv6 only)          |
    |                             |  :  |                             |
    \-----+----------------+------/  :  \-----+----------------+------/
          |                |         :        |                |
      +---+---+        +---+---+     :    +---+---+        +---+---+
      | SA46T |        | SA46T |     :    | SA46T |        | SA46T |
      +---+---+        +---+---+     :    +---+---+        +---+---+
          |                |         :        |                |
    /-----+------\   /-----+------\  :  /-----+------\   /-----+------\
    |            |   |            |  :  |            |   |            |
    |Stub Network|   |Stub Network|  :  |Stub Network|   |Stub Network|
    | (IPv4 only)|   |(Dual Stack)|  :  |(IPv4 only) |   |(Dual Stack)|
    |            |   |            |  :  |            |   |            |
    \------------/   \------------/  :  \------------/   \------------/
                                     :

                                 Figure 2

   But if coordination between the organizations are made, the total
   number of times of encapsulations and decapusulations can be reduced.
   Figure 3 shows such example.  That coordination is achieved by using
   same SA46T address format.  This is the reason for the proposal of
   SA46T Global address.  When most of IPv4 node moves to IPv6 and few
   IPv6 node exists, such coodination in the Internet scale is useful
   and efficient to co-existing IPv6 and IPv4.






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    <------- Organization A -------> : <------- Organization B ------->
                                     :
                        +-------+    :    +-------+
                        |Router +----:----+Router |
                        |(IPv6) |    :    |(IPv6) |
                        +---+---+    :    +---+---+
                            |        :        |
    /-----------------------+-----\  :  /-----+-----------------------\
    |                             |  :  |                             |
    |      Backbone Network       |  :  |      Backbone Network       |
    |        (IPv6 only)          |  :  |        (IPv6 only)          |
    |                             |  :  |                             |
    \-----+----------------+------/  :  \-----+----------------+------/
          |                |         :        |                |
      +---+---+        +---+---+     :    +---+---+        +---+---+
      | SA46T |        | SA46T |     :    | SA46T |        | SA46T |
      +---+---+        +---+---+     :    +---+---+        +---+---+
          |                |         :        |                |
    /-----+------\   /-----+------\  :  /-----+------\   /-----+------\
    |            |   |            |  :  |            |   |            |
    |Stub Network|   |Stub Network|  :  |Stub Network|   |Stub Network|
    |(IPv4 only) |   |(Dual Stack)|  :  |(IPv4 only) |   |(Dual Stack)|
    |            |   |            |  :  |            |   |            |
    \------------/   \------------/  :  \------------/   \------------/
                                     :

                                 Figure 3


2.  SA46T Global Address

   Figure 4 shows SA46T address
   architecture[I-D.draft-matsuhira-sa46t-spec].


    |      96 - m bits      |          m bits          |    32 bits   |
    +-----------------------+--------------------------+--------------+
    | SA46T address prefix  |  IPv4 network plane ID   | IPv4 address |
    +-----------------------+--------------------------+--------------+

                                 Figure 4

2.1.  Option 1: Allocate new SA46T address prefix

   This option requests special IPv6 address prefix for SA46T. Figure 5
   shows SA46T Global Address Format.





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    |             96 - m bits              | m    |      32 bits     |
    +--------------------------------------+------+------------------+
    | SA46T address prefix                 |PID*  |  IPv4 address    |
    +--------------------------------------+------+------------------+
   PID: IPv4 network plane ID

                                 Figure 5

   Table 1 shows SA46T IPv4 network plane ID length (m) and SA46T prefix
   length and number of plane.

                 +----+---------------+-----------------+
                 | m  | prefix length | number of plane |
                 +----+---------------+-----------------+
                 | 16 | 80            | 65536           |
                 | 32 | 64            | 4294967296      |
                 +----+---------------+-----------------+

                                  Table 1

   Table 2 is an example of SA46T IPv4 network plane ID management
   table.  Value 0 should be assigned to IPv4 Global Internet, and the
   other are reserved for IPv4 private networks.

      +----------------+--------------------------------------------+
      | plane ID value | assign to                                  |
      +----------------+--------------------------------------------+
      | 0              | Global IPv4 Internet (IPv4 Global address) |
      | 1              | Reserved                                   |
      | 2              | Reserved                                   |
      | ....           | ....                                       |
      +----------------+--------------------------------------------+

                                  Table 2

   These value except zero are reserved for stacking IPv4 private
   network over IPv6 Internet with SA46T. In future, if there are much
   demand for stacking IPv4 private network, These usage of reserved ID
   value may be defined.  At that time, central coordination or
   assignment should be discussed too.

2.2.  Option 2: Adjustment with IPv6 address with Embedded IPv4
      addresses

   RFC4291 [RFC4291] define IPv6 addresses with Embedded IPv4 addresses.
   SA46T address is such addresses.  Therefore merging SA46T global
   address into IPv6 addresses with Embedded IPv4 addresses may be
   possible.



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   Figure 6 shows IPv4 Compatible IPv6 address, and Figure 7 shows IPv4-
   Mapped IPv6 address.


    |                80 bits               | 16 |      32 bits        |
    +--------------------------------------+--------------------------+
    |0000..............................0000|0000|    IPv4 address     |
    +--------------------------------------+----+---------------------+

                                 Figure 6


    |                80 bits               | 16 |      32 bits        |
    +--------------------------------------+--------------------------+
    |0000..............................0000|FFFF|    IPv4 address     |
    +--------------------------------------+----+---------------------+

                                 Figure 7

   It seem that 80bits prefix (all zero) shows IPv6 addresses with
   Embedded IPv6 addresses, and continued 16bits shows more detail,
   0x0000 means IPv4-Compatible addresses and 0xFFFF means IPv4-Mapped
   addresses.

   Adjustment with such format, IPv6 addresses with Embedded IPv4
   addresses may redefine such format.  Figure 8 shows such format.


    |                80 bits               | 16 |      32 bits        |
    +--------------------------------------+--------------------------+
    |0000..............................0000| EID|    IPv4 address     |
    +--------------------------------------+----+---------------------+

                                 Figure 8

   Where

   IPv4 Embedded address prefix

      IPv4 Embedded prefix. 80 bits long, value is zero.

   EID

      Embedded ID.  Indicates Type of IPv6 addresses with Embedded IPv4
      address.  This value MUST be globally unique.  See below for more
      detail.





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   IPv4 address

      IPv4 address

   Table 3 shows EID value of proposed IPv6 addresses with Embedded IPv4
   addresses and the detail usage.  EID = 0x0000 shows this IPv6
   addresses with Embedded IPv4 address is the IPv4-Compatible IPv6
   address, and EID=0xFFFF shows this IPv6 addresses with Embedded IPv4
   address is the IPv4-Mapped address.

   In this proposal, EID value except 0x0000 and 0xFFFF is for SA46T
   usage, and EID=0x0001 shows this IPv6 addresses is used for SA46T for
   IPv4 Internet, that mean, IPv4 address is limited for global and
   inhibit for private address.

   In this proposal, EID value except 0x0000, 0x0001 and 0xFFFF are
   reserved for SA46T. These value are reserved for stacking IPv4
   private network over IPv6 Internet with SA46T. In future, if there is
   much demand for stacking IPv4 private network, these usage of
   reserved EID value may be defined.  At that time, central
   coordination or assignment should be discussed too.

   +--------+---------------------------------------------------------+
   | EID    | detail                                                  |
   +--------+---------------------------------------------------------+
   | 0x0000 | IPv4 Compatible IPv6 address                            |
   | 0x0001 | SA46T address for IPv4 Internet (IPv4 Global Addresses) |
   | 0x0002 | Reserved for SA46T                                      |
   | ....   | ....                                                    |
   | 0xFFFE | Reserved for SA46T                                      |
   | 0xFFFF | IPv4-Mapped IPv6 address                                |
   +--------+---------------------------------------------------------+

                                  Table 3


3.  IANA Considerations

   This document may requests IANA to assign IPv6 prefix for SA46T
   Global address.

   This document proposes two option.  One is New IPv6 address prefix
   for SA46T. Another is adjustment with IPv6 address with Embedded IPv4
   addresses.

   The Well-known preifx 0000::/8 is reserved by IETF [RFC4291].  If new
   IPv6 address prefix for SA46T is allocated from 0000::/8 space by
   IETF, this document request no actions for IANA.  And also, if



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   adjustment with IPv6 adddress with Embedded IPv4 addresses is
   approved by IETF, this document request no actions for IANA.

   Note to RFC Editor: this section may be removed on publication as an
   RFC.


4.  Security Considerations

   SA46T uses automatic Encapsulation / Decapsulation technologies.
   Security consideration related tunneling technologies are discussed
   in RFC2893 [RFC2893], RFC2267 [RFC2267], etc.


5.  Acknowledgements

   This document is based on Naoki Matsuhira's original ideas and an
   individual effort of the author.

   Review and encouragement have been provided by many others.
   Particulary Akira Kato at WIDE Project / Keio University and Masanobu
   Katoh at Fujitsu.

   Originally, SA46T is an abbreviation for "Stateless Automatic IPv4
   over IPv6 Tunneling".  Now, SA46T is an abbreviation for "Stateless
   Automatic IPv4 over IPv6 Encapsulation / Decapsulation Technology".
   This change was made in response to the indication from the softwire
   WG chair at 4th softwire interim meeting in September 2011.


6.  References

6.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.draft-matsuhira-sa46t-spec]
              Matsuhira, N., "Stateless Automatic IPv4 over IPv6
              Encapsulation / Decapsulation Technology: Specification",
              January 2014.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC4291]  Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
              Architecture", RFC 4291, February 2006.







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6.2.  Informative References

   [RFC2267]  Ferguson, P. and D. Senie, "Network Ingress Filtering:
              Defeating Denial of Service Attacks which employ IP Source
              Address Spoofing", RFC 2267, January 1998.

   [RFC2893]  Gilligan, R. and E. Nordmark, "Transition Mechanisms for
              IPv6 Hosts and Routers", RFC 2893, August 2000.


Author's Address

   Naoki Matsuhira
   Fujitsu Limited
   1-1, Kamikodanaka 4-chome, Nakahara-ku
   Kawasaki,   211-8588
   Japan

   Phone: +81-44-754-3466
   Email: matsuhira@jp.fujitsu.com































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