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Versions: 00 01 draft-ietf-geopriv-geo-uri

GEOPRIV -- Geographic                                       A. Mayrhofer
Location/Privacy Working Group                                    nic.at
Internet-Draft                                               C. Spanring
Expires: August 16, 2009                                          OIR-ID
                                                       February 12, 2009


   A Uniform Resource Identifier for Geographic Locations ('geo' URI)
                   draft-mayrhofer-geopriv-geo-uri-01

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 16, 2009.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.

Abstract

   This document specifies an Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) for



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   geographic locations using the 'geo' scheme name.  A 'geo' URI
   identifies a physical location by latitude, longitude and optionally
   altitude in a compact, simple, human-readable, and protocol
   independent way.


Table of Contents

   1.  Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4

   2.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4

   3.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5

   4.  IANA Registration of 'geo' URI Scheme  . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     4.1.  URI Scheme Name  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     4.2.  Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     4.3.  URI Scheme Syntax  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     4.4.  URI Scheme Semantics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       4.4.1.  Component Description  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       4.4.2.  URI Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       4.4.3.  Interpretation of Undefined Altitude . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.5.  Encoding Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.6.  Applications/protocols That Use This URI Scheme  . . . . .  8
     4.7.  Interopability Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.8.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.9.  Contact  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.10. Author/Change controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9

   5.  URI Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9

   6.  Use Cases and Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     6.1.  Plain 'geo' URI Example  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     6.2.  Hyperlink  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     6.3.  'geo' URI in 2-dimensional barcode . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

   7.  GML Mappings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     7.1.  'geo' URI without altitude to GML 'Point'  . . . . . . . . 10
     7.2.  'geo' URI with Altitude to GML 'Point' . . . . . . . . . . 11
     7.3.  GML 'Point' without Altitude to 'geo' URI  . . . . . . . . 11
     7.4.  GML 'Point' with Altitude to 'geo' URI . . . . . . . . . . 12

   8.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

   9.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     9.1.  Invalid Locations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     9.2.  Location Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13



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   10. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

   11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14












































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1.  Change Log

   [Note to editors: This section is to be removed before publication -
   XML source available on request]

   draft-mayrhofer-geopriv-geo-uri-01
   o  added terminology text about WGS-84 (credits Carl Reed)
   o  removed "resolution" / "uncertainty" text
   o  added considerations regarding poles
   o  added text about invalid URIs

   draft-mayrhofer-geopriv-geo-uri-00
   o  Initial version under new name, reverting to "plain" lat/lon
      scheme, with the "tiling" scheme moved to seperate draft
      (potentially published as "draft-mayrhofer-geopriv-geotile-uri").
      refer to draft-mayrhofer-geo-uri-01 for the history of this
      document.
   o  Added GML mapping section

   draft-mayrhofer-geo-uri-01
   o  removed parameters

   draft-mayrhofer-geo-uri-00
   o  initial draft


2.  Introduction

   An increasing number of Internet protocols and data formats are
   extended by specifications for adding spatial (geographic) location.
   In most cases, latitude as well as longitude of simple points are
   added as new attributes to existing data structures.  However, all
   those methods are very specific to a certain data format or protocol,
   and don't provide a protocol independent, compact and generic way to
   refer to a physical geographic location.

   Over the past few years, fast emerging location aware applications
   and location based services were observable on the Internet.  Most
   web search engines use geographic information, and a vivid open
   source mapping community brought an enormous momentum into location
   aware technology.  A wide range and former to professionals exclusive
   tools and data were provided free of charge for an everyday use on
   the mass market.

   The 'geo' URI scheme is another step into that direction and aims to
   facilitate, support and standardize the problem of location
   identification in geospatial services and applications.  Accessing
   information about or trigger further services based on a particular



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   place on earth shouldn't be any harder for users than clicking on a
   'mailto:' link and write an email straight away.

   According to [RFC3986], a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is "a
   compact sequence of characters that identifies an abstract or
   physical resource".  The 'geo' URI scheme defined in this document
   identifies geographic locations (a physical resource) in the World
   Geodetic System 1984 (WGS-84) [WGS84] reference system.

   'Geo' URIs identify a geographic location using a textual
   representation of the location's spatial coordinates in either two or
   three dimensions (latitude, longitude, and optionally altitude).
   Such URIs are independent from a specific protocol, application, or
   data format, and can be used in any other protocol or data format
   that supports inclusion of arbitrary URIs.

   The definition of the URI scheme is strictly focused on the most
   simplest representation of a spatial location - a single point.  The
   provision of more complex geometries or locations described by civic
   addresses is out of scope of this document.

   Note: The choice of WGS-84 is based on the widespread availability of
   Global Positioning System (GPS) devices, which use the WGS-84
   reference system.  It is anticipated that such devices serve as one
   of the primary data sources for authoring 'geo' URIs, hence the
   adoption of the native GPS reference system for the URI scheme.
   Also, many other data formats for representing geographic locations
   use the WGS-84 reference system, which makes transposing from and to
   such data formats less error prone (no re-projection involved).


3.  Terminology

   Geographic locations in this document are defined using WGS 84 (World
   Geodetic System 1984), equivalent to the OGP Surveying and
   Positioning Committee EPSG code 4326 (2 dimensions) and 4979 (3
   dimensions).  This document does not assign responsibilities for
   coordinate transformations from and to other Spatial Reference
   Systems.

   A 2-dimensional WGS-84 coordinate value is here represented as a
   comma-delimited latitude/longitude pair, measured in decimal degrees
   (un-projected).  A 3-dimensional WGS-84 coordinate value is here
   represented by appending a comma-delimited altitude value in meters
   to such pairs.

   Latitudes range from -90 to 90 and longitudes range from -180 to 180.
   Coordinates in the Southern and Western hemispheres as well as



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   altitudes below the WGS-84 reference geoid are signed negative with a
   leading dash.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].


4.  IANA Registration of 'geo' URI Scheme

   This section contains the fields required for the URI scheme
   registration, following the guidelines in section 5.4 of [RFC4395].

4.1.  URI Scheme Name

   geo

4.2.  Status

   permanent

4.3.  URI Scheme Syntax

   The syntax of the 'geo' URI scheme is specified below in Augmented
   Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) [RFC4234]:

             geo-URI       = geo-scheme ":" geo-path
             geo-scheme    = "geo"
             geo-path      = geo-location

             geo-location   = latitude "," longitude [ "," altitude ]

             latitude       = [ "-" ] 1*2DIGIT [ "." *DIGIT ]
             longitude      = [ "-" ] 1*3DIGIT [ "." *DIGIT ]
             altitude       = [ "-" ] *DIGIT [ "." *DIGIT ]


4.4.  URI Scheme Semantics

   Data contained in a 'geo' URI identifies a physical resource: A
   spatial location on earth in the WGS-84 references system, identified
   by the geographic coordinates encoded in the URI.

4.4.1.  Component Description

   The "latitude", "longitude" and "altitude" components as specified in
   the URI scheme syntax ( Section 4.3) are to be used as follows:




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   o  The "latitude" component MUST contain the latitude of the
      identified location in decimal degrees in the reference system
      WGS-84.
   o  The "latitude" component MUST contain the latitude of the
      identified location in decimal degrees in the reference system
      WGS-84.
   o  If present, the OPTIONAL "altitude" component MUST contain the
      WGS-84 altitude of the identified location in meters.

   If the altitude of the location is unknown, the "altitude" component
   MUST NOT be present in the URI.  Specifically, unknown altitude MUST
   NOT be represented by setting the 'altitude' component to "0" (or any
   other arbitrary value).

   The "longitude" components of coordinate values reflecting the poles
   (latitude set to -90 or 90 degrees) SHOULD be set to "0", although
   consumers of "geo" URIs MUST accept such URIs with any longitude
   value between -180 and 180.

   'geo' URIs with longitude values outside the range of -180 to 180
   decimal degrees or with latitude values outside the range of -90 to
   90 degrees MUST be considered invalid.

4.4.2.  URI Comparison

   Two 'geo' URIs are equal when their 'longitude', 'latitude' and
   'altitude' values are mathematically identical.  Where the 'latitude'
   component of a 'geo' URI is set to either 90 or -90 degrees, the
   'longitude' component MUST be ignored in comparison operations.

   An URI with undefined (missing) 'altitude' value MUST NOT be
   considered equal to an URI containing an 'altitude' value, even if
   the remaining values 'latitude' and 'longitude' are equivalent.

4.4.3.  Interpretation of Undefined Altitude

   A consumer of a 'geo' URI with undefined 'altitude' MAY assume that
   the URI refers to the respective location on earth's physical surface
   at the given 'latitude' and 'longitude' coordinate.

   However, as defined above, altitudes are relative to the WGS-84
   reference geoid rather than earth's surface.  Hence, an altitude
   value of 0 MUST NOT be interpreted as "on earth's surface".

4.5.  Encoding Considerations

   The 'geo-location' path component of the 'geo' URI (see Section 4.3)
   uses a comma (",") as a delimiter for subcomponents.  This delimiter



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   MUST NOT be percent encoded.

   It is RECOMMENDED that for readability the contents of 'latitude',
   'longitude' and 'altitude' subcomponents are never percent encoded.

4.6.  Applications/protocols That Use This URI Scheme

   As many other URI scheme definitions, the 'geo' URI provides resource
   identification independent of a specific application or protocol.
   Examples of potential protocol mappings and use cases can be found in
   Section 6.

4.7.  Interopability Considerations

   As with any other new URI scheme, the 'geo' URI requires support in
   client applications.  Users of applications which are not aware of
   the 'geo' scheme are likely unable to make use of the information in
   the URI.  However, the simple structure of the 'geo' URI would even
   allow manual dereference by users.

   Poorly authored 'geo' URI instances could contain whitespace and
   numbers with leading plus signs ("+").  Clients SHOULD try to
   dereference such URIs after removing such whitespace and plus signs.

   This specification does not define any URI parameters nor a query
   component.  Future revisions might define such parameters, using the
   ";" and "?" characters to delimit parameter and query components from
   the path component specified above.  Clients MUST be prepared to
   encounter such 'geo' URI instances, and MUST reduce the URI to the
   components specified in Section 4.3 before they dereference the URI.

4.8.  Security Considerations

   See Section 9 of [insert reference to this document]

4.9.  Contact

   Christian Spanring (mailto:spanring@oir.at, http://spanring.eu/ ),
   Alexander Mayrhofer (mailto:alexander.mayrhofer@nic.at,
   http://timatio.com/ )

4.10.  Author/Change controller

   The 'geo' URI scheme is registered under the IETF part of the URI
   tree.  As such, change control is up to the IETF.






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4.11.  References

   RFC XXXX [change to RFC number once assigned]


5.  URI Operations

   Currently, just one operation on a 'geo' URI is defined - location
   dereference: In that operation, a client dereferences the URI by
   extracting the geographical coordinates from the URI path component.
   Further use of those coordinates is then up to the application
   processing the URI.

   An application may then use this location information for various
   purposes, for example:

   o  A web browser could use that information to open a web mapping
      service of the user's choice, and display a map of the location

   o  A navigational device such as a Global Positioning System (GPS)
      receiver could offer the user to start navigation to the location.


6.  Use Cases and Examples

6.1.  Plain 'geo' URI Example

   The following 3-dimensional 'geo' URI example references to the
   office location of one of the authors in Vienna, Austria:

   geo:48.2010,16.3695,183

   A user could type the data extracted from this URI into a electronic
   navigation device, or even use it to locate the identified location
   on a paper map.

6.2.  Hyperlink

   'geo' URIs (like any other URI scheme) could also be embedded as
   hyperlinks in web pages.  A Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) snippet
   with such a hyperlink could look like:

   <p>one of Vienna's popular sights is the <a href='geo:
   48.198634,16.371648'>Karlskirche</a>.

   A web brower could extract the coordinates from the HTML snippet, and
   offer the user various options (based on configuration, context), for
   example:



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   o  display a small map thumbnail when the mouse pointer hovers over
      the link

   o  switch to a mapping service of the user's choice once the link is
      selected

   o  Locate nearby resources, for example by comparing the 'geo' URI
      with locations extracted from GeoRSS feeds the user has subscribed
      to.

   o  Convert the coordinates to a format suitable for uploading to a
      navigation device

6.3.  'geo' URI in 2-dimensional barcode

   Due to it's short length, a 'geo' URI could easily be encoded in
   2-dimensional barcodes.  Such barcodes could be printed on business
   cards, flyers, paper maps and subsequently used by mobile devices,
   for example as follows:

   1.  User identifies such a barcode on a flyer, uses the camera on his
       mobile phone to photograph and decode the barcode

   2.  The mobile phone dereferences the 'geo' URI, and offers the user
       to calculate a navigation route to the identified location.

   3.  Using the builtin GPS, the user follows the navgiation
       instructions from his phone to reach the destination


7.  GML Mappings

   The Geographic Markup Language (GML) by the Open Geospatial
   Consortium (OGC) is a set of XML schemas to represent geographical
   features.  Since GML is widely accepted, this document includes
   instructions on how to transpose 'geo' URIs from and to GML
   documents.

   A 'geo' URI can be authored from a GML "point", and any 'geo' URI can
   be mapped to a GML "point".  For the following sections, "%lat%",
   "%lon%" and "%alt%" are placeholders for latitude, longitude, and
   altitude values.  Mappings are defined as follows:

7.1.  'geo' URI without altitude to GML 'Point'

   An instance of the 'geo' URI without the altitude element is mapped
   to a two-dimensional GML "Point" as follows:




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   'geo' URI:

       geo:%lat%,%lon%

   GML document:

       <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8">
       <Point srsDimension="2"
              srsName="urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG:6.6:4326"
              xmlns="http://www.opengis.net/gml">
         <pos>%lat% %lon%</pos>
       </Point>

7.2.  'geo' URI with Altitude to GML 'Point'

   A 'geo' URI instance with the altitude element is mapped to a three-
   dimensional GML "Point" as follows:

   'geo' URI:

       geo:%lat%,%lon%,%alt%

   GML document:

       <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8">
       <Point srsDimension="3"
              srsName="urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG:6.6:4979"
              xmlns="http://www.opengis.net/gml">
         <pos>%lat% %lon% %alt%</pos>
       </Point>

7.3.  GML 'Point' without Altitude to 'geo' URI

   A GML 'Point' in the reference system identified as
   "urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG:6.6:4326" is mapped to a 'geo' URI as follows:

   GML document:

       <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8">
       <Point srsDimension="2"
              srsName="urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG:6.6:4326"
              xmlns="http://www.opengis.net/gml">
         <pos>%lat% %lon%</pos>
       </Point>

   'geo' URI:

       geo:%lat%,%lon%



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   Note: GML documents in other reference systems MAY be used as well if
   a transformation into "urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG:6.6:4326" is defined and
   applied before the mapping step.

7.4.  GML 'Point' with Altitude to 'geo' URI

   A GML 'Point' in the reference system identified as
   "urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG:6.6:4979" is mapped to a 'geo' URI as follows:

   GML document:

       <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8">
       <Point srsDimension="3"
              srsName="urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG:6.6:4979"
              xmlns="http://www.opengis.net/gml">
         <pos>%lat% %lon%</pos>
       </Point>

   'geo' URI:

       geo:%lat%,%lon%

   Note: GML 'Point' instances in other reference systems MAY be used as
   well if a transformation into "urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG:6.6:4326" is
   defined and applied before the mapping step.


8.  IANA Considerations

   This document requests assignment of the 'geo' URI scheme in the IETF
   part of the URI scheme tree, according to the guidelines in BCP 115
   (RFC 4395) [RFC4395].  The definitions required for the assignment
   are contained in Section 4.


9.  Security Considerations

   Because the 'geo' URI is not tied to any specific protocol, and
   identifies a physical location rather than a network resource, most
   of the general security considerations on URIs (Section 7 of RFC
   3986) do not apply.  However, the following (additional) issues
   apply:

9.1.  Invalid Locations

   The URI syntax (Section 4.3) makes it possible to construct valid
   'geo' URIs which don't identify a valid location on earth.
   Applications MUST NOT use URIs which such invalid values, and SHOULD



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   warn the user when such URIs are encountered.

   An example of such an invalid URI would be <geo:94,0> (latitude
   "beyond" north pole).

9.2.  Location Privacy

   Location information about individuals is an extremely sensitive
   topic, especially when location is combined with Personally
   Identifyable Information (PII).  Authors of 'geo' URIs MUST consider
   data protection and privacy before publishing such URIs.


10.  Acknowledgements

   The authors wish to acknowledge the helpful contributions from Carl
   Reed, Bill McQuillan, Martin Kofal, Andrew Turner and Kim Sanders.


11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [RFC3986]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
              RFC 3986, January 2005.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC4234]  Crocker, D., Ed. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", RFC 4234, October 2005.

   [RFC3261]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
              A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
              Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
              June 2002.

11.2.  Informative References

   [RFC4395]  Hansen, T., Hardie, T., and L. Masinter, "Guidelines and
              Registration Procedures for New URI Schemes", BCP 115,
              RFC 4395, February 2006.

   [WGS84]    National Imagery and Mapping Agency, "Department of
              Defense World Geodetic System 1984, Third Edition",
              NIMA TR8350.2, January 2000.




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Authors' Addresses

   Alexander Mayrhofer
   nic.at GmbH
   Karlsplatz 1/9
   Wien  A-1010
   Austria

   Phone: +43 1 5056416 34
   Email: alexander.mayrhofer@nic.at
   URI:   http://www.nic.at/


   Christian Spanring
   OIR-ID GmbH
   Franz-Josefs-Kai 27
   Wien  A-1010

   Phone: +43 1 5338747 36
   Email: spanring@oir.at
   URI:   http://www.oir.at/






























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