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NFSv4                                                        M. Benjamin
Internet-Draft                                             CohortFS, LLC
Intended status: Standards Track                                  Bodley
Expires: January 25, 2015                                        Emerson

                                                                  Ersani
                                                                  NetApp
                                                                Honeyman
                                                           July 24, 2014


                         pNFS Metadata Striping
                draft-mbenjamin-nfsv4-pnfs-metastripe-03

Abstract

   This Internet-Draft describes a means to add metadata striping to
   pNFS.  The text of this draft is substantially based on prior drafts
   by Eisler, M., with some departures.  The current draft attempts to
   define a somewhat lighter-weight protocol, in particular, seeks to
   permit striping for "filehandle only" operations such as LOCK and
   OPEN + CLAIM_FH, without clients having to obtain metadata layouts on
   regular files.  We gratefully acknowledge the primary contributions
   of Mike Eisler, Pranoop Ersani, and others.

Internet Draft Comments

   Comments regarding this draft are solicited.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 25, 2015.

Copyright Notice




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   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction and Motivation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Short List of Protocol Changes from Previous Drafts  . . . . .  4
     2.1.  File-system wide Striping for Filehandle-Only
           Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     2.2.  Uniform Filehandles  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     2.3.  Simplified Multipath Device Model  . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     2.4.  Cookie Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.5.  LAYOUTCOMMIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.6.  Recommended Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
       2.6.1.  meta_stripe_deviceid (deviceid4) . . . . . . . . . . .  5
       2.6.2.  meta_stripe_count (uint32_t) . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.7.  PREADDIR (Operation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   3.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   4.  Scope of Metadata Layouts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     4.1.  Filehandle Striping  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.2.  Directory Striping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       4.2.1.  Name-Based Operations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
       4.2.2.  Directory Enumeration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   5.  The Metadata Striping Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     5.1.  Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     5.2.  Value  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     5.3.  Data Type Definitions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       5.3.1.  Layout Hint  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       5.3.2.  Devices  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       5.3.3.  Metadata Layout  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       5.3.4.  Layoutupdate4 lou_body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     5.4.  Metadata Layout Semantics  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       5.4.1.  LAYOUTGET Argument Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       5.4.2.  Filehandle Striping Layouts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
         5.4.2.1.  Filehandle Stripe Hints  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       5.4.3.  Directory Striping Layouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
         5.4.3.1.  L-MDS Selection for Name-based Operations  . . . . 13



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         5.4.3.2.  Directory Enumeration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     5.5.  LAYOUTCOMMIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     5.6.  Operation: PREADDIR - Parallel Read Directory  . . . . . . 16
       5.6.1.  ARGUMENTS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       5.6.2.  RESULTS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       5.6.3.  DESCRIPTION  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       5.6.4.  IMPLEMENTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   6.  Further Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     6.1.  Storage Access Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     6.2.  Revocation of Layouts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     6.3.  Stateids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     6.4.  Lease Terms  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     6.5.  Layout Operations Sent to an L-MDS . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     6.6.  Filehandles in Metadata Layouts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     6.7.  Restriping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
       6.7.1.  Layout Recall Cases  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
       6.7.2.  Hint Invalidation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     6.8.  Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     6.9.  Failure and Restart of Client  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     6.10. Failure and Restart of Server  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   7.  Negotiation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   8.  Usage Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     8.1.  open-lock-write-close  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     8.2.  parallel create-layoutcommit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     8.3.  parallel directory listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   9.  Operational Recommendation for Deployment  . . . . . . . . . . 21
   10. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   11. Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   12. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
   13. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     13.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     13.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23


















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1.  Introduction and Motivation

   The NFSv4.1 specification describes pNFS [NFSv4.1]. pNFS distributes
   (stripes) file data across multiple storage devices.  In NFSv4.1,
   parallel access is limited to the data contents of regular files.
   Metadata is not distributed or striped: the model presented in the
   NFSv4.1 specification is that of a single metadata server.  This
   document describes a means to add metadata striping to pNFS, which
   includes the notion of multiple metadata servers.  With metadata
   striping, multiple metadata servers may work together to provide a
   higher parallel performance.

   Two methods are described.  The first, called filehandle striping,
   directs metadata operations associated with a file handle to a
   preferred metadata server.  The second, called directory striping,
   distributes directory operations across a collection of metadata
   servers.


2.  Short List of Protocol Changes from Previous Drafts

2.1.  File-system wide Striping for Filehandle-Only Operations

   Stripe hints redirect clients to a preferred metadata server for
   filehandle-only operations (below), but are backed by a single layout
   per-file system, rather than per-file, as in [METASTRIPE].  The new
   model is lighter weight, but since it remains layout-based retains
   the advantages of pNFS device indirection and garbage collection.

2.2.  Uniform Filehandles

   [METASTRIPE] offers implementations the option to propagate layout
   filehandles for all metadata layout types.  Since it would be
   impossible to reasonably support this under the new proposed model
   for filehandle-only operations, we propose instead that L-MDS
   filehandles always be equivalent to I-MDS filehandles.

2.3.  Simplified Multipath Device Model

   [METASTRIPE] defines two different methods for encoding metadata
   server locations, only the "simple" model uses the pNFS device
   mechanism.  In this draft, we propose a single model based on pNFS
   devices, in which there is a one-to-one mapping between devices and
   L-MDS servers.  This approach facilitates sharing device addresses
   across layouts which have servers in common and also minimizes the
   difficulty of reclaiming devices no longer in use by any metadata
   layout.




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2.4.  Cookie Model

   NFSv4 associates with each entry in a directory a unique value of
   type cookie4, a 64-bit integer.  [METASTRIPE] involves cookies in
   stripe selection, and imposes specific requirements on cookie values.
   In the current proposal we treat cookies as opaque values except as
   specified in ordinary NFSv4.1.  We concur with [METASTRIPE] that
   cookies MUST be unique within any logical directory regardless of the
   striping pattern.  As in ordinary NFSv4.1, the behavior of READDIR
   (or PREADDIR, below) when cookie has a value previously returned to a
   client by the same server, but no longer associated with any
   directory entry, is not defined.

2.5.  LAYOUTCOMMIT

   In this draft, we introduce layout-subtype specific data for the
   LAYOUTCOMMIT operation.

2.6.  Recommended Attributes

   We propose two new recommended attributes.

      meta_stripe_deviceid (deviceid4)

      meta_stripe_count (uint32_t)

2.6.1.  meta_stripe_deviceid (deviceid4)

   An attribute of type meta_stripe_deviceid represents a filehandle
   stripe hint.  This attribute MUST NOT be offered to clients unless
   they hold a valid filehandle striping layout on the containing file
   system.

2.6.2.  meta_stripe_count (uint32_t)

   The meta_stripe_count attribute represents, for directory objects,
   the directory's current stripe count, which may help the client
   decide if it will request a directory striping layout on the
   directory.  This attribute MAY be offered only to clients which hold
   a filehandle striping layout on the containing file system.

2.7.  PREADDIR (Operation)

   The NFSv4.1 READDIR operation has insufficient information to perform
   all possible enumerations required in the proposed directory striping
   model.  We propose a new PREADDIR operation which takes, in addition
   to all the current READDIR operations, also a controlling metadata
   layout stateid and stripe number.



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3.  Terminology

      Initial Metadata Server (I-MDS).  The I-MDS is the metadata server
      from which the client obtains a filehandle prior to acquiring any
      layout on the file.

      Layout Metadata Server (L-MDS).  The L-MDS is the metadata server
      from which the client obtains a filehandle from after redirection
      from a layout.

      Regular file: An object of file type NF4REG or NF4NAMEDATTR.

      Filehandle striping.  Hint-based indirection to a preferred MDS
      for filehandle-based operations, backed by a filesystem-wide
      metadata layout.

      Directory striping.  Fine-grained, layout-based indirection for
      parallel operations on directories, using a striping pattern.


4.  Scope of Metadata Layouts

   This proposal assumes a model where there are two or more servers
   capable of supporting NFSv4.1 operations.  At least one server is an
   I-MDS, and the I-MDS should be thought of as a normal NFSv4.1 server,
   with the additional capability of granting metadata layouts on
   demand.  The I-MDS might also be capable of granting non-metadata
   layouts, but this is orthogonal to the scope of metadata striping.

   The model also requires at least one additional server, an L-MDS,
   that is capable of supporting NFSv4.1 operations that are directed to
   the server by the I-MDS.  It is permissible for an I-MDS to also be
   an L-MDS, and an L-MDS to also be an I-MDS.  Indeed, a simple
   submodel is for every NFSv4.1 server in a set to be both an I-MDS and
   L-MDS.

   For convenience, we divide NFSv4.1 metadata operations into three
   classes:

      Filehandle-only.  These are operations that take only filehandles
      as arguments, i.e. the current filehandle, or both the current
      filehandle and the saved filehandle, and no component names of
      files (e.g., LOCK, LAYOUTGET).

      Name-based.  These are operations that take one or two filehandles
      (i.e. the current filehandle, or both the current file handle and
      the saved filehandle) and one or two component names of files
      (e.g., LINK, RENAME).



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      Directory-enumeration.  These are operations that take one
      filehandle and return the contents of a directory.  Currently,
      NFSv4 has only one such operation, READDIR.  This draft adds a
      section, PREADDIR.

   Metadata striping applies to all of the foregoing NFSv4.x operations,
   and is of two types:

      filehandle striping uses hints (attribute-based indications)
      backed by a filesystem-wide layout to direct clients to a
      preferred MDS on which to perform filehandle-only operations

      directory striping uses fine-grained metadata layouts on
      directories to support execution of name-based operations
      (directory enumeration, creates) on a set of MDS servers in
      parallel

4.1.  Filehandle Striping

   To avoid an explosion of new client state, a coarse-grained hinting
   mechanism is used to direct filehandle-only operations to a preferred
   metadata server.

   As specified in 5.12.1 of [NFSv4.1], when a client encounters file
   system which supports LAYOUT4_METADATA, it can obtain a metadata
   layout of subtype LAYOUTMETA4_FILEHANDLE, whose scope is the entire
   file system, using the LAYOUTGET operation on any filehandle object
   in the file system which it is permitted to access.

   Then using ordinary READDIR and GETATTR requests, the client can
   obtain for any object in the file system a meta_stripe_deviceid
   attribute that indicates the preferred device to send filehandle-only
   or name-based operations for that object.

   For example, suppose that after obtaining an ordinary filehandle via
   OPEN, a LAYOUTMETA4_FILEHANDLE layout on the containing file system,
   and a meta_stripe_deviceid hint from a previous GETATTR, READDIR, or
   PREADDIR,, the client wants to get a byte range lock on the file.
   The client sends the LOCK request to the network address (pNFS
   device, L-MDS) indicated by the meta_stripe_deviceid attribute.

4.2.  Directory Striping

   For name-based and directory enumeration operations, a more fine-
   grained, layout-based redirection mechanism is used.

   When a client obtains a filehandle for an object that is of type
   directory and wishes to take advantage of metadata striping, the



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   client first obtains a metadata layout of subtype
   LAYOUTMETA4_DIRECTORY on the directory.  The client is provided with
   a directory-specific list of network addresses (devices) to which to
   send requests specific to objects in that directory.

4.2.1.  Name-Based Operations

   For name-based operations, the directory striping layout indicates
   the preferred destinations in the network to send name-based
   operations for that directory (e.g., CREATE).  The preferred
   destinations MUST apply to the current filehandle that the operation
   uses.  In other words, for LINK and RENAME, which take both the saved
   filehandle and the current filehandle as parameters, the pNFS client
   would use the stripe hint of the target directory (indicated in the
   current filehandle) for guidance where to send the operation.  Note
   that if an L-MDS accepts a LINK or RENAME operation, the L-MDS MUST
   perform the operation atomically.  If it cannot, then the L-MDS MUST
   return the error NFS4ERR_XDEV, and the client MUST send the operation
   to the I-MDS.

   The choice of destination is a function of the name the client is
   requesting.  For example, after the client obtains the filehandle of
   a directory via LOOKUP and the metadata layout via LAYOUTGET, the
   client wants to open a regular file within the directory.  As with
   the LAYOUT4_NFSV4_1_FILES layout type, the client has a list network
   addresses to which to send requests.  With the LAYOUT4_NFSV4_1_FILES
   layout, the choice of the index in the list of network addresses was
   computed from the offset of the read or write request.  With the
   metadata layout, the choice of the index is derived from the name (or
   some other method, such as the name and one or more attributes of the
   directory, such as the filehandle, fileid, as below.) passed to OPEN.

4.2.2.  Directory Enumeration

   For directory-enumeration operations, the directory striping layout
   indicates the preferred destination in the network to send (P)READDIR
   operations for that directory.  For example, after the client obtains
   the filehandle of a directory via LOOKUP and the metadata layout via
   LAYOUTGET, the client wants to read the directory.  As with the
   LAYOUT4_NFSV4_1_FILES layout type, the client has a list network
   addresses to which to send requests.  With the LAYOUT4_NFSV4_1_FILES
   layout, the choice of the index in list of network addresses was
   computed from the offset of the read or write request.  For directory
   striping layouts, the index counts from 0 to the directory stripe
   count, less 1.






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5.  The Metadata Striping Layout

5.1.  Name

   The name of the metadata striping layout type is LAYOUT4_METADATA.

5.2.  Value

   The value of the metadata striping layout type is TBD1.

5.3.  Data Type Definitions

5.3.1.  Layout Hint

        ///  %
        ///  %/* Encoded in the loh_body field of type layouthint4: */
        ///  %
        ///  struct md_dirsize_layouthint4 {
        ///         uint64_t *mdlh_min_est;
        ///         uint64_t *mdlh_avg_est;
        ///         uint64_t *mdlh_max_est;
        ///         uint32_t *mdlh_stripe_count;
        ///         uint32_t *mdlh_stripe_modulus;
        ///  };

                                 Figure 1

   The layout-type specific layouthint4 content for the LAYOUT4_METDATA
   layout type is composed of five fields, each optional.  Using some
   combination of the mdlh_min_est, mdlh_avg_est, and mdlh_max_est
   fields, the client is enabled to give an indication of the directory
   workload it expects for a new directory.  The client also may suggest
   an explicit stripe count or modulus preference in mdlh_stripe_count
   or mdlh_stripe_modulus, which SHOULD be congruent if specified
   together.

5.3.2.  Devices

   ///  % /*
   ///  %  * Encoded in the da_addr_body field of data type
   ///  %  * device_addr4:
   ///  %  */
   ///  struct md_layout_addr4 {
   ///      multipath_list4    mdla_multipath_list<>;
   ///  };

                                 Figure 2




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5.3.3.  Metadata Layout

   ///  enum md_layout_subtype4 {
   ///     LAYOUTMETA4_FILEHANDLE = 0,
   ///     LAYOUTMETA4_DIRECTORY
   ///  };

   ///
   ///  enum md_namebased_alg4 {
   ///     MDN_ALG_CITYHASH64 = 0,
   ///     MDN_ALG_CEPHFRAG = 1,
   ///     /* XXX TBD2 */
   ///  };
   ///

   ///  typedef uint32_t cephfrag4;
   ///
   ///  struct cephfragsplit4 {
   ///     cephfrag4 frag;
   ///     uint32_t bits;
   ///  };
   ///
   ///  enum cephhash4 {
   ///     MDC_HASH_LINUX_DCACHE = 0,
   ///     MDC_HASH_RJENKINS = 1,
   ///     MDC_HASH_CITYHASH32 = 2,
   ///  };
   ///
   ///  struct md_namebased_alg_cephfrag4 {
   ///     enum cephhash4 hash;
   ///     cephfragsplit4 fragtree<>;
   ///  };

   ///  struct md_layout_directory {
   ///     switch(enum md_namebased_alg4 mdln_namebased_alg) {
   ///             case MDN_ALG_CITYHASH64:
   ///                     uint32_t mdln_cityhash_seed;
   ///             case MDN_ALG_CEPHFRAG:
   ///                     md_namebased_alg_cephfrag4 mdln_cephfrag;
   ///     };
   ///
   ///     deviceid4 mdln_devicelist<>;
   ///     uint32_t mdln_stripe_pattern<>;
   ///  };

   ///  struct md_layout4 {
   ///     union md_layout_type
   ///             switch (enum md_layout_subtype4 subtype) {



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   ///             case LAYOUTMETA4_FILEHANDLE:
   ///                     void;
   ///             case LAYOUTMETA4_DIRECTORY:
   ///                     md_layout_directory mdl_layout;
   ///     };
   ///  };

                                 Figure 3

5.3.4.  Layoutupdate4 lou_body

///
///  struct md_directory_layoutupdate4 {
///      int32_t mdlu_entries_added;
///      int32_t mdlu_entries_removed;
///      nfstime4 mdlu_last_update;
///  };
///
///  % /*
///  %  * Encoded in the lou_body field of data type
///  %  * layoutupdate4:
///  %  */
///  struct md_layout_update4 {
///      union md_layout_type switch (enum md_layout_subtype4 subtype) {
///             case LAYOUTMETA4_FILEHANDLE:
///                     void;
///             case LAYOUTMETA4_DIRECTORY:
///                     md_directory_layoutupdate4 mlu_directory;
///     };
///  };

   layoutupdate4 lou_body

                                 Figure 4

5.4.  Metadata Layout Semantics

   The reply to a successful LAYOUTGET request MUST contain exactly one
   element in logr_layout.  The element contains the metadata layout.

5.4.1.  LAYOUTGET Argument Conventions

   When a client requests a layout of type LAYOUT4_METADATA, it
   specifies the desired subtype, which MUST be one of
   LAYOUTMETA4_FILEHANDLE or LAYOUTMETA4_DIRECTORY, as the value of the
   LAYOUTGET loga_iomode argument.  Server implementations should reject
   LAYOUTGET requests with other values for loga_iomode.




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   The value provided for loga_stateid may be any valid stateid for the
   related file or directory, or else the anonymous stateid.

   The values provided for loga_offset, loga_length, and loga_minlength
   are not defined for metastripe layouts, and server implementations
   MUST NOT intepret these values.

5.4.2.  Filehandle Striping Layouts

   If the requested layout is of subtype LAYOUTMETA4_FILEHANDLE, the
   value of the layout is void.  The filehandle redirection information
   issued under auspices of the layout will be entirely in the form of
   filehandle striping attribute hints.

   As noted in Section 4, the scope of filehandle striping layouts is an
   entire file system.  The client can acquire the (singleton)
   filehandle striping layout for a given file system using any
   corresponding file handle which it happens to hold, and whose object
   the client is permitted to access.  For example, the client could use
   the file handle of the first directory it traverses on a given file
   system, provided the file server is an NFSv4.x file server that
   supports layouts of type LAYOUT4_METADATA.

5.4.2.1.  Filehandle Stripe Hints

   Filehandle stripe hints are objects of type deviceid4, and are the
   value of a new recommended, get-only attribute meta_stripe_deviceid.

   A client may successfully obtain the meta_stripe_deviceid attribute
   on any file object if and only if it has successfully obtained a
   filehandle striping layout on the containing file system.  Since the
   meta_stripe_deviceid hint is an ordinary NFSv4 attribute, the client
   may acquire it from a GETATTR, READDIR, or PREADDIR request.  A
   server implementation SHOULD interpret a PREADDIR operation (which
   has a controlling metadata layout stateid) as a request for just
   those attributes that are appropriate for the layout stateid that has
   been presented.

   At all events, when a client holds a filehandle stripe hint for a
   file object, it uses the GETDEVICEINFO operation to map the hint
   value to a to a device address of data type md_layout_addr4 in the
   ordinary pNFS manner.

   The server ensures that each such device remains accessible
   (unrecalled) for at least as long as any filehandle striping layout
   exists for which the device has been named in a hint.





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5.4.3.  Directory Striping Layouts

   If the requested layout is of subtype LAYOUTMETA4_DIRECTORY, then the
   layout contains a <device list, striping pattern, algorithm> triple
   enabling the client to perform both parallel directory enumeration
   operations and stripe-aware name-based operations, as outlined in
   Section 4.

   When the layout subtype is LAYOUTMETA4_DIRECTORY, the layout content
   provides an integer identifying a hashing algorithm, a list of
   deviceids, and a striping pattern.  Then mdln_namebased_alg
   identifies an algorithm that maps a name, as a component4, to an
   integer.  Each entry in the mdln_devicelist specifies a set of
   metadata servers that may be treated as equally valid for metadata
   requests to the same block in the partitioned namespace.  Each entry
   in the stripe pattern is an index into the device list.

   To perform a name based operation, the client maps the name to a
   number with the name based algorithm, looks that number up in the
   stripe pattern (modulo the length of the stripe pattern), yielding a
   device id that may be interpreted with GETDEVICEINFO, in the ordinary
   pNFS manner.  After resolving the device id as a device address of
   data type md_layout_addr4, the client sends the request to any of the
   devices specified in the corresponding entry in the device list.

5.4.3.1.  L-MDS Selection for Name-based Operations

   Clients with layouts of type LAYOUTMETA4_DIRECTORY may use the
   algorithm supplied in field mdln_namebased_alg of the layout content
   to compute a preferred L-MDS to use when performing name-based
   operations, as follows:

Let F be the function specified in mdln_namebased_alg;

Let X = (x1, x2, x3, ...) some set of inputs for  function F, such
that x1 SHOULD be the component name of the file, and x2, x3, ... any
additional parameters required for the chosen F, their arguments
asserted to be values available to the client.

Let stripe_unit_number = F(X);
Let stripe_count = number of elements in mdl_layout.mdln_stripe_pattern;
Let idx =
    mdl_layout.mdln_stripe_pattern(stripe_unit_number % stripe_count);
Let deviceid = mdl_layout.mdln_devicelist[idx];

   pseudocode

                                 Figure 5



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   The client then selects an L-MDS indicated by the deviceid (using
   GETDEVICEINFO in the normal manner), and sends the name-based
   operation to that server.

5.4.3.1.1.  MDN_ALG_CITYHASH64

   A layout with MDN_ALG_CITYHASH64 as the mdln_namebased_alg indicates
   the use of the 64-bit CityHash non-cryptographic hashing function
   [CITY] for directory placement, with x1 the desired component name,
   and x2 the 32-bit seed value returned in the layout.

5.4.3.1.2.  MDN_ALG_CEPHFRAG

   A layout with MDN_ALG_CEPHFRAG as the mdln_namebased_alg indicates
   the use of Ceph's directory fragmentation algorithm for directory
   placement.

   Ceph uses a recursive algorithm to partition the hash space of a
   directory into fragments, which are represented by an an ordered list
   of splits called the fragtree.  Fragments are split into powers of
   two, so each split stores this exponent in the field 'bits'.

   Similarly, the cephfrag4 encodes in its high 8 bits the total number
   of bits 'n' it has split from the root fragment.  In the next highest
   'n' bits, it encodes its position in the hash space.  If a given hash
   value 'v' matches these 'n' bits, the fragment is said to contain
   'v'.

   For example, starting with the root fragment root=0x00000000 and
   splitting by 2 bits, we generate the four fragments f1=0x02000000,
   f2=0x02400000, f3=0x02800000 and f4=0x02C00000.  Further splitting f3
   by 1 bit, we generate two new fragments g1=0x03800000 and
   g2=0x03A00000.  The resulting fragtree for this structure would be {
   {0x00000000, 2}, {0x02800000, 1} }.

   To place a given filename, calculate its hash value 'v' using the
   hash function indicated by the 'hash' enum.  Then, starting with the
   root fragment f=0x00000000, follow these step recursively: * Search
   for a split in the fragtree matching frag=f.  If no split is found,
   place the file in fragment f. * Given a split of 'n' bits, find which
   of the 2^n child fragments contains the hash value 'v'.  Assign this
   child fragment to 'f' and continue.

5.4.3.1.2.1.  MDC_HASH_LINUX_DCACHE

   Specifies the use of the Linux dentry cache (needs reference) hashing
   function.




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5.4.3.1.2.2.  MDC_HASH_RJENKINS

   Specifies the use of Robert Jenkins' [JENKINS] hashing function.

5.4.3.1.2.3.  MDC_HASH_CITYHASH32

   Specifies the use of the 32-bit CityHash [CITY] hashing function.

5.4.3.2.  Directory Enumeration

   Clients with layouts of type LAYOUTMETA4_DIRECTORY may use the
   following algorithm to perform enumeration of striped directories
   preferred metadata servers, in parallel:

   For stripe_number in 0 .. length(mdl_layout.mdln_stripe_pattern) -1
           do
                   Let stripe =
                       mdl_layout.mdln_stripe_pattern[stripe_number];
                   Let device = mdl_layout.mdln_devicelist[stripe];
   <PREADDIR at device, layout_stateid, stripe_number>

   pseudocode

                                 Figure 6

   That is, for each logical stripe in the directory, the client notes
   stripe number (merely the stripe's offset in the sequence), and
   derives from it the corresponding index into mdln_devicelist by
   indirection on mdln_stripe_pattern.  The object at
   mdln_devicelist[stripe_number] is a device id, which the client maps
   to an L-MDS using GETDEVICEINFO, and performs a sequence of PREADDIR
   operations on that server.  The PREADDIR operation behaves exactly as
   described in section 18.23.3 of [NFSv4.1], but takes in addition to
   the arguments of READDIR, a metadata layout stateid and stripe
   number.

   As in ordinary NFSv4.1, to perform a full enumeration of the
   directory entries at each component L-MDS, the client commences
   iteration by sending a cookie argument of zero for the first PREADDIR
   operation in the current stripe, and continues performing PREADDIR
   operations supplying for the cookie argument the value of last cookie
   value returned in the prior PREADDIR operation in the same logical
   (L-MDS) enumeration only, until a PREADDIR operation indicates that
   no further entries are available.  The client and server behavior for
   subsequent re-traversals of a previously-enumerated logical directory
   are exactly as in ordinary NFSv4.1, except with respect to entry and
   cookie partitioning as described here.  The client SHOULD present to
   a component L-MDS only cookie values previously returned to that



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   client by that same L-MDS, or 0 to commence iteration.  An L-MDS MAY
   reject with NFS4ERR_BADCOOKIE PREADDIR operations using cookie values
   that are valid cookies for the logical directory, but which are local
   to another L-MDS segment.

5.5.  LAYOUTCOMMIT

   As filehandle striping layouts are effectively read-only, clients
   SHOULD NOT attempt commits on filehandle striping layouts.  If a
   server implementation receives a LAYOUTCOMMIT for a valid filehandle
   striping layout, it SHOULD return NFS4ERR_OK.

   For metastripe layouts of subtype LAYOUTMETA4_DIRECTORY, the layout
   specific data for LAYOUTCOMMIT contains the signed count of items
   added to and removed from the directory since the last LAYOUTCOMMIT
   operation.

5.6.  Operation: PREADDIR - Parallel Read Directory

5.6.1.  ARGUMENTS

   ///  struct READDIR4args {
   ///          /* CURRENT_FH: directory */
   ///          nfs_cookie4     cookie;
   ///          verifier4       cookieverf;
   ///          count4          dircount;
   ///          count4          maxcount;
   ///          bitmap4         attr_request;
   ///          stateid4        layout_stateid;
   ///          uint32_t        stripe_number;
   ///  };

                                 Figure 7

5.6.2.  RESULTS

   ///  typedef struct READDIR4res PREADDIR4res;

                                 Figure 8

5.6.3.  DESCRIPTION

5.6.4.  IMPLEMENTATION


6.  Further Considerations





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6.1.  Storage Access Protocols

   The LAYOUT4_METADATA layout type uses NFSv4.1 operations (and
   potentially, operations of higher minor versions of NFSv4, subject to
   the definition of a minor version of NFSv4) to access striped
   metadata.  The LAYOUT4_METADATA does not affect access to storage
   devices, and indeed, in the protocol described here, layouts of type
   LAYOUT4_METADATA and ordinary pNFS layouts for parallel data access
   (e.g., LAYOUT4_NFSV4_1_FILES, LAYOUT4_OSD2_OBJECTS, or
   LAYOUT4_BLOCK_VOLUME, or a future flexible files layout), are
   orthogonal.

6.2.  Revocation of Layouts

   Servers MAY revoke layouts of type LAYOUT4_METADATA.  A client
   detects if layout has been revoked if the operation is rejected with
   NFS4ERR_PNFS_NO_LAYOUT.  In NFSv4.1, the error NFS4ERR_PNFS_NO_LAYOUT
   could be returned only by READ and WRITE.  When the server returns a
   layout of type LAYOUT4_METADATA, the set of operations that can
   return NFS4ERR_PNFS_NO_LAYOUT is: ACCESS, CLOSE, COMMIT, CREATE,
   DELEGRETURN, GETATTR, LINK, LOCK, LOCKT, LOCKU, LOOKUP, LOOKUPP,
   NVERIFY, OPEN, OPENATTR, OPEN_DOWNGRADE, PREADDIR, READ, READDIR,
   READLINK, REMOVE, RENAME, SECINFO, SETATTR, VERIFY, WRITE,
   GET_DIR_DELEGATION, SECINFO, SECINFO_NO_NAME, and WANT_DELEGATION.

6.3.  Stateids

   The pNFS specification for LAYOUT4_NFSV4_1_FILES states data servers
   MUST be aware of the stateids granted by MDS so that the stateids
   passed to READ and WRITE can be properly validated.  Similarly, in
   layouts of type LAYOUT4_METADATA, the L-MDS MUST be aware of layout
   stateids issued by the controlling I-MDS in the corresponding layout.

   In addition, the L-MDS MUST be aware of any non-layout stateids
   granted by the I-MDS, if and only if the client is in contact the
   L-MDS under direction of a metadata layout returned by the I-MDS, and
   the I-MDS has not recalled or revoked that layout.  In addition,
   because an L-MDS can accept operations like OPEN and LOCK that create
   or modify stateids, the I-MDS MUST be aware of stateids that an L-MDS
   has returned to a client, if and only if the I-MDS granted the client
   a metadata layout that directed the client to the L-MDS.

   In some cases, one L-MDS MUST be aware of a stateid generated by
   another L-MDS.  For example a client can obtain a stateid from the
   L-MDS serving as the destination of name-based operations, which
   includes OPEN.  However, operations that use the stateid will be
   filehandle-only operations, and the L-MDS the OPEN operation is sent
   to might differ from the L-MDS the LOCK operation for the same target



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   file is sent to.

   When a client obtains a non-layout stateid from an L-MDS, for
   example, as the result of an OPEN operation, the stateid is asserted
   to be valid at the issuing L-MDS, and also the assocated I-MDS, as
   noted above.  In addition, if the client holds a filehandle striping
   layout on the current file system, it SHOULD request the associated
   stripe hint on the object, ideally in the same COMPOUND.

   When responding to client LAYOUTGET requests, server implementations
   MUST accept the anonymous stateid as a valid stateid for both
   LAYOUTMETA4_FILEHANDLE and LAYOUTMETA4_DIRECTORY layouts, but MAY
   return NFS4ERR_BADSTATEID for other stateids, when appropriate.

6.4.  Lease Terms

   Any state the client obtains from an I-MDS or L-MDS is guaranteed to
   last for an interval lasting as long as the maximum of the lease_time
   attribute of the the I-MDS, and any L-MDS the client is directed to
   as the result of a metadata layout.  The client has a lease for each
   client ID it has with an I-MDS or L-MDS, and each lease MUST be
   renewed separately for each client ID.

6.5.  Layout Operations Sent to an L-MDS

   An L-MDS MAY allow a LAYOUTGET operation of type LAYOUT4_METADATA.
   One reason the L-MDS might allow such a LAYOUTGET operation is to
   allow hierarchical striping.  For example, for name-based operations,
   the pNFS server might use a radix tree, (which the field
   mdln_namebased_alg would indicate).  The first four bytes of the
   component name would be combined to form a 32-bit stripe_unit_number.
   Once the client contacted the L-MDS, it would repeat the algorithm on
   the second four bytes of the component, and so on until the component
   name was exhausted.

   More typically, an L-MDS MAY allow a LAYOUTGET operation of type
   LAYOUT4_NFSV4_1_FILES, LAYOUT4_OSD2_OBJECTS, or LAYOUT4_BLOCK_VOLUME.
   Naturally, a reason to allow this would be for increased pNFS MDS
   scalability.

   Once an L-MDS grants a layout, the client MUST use only the L-MDS
   that granted the layout to send LAYOUTUPDATE, LAYOUTCOMMIT, and
   LAYOUTRETURN.

6.6.  Filehandles in Metadata Layouts

   Metadata layouts do not present filehandles.




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6.7.  Restriping

6.7.1.  Layout Recall Cases

   When a server implementation intends to perform restriping, it MUST
   ensure that it has successfully recalled any metadata layout which
   would be invalidated by the restriping.

   If the implementation wishes to restripe a directory on which there
   are outstanding layouts of type LAYOUTMETA4_DIRECTORY, it must first
   successfully recall these layouts at their controlling I-MDS servers,
   as described in [NFSv4.1].

   If the implementation wishes to perform filehandle restriping which
   would invalidate any filehandle stripe hint which it has issued to
   clients, it MUST successfully recall all controlling layouts of type
   LAYOUTMETA4_FILEHANDLE which would conflict with the restriping.

   Naturally, if a client requests an L-MDS to perform any operation
   under the auspices of a metadata layout which is no longer valid, the
   L-MDS is not required to perform it.  The L-MDS SHOULD fail the
   operation with NFS4ERR_PNFS_NO_LAYOUT.

6.7.2.  Hint Invalidation

   When an implementation wishes to perform filehandle restriping that
   would invalidate an ilehandle stripe hint or hints it has issued to
   clients, it can use ordinary NFSv4.1 invalidation to reclaim the
   hints.  Since filehandle stripe hints are recommended attributes, the
   controlling I-MDS or L-MDS does this by updating the change attribute
   on the file being updated, as it would for any other file update.

6.8.  Recovery

   [[Comment.1: it is likely this section will follow that of the files
   layout type specified in the NFSv4.1 specification.]]

6.9.  Failure and Restart of Client

   TBD

6.10.  Failure and Restart of Server

   TBD







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7.  Negotiation

   The NFSv4.x client sends a GETATTR operation for attribute
   fs_layout_type.  If the reply contains the metadata layout type, then
   either or both of filehandle or directory striping are supported,
   subject to further verification by subsequent LAYOUTGET operations.
   If not, the client cannot use metadata striping.


8.  Usage Examples

   This section contains illustrative examples of the protocol.

8.1.  open-lock-write-close

             I-MDS: LAYOUTGET for filehandle layout -> fh_stateid
             I-MDS: OPEN('foo') -> open_stateid
             I-MDS: GETATTR(meta_stripe_deviceid) -> in_deviceid
             I-MDS: GETDEVICEINFO(in_deviceid) -> [L-MDS]

             L-MDS: LOCK(open_stateid) -> lock_stateid
             L-MDS: WRITE(lock_stateid)
             I-MDS: CLOSE(open_stateid)
             I-MDS: LAYOUTRETURN(fh_stateid)

                                 Figure 9

8.2.  parallel create-layoutcommit

             I-MDS: LAYOUTGET for filehandle layout -> fh_stateid
             I-MDS: LAYOUTGET(dir) for directory layout
               -> {dir_stateid, dir_deviceid, dir_placement}
             I-MDS: GETDEVICEINFO(dir_deviceid)
               -> [L-MDS1, L-MDS2, L-MDS3]

             dir_placement('foo') -> L-MDS1
             L-MDS1: CREATE(dir, 'foo')

             dir_placement('bar') -> L-MDS2
             L-MDS2: CREATE(dir, 'bar')

             dir_placement('baz') -> L-MDS3
             L-MDS3: CREATE(dir, 'baz')

             I-MDS: LAYOUTCOMMIT(dir_stateid, +3)
             I-MDS: LAYOUTRETURN(dn_stateid)
             I-MDS: LAYOUTRETURN(fh_stateid)




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                                 Figure 10

8.3.  parallel directory listing

             I-MDS: LAYOUTGET for filehandle layout -> fh_stateid
             I-MDS: LAYOUTGET(dir) for directory layout
               -> dn_stateid, dn_deviceid
             I-MDS: GETDEVICEINFO(dn_deviceid)
               -> [L-MDS1, L-MDS2, L-MDS3]

             L-MDS1: PREADDIR(dn_stateid, stripe=0, cookie=0)
               -> [a, b, c]
             L-MDS2: PREADDIR(dn_stateid, stripe=1, cookie=0)
               -> [d, e, f]
             L-MDS3: PREADDIR(dn_stateid, stripe=2, cookie=0)
               -> [g, h, i]

             I-MDS: LAYOUTRETURN(dn_stateid)
             I-MDS: LAYOUTRETURN(fh_stateid)

                                 Figure 11


9.  Operational Recommendation for Deployment

   Deploy the metadata striping layout when it is anticipated that the
   workload will involve a high fraction of non-I/O operations on
   filehandles.


10.  Acknowledgements

   We gratefully acknowledge the primary contributions of Mike Eisler,
   Pranoop Ersani, and others, in [METASTRIPE].

   From prior drafts, Brent Welch had the idea of returning a separate
   device ID for filehandle-only operations in the metadata layout.
   Pranoop Erasani, Dave Noveck, and Richard Jernigan provided valuable
   feedback.


11.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations of Section 13.12 of [NFSv4.1] which are
   specific to data servers apply to l-MDSes.  In addition, each l-MDS
   server and client are, respectively, a complete NFSv4.1 server and
   client, and so the security considerations of [NFSv4.1] apply to any
   client or server using the metadata layout type.



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12.  IANA Considerations

   This specification requires an addition to the Layout Types registry
   described in Section 22.4 of [NFSv4.1].  The five fields added to the
   registy are:

   1.  Name of layout type: LAYOUT4_METADATA.

   2.  Value of layout type: TBD1.

   3.  Standards Track RFC that describes this layout: RFCTBD2, which
       would be the RFC of this document.

   4.  How the RFC Introduces the specification: minor revision (we
       believe).

   5.  Minor versions of NFSv4 that can use the layout type: [TBD].

   This specification requires the creation of a registry of hash
   algorithms for supporting the field mdln_namebased_alg.  Additional
   details TBD.

   This specification introduces two new recommended attributes
   (meta_stripe_deviceid and meta_stripe_count).

   This specification introduces a new operation (PREADDIR).


13.  References

13.1.  Normative References

   [CITY]     Pike and Alakuijala, "Introducing CityHash", April 2011, <
              http://google-opensource.blogspot.com/2011/04/
              introducing-cityhash.html>.

   [JENKINS]  Jenkins, "Hash Functions for Hash Table Lookup",
              <http://burtleburtle.net/bob/hash/evahash.html>.

   [METASTRIPE]
              Eisler, "Metadata Striping for pNFS", October 2010, <http:
              //tools.ietf.org/html/
              draft-eisler-nfsv4-pnfs-metastripe-03>.

   [NFSv4.1]  Shepler, Eisler, and Noveck, "Network File System (NFS)
              Version 4 Minor Version 1 Protocol", January 2010,
              <http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5661>.




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   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
              May 2008.

13.2.  Informative References

   [RFC4506]  Eisler, M., "XDR: External Data Representation Standard",
              STD 67, RFC 4506, May 2006.


Authors' Addresses

   Matt Benjamin
   CohortFS, LLC
   206 S. Fifth Ave, Suite 150
   Ann Arbor, MI  48104
   USA

   Phone: +1 734 761 4689
   Email: matt@cohortfs.com


   Casey Bodley

   Email: casey@cohortfs.com


   Adam C. Emerson

   Email: aemerson@cohortfs.com


   Pranoop Ersani
   NetApp

   Email: Pranoop.Erasani@netapp.com


   Peter Honeyman

   Email: peter.honeyman@gmail.com







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