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                                                                                        Rufael Mekuria
                                            Unified Streaming
Internet Engineering Task Force             Sam Geqiang Zhang
Internet-Draft                              Microsoft
Expires: January 15, 2019

Intended status: Best Current Practice      July 15  2018

          Live Media and Metadata Ingest Protocol


   This Internet draft presents a best industry practice for
   ingesting encoded live media to media processing entities.
   Two profiles of the media ingest are defined covering the most
   common use cases. The first profile facilates active media
   processing and is based on the fragmented MPEG-4 format.
   The second profile enables efficient ingest of media streaming
   presentations based on established streaming protocols
   by also adding a manifest besides the fragmented MPEG-4 stream.
   Details on carriage of metadata markers, timed text,
   subtitles and encryption specific metadata are also included.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance
   with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet
   Engineering Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups
   may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.
   The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum
   of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted
   by other documents at any time.  It is inappropriate to
   use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite
   them other than as "work in progress."

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
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   without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction
   2.  Conventions and Terminology
   3.  Media Ingest Workflows and Use Cases
   4.  General Media Ingest Protocol Behavior
   5.  Profile 1: Fragmented MPEG-4 Ingest General Considerations
   6.  Profile 1: Fragmented MPEG-4 Ingest Protocol Behavior
       6.1 General Protocol Requirements
       6.2 Requirements for Formatting Media Tracks
       6.3 Requirements for Timed Text Captions and Subtitle Streams
       6.4 Requirements for Timed Metadata
       6.5 Requirements for Media Processing Entity Failover
       6.6 Requirements for Live Media Source Failover
   7.  Profile 2: DASH and HLS Ingest General Considerations
   8.  Profile 2: DASH and HLS Ingest Protocol Behavior
       8.1 General Protocol requirements
       8.2 Requirements for Formatting Media Tracks
       8.3 Requirements for Timed Text, Caption and Subtitle Streams
       8.4 Requirements for Timed Metadata
       8.5 Requirements for Media Processing Entity Failover
       8.6 Requirements for Live Media Source Failover
   9.  Security Considerations
   10. IANA Considerations
   11. Contributors
   12. References
     12.1.  Normative References
     12.2.  Informative References
     12.3.  URL References
   Author's Address

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1.  Introduction

   This document describes a best practice for ingesting
   encoded media content from a live source such as a
   live video encoder towards distributed media
   processing entities. Examples of such entities
   include media packagers, publishing points,
   streaming origins and content delivery networks.
   The combination of live sources ingesting
   media and distributed media processing entities
   is important in practical video streaming deployments.
   In such deployments, interoperability between
   live sources and downstream processing
   entities can be challenging.
   This challenge comes from the fact that
   there are multiple levels of interoperability
   that need to be adressed and achieved.

   For example, the network protocol for transmission
   of data and the setup of the connectivity are important.
   This includes schemes for establishing the ingest
   connection, handling disconnections and failures,
   procedures for repeatedly sending and receving
   the data, and timely resolution of hostnames.

   A second level of interoperability lies
   in the media container and coded media formats.
   The Moving Picture Experts Group defined several media
   container formats such as [ISOBMFF] and MPEG-2 Transport
   Stream which are widely adopted and well supported.
   However, these are general purpose formats,
   targetting several different application areas.
   To do so they provide many different profiles and options.
   Detailed operability is often achieved through
   other application standards such as those for
   the broadcast or storage. In addition, the codec
   and profile used, e.g. [HEVC] is an important
   interoperability point that itself also
   has different profiles and options.

   A third level, is the way metadata is
   inserted in streams which can be a source
   of interoperability issues, especially for live
   content that needs such meta-data to signal
   opportunities for signalling ad insertion,
   or other metadata like timed graphics.  Examples
   of such metadata include [SCTE-35] markers which
   are often found in broadcast streams and other
   metadata like ID3 tags [ID3v2].

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   Fourth, for live media handling the timeline
   of the presentation consistently is important.
   This includes correct sampling of media, avoiding
   timeline discontinuities and  synchronizing
   timestamps attached by different live sources.

   Fifth, in streaming workflows it is important
   to have support for failovers of both the live sources
   and the media processing entities. This is important
   to avoid interruptions of 24/7 live services such
   as Internet television where components can fail.
   In practical deployments, multiple live sources
   and media processing entities are used. This requires
   the multile live sources and media processing to
   work together in a redundant workflow where
   some of the components might fail.

   This document provides an industry best
   practice approach for establishing these
   interoperability points for live media ingest.
   The approaches are based on known standardized
   technologies and have been tested and deployed
   in several streaming large scale streaming
   deployments. Two key workflows have been
   identified for which two different media
   ingest profiles will be detailed.

   In first workflow, encoded media is ingested
   downstream for further processing of the media.
   Examples of such media processing could be any
   media transformation such as packaging,
   encrypting or transcoding the stream.
   Other operations could include watermarking,
   content insertion and generating streaming manifests
   based on [DASH] or HLS[RFC8216]. What is typical
   of these operations is that they actively inspect,
   or modify the media content and may
   generate new derived media content.
   In this workflow it is is important
   to convey mediadata and metadata that
   assists such active media processing operations.
   This is workflow type will be adressed
   in the first profile.

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   In the second workflow, the encoded media is ingested
   into an entity that does none or very minimal inspection
   or modification of the media content. The main aim
   of such processing entities often lies in storage,
   caching and delivery of the media content. An example
   of such an entity is a Content Delivery Network (CDN)
   for delivering and caching Internet content.
   Content delivery networks are often designed for
   Internet content like web pages and might
   not be aware of media specific aspects. In fact, streaming
   protocols like MPEG DASH and HTTP Live Streaming have been
   developed with re-use of such a media agnostic
   Content Delivery Networks in mind. For ingesting
   encoded media into a content delivery network it
   is important to have the media presentation in a form
   that is very close or matching to the format
   that the clients need to playback the presentation,
   as changing or complementing the media presentation
   will be difficult. This second workflow is addressed
   in profile 2.

   Diagram 1: Example with media ingest in profile 1
   ============       ==============      ==============
   || live   || ingest||  Active  || HLS  || Content  ||  HLS
   || media  ||====>>>||processing||===>>>|| Delivery ||==>>>Client
   || source ||       || entity   || DASH || Network  ||  DASH
   ============       ==============      ==============

   Diagram 2: Example with media ingest in profile 2

   ============       ==============
   || live   || ingest|| Content  ||
   || media  ||====>>>||Delivery  ||==>>>> Client
   || source ||       || Network  ||
   ============       ==============

   Diagram 1 shows the workflow with a live media ingest from a
   live media source towards an active media processing entity.
   In the example in diagram 1 the media processing entity
   prepares the final media presentation for the client
   that is delivered by the Content Delivery Network to a client.

   Diagram 2 shows the example in workflow 2 were content
   is ingested directly into a Content Delivery Network.
   The content delivery network enables the delivery to the client.

   An example of a media ingest protocol
   is the ingest part of Microsoft Smooth
   Streaming protocol [MS-SSTR]. This protocol
   connects live encoders to
   the Microsoft Smooth Streaming server and to
   the Microsoft Azure cloud.

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   This protocol has shown
   to be robust, flexible and easy to implement in live
   encoders. In addition it provided features for
   high availability and server side redundancy.

   The first profile relating to workflow 1
   advances over the smooth ingest procotol
   including lessons learned over the last
   ten years after the initial deployment of
   smooth streaming in 2009 and several advances
   on signalling of information
   such as timed metadata markers for content insertion.
   In addition, it incorporates the latest media formats
   and protocols, making it ready for current and
   next generation media codecs such as [HEVC]
   and protocols like MPEG DASH [DASH].

   A second profile is included for ingest of media
   streaming presentations to entities were
   the media is not altered actively, and further
   media processing perhaps restricted to the manifests.
   A key idea of this part of the specification is to re-use
   the similarities of MPEG DASH [DASH] and HLS[RFC8216] protocols
   to enable a simultaneous ingest of media
   presentations of these two formats using
   common media segments such as based on [ISOBMFF]
   and [CMAF] formats. In addition, in this
   approach naming is important to enable direct
   processing and storage of the presentation.

   Based on our experience we present
   these two as separate profiles to
   handle the two workflows.
   We made this decision as it will
   reduce a lot of overhead in the
   information that needs to be signalled
   compared to having both profiles
   combined into one, as was the case
   in a prior version of this draft.

   We further motivate this best practice presented
   in this document supporting using
   HTTP [RFC2626]  and [ISOBMFF] a bit more.
   We believe that Smooth streaming [MS-SSTR]
   and HLS [RFC8216] have shown that HTTP usage
   can survive the Internet ecosystem for
   media delivery. In addition, HTTP based
   ingest fits well with current HTTP
   based streaming protocols including [DASH].
   In addition, there is good support for HTTP
   middleboxes and HTTP routing available
   making it easier to debug and trace errors.
   The HTTP POST provides a push based
   method for delivery for pusing the
   live content when available.
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   The binary media format for conveying
   the media is based on fragmented MPEG-4 as
   specified in [ISOBMFF] [CMAF]. A key benefit of this
   format is that it allows easy identification
   of stream boundaries, enabling switching, redundancy,
   re-transmission resulting in a good fit with the current
   Internet infrastructures. Many problems in
   practical streaming deployment often deal
   with issues related to the binary
   media format. We believe that the fragmented
   MPEG-4 will make things easier
   and that the industry is already heading
   in this direction following recent specifications
   like [CMAF] and HLS[RFC8216].

   Regarding the transports protocol, in future versions,
   alternative transport protocols could be considered
   advancing over HTTP. We believe the proposed media format
   will provide the same benefits with other transports
   protocols. Our view is that for current and near future
   deployments using [RFC2626]  is still a good approach.

   The document is structured as follows, in section 2
   we present the conventions and terminology used throughout
   this document. In section 3 we present use cases and
   workflows related to media ingest and the two profiles
   presented. Sections 4-8 will detail the protocol and
   the two different profiles.

2.  Conventions and Terminology

   The following terminology is used in the rest of this document.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119

   ISOBMFF: the ISO Base Media File Format specified in [ISOBMFF].

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   Live Ingest Stream:
            the stream of media produced by the live source
            transmitted to the media processing entity.
   Live Stream Event:
            the total live stream for the ingest.
            (Live) encoder: entity performing live
            encoding and producing a high quality live stream,
            can serve as media ingest source
   Media (Ingest) source:
            a media source ingesting media content
            , typically a live encoder but not restricted
            to this,the media ingest source could by any
            type of media ingest source such as a stored
            file that is send in partial chunks.
   Live Ingest Source:
            Media Ingest source producing live content
   Publishing point:
              entity used to publish the media content,
              consumes/receives the incoming media ingest stream
   Media processing entity:
            entity used to process the media content,
            receives/consumes a media ingest stream.
   Media processing function:
               Media processing entity
              a connection setup between two hosts, typically the
              media ingest source and media processing entity.
        the filetype and compatibility "ftyp" box as described
        in the ISOBMFF [ISOBMFF] that describes the "brand"
        the container box for all metadata "moov" described in the
        ISOBMFF base media file format [ISOBMFF]
        the movie fragment "moof" box as described in the
        ISOBMFF  base media file format [ISOBMFF] that describes
        the metadata of a fragment of media.
        the media data container "mdat" box contained in
        an ISOBMFF [ISOBMFF], this box contains the
        compressed media samples
        the track kind box defined in the ISOBMFF [ISOBMFF]
        to label a track with its usage
        the movie fragment random access "mfra" box defined in
        the ISOBMFF [ISOBMFF] to signal random access samples
        (these are samples that require no prior
        or other samples for decoding) [ISOBMFF].
        the TrackFragmentBaseMediaDecodeTimeBox box "tfdt"
        in the base media file format [ISOBMFF] used
        to signal the decode time of the media
        fragment signalled in the moof box.
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         The media header box "mdhd" as defined in [ISOBMFF],
         this box contains information about the media such
         as timescale, duration, language using ISO 639-2/T codes
         The protection specific system header "pssh" box defined
         in [CENC] that can be used to signal the content protection
         information according to the MPEG Common Encryption [CENC]
         Protection scheme information box "sinf" defined in
         [ISOBMFF] that provides information on the encryption
         scheme used in the file
         extended language box "elng" defined in [ISOBMFF] that
         can override the language information
         The null media header Box "nmhd" as defined in [ISOBMFF]
         to signal a track for which no specific
         media header is defined, often used for metadata tracks
         Hyper Text Transfer Protocol,
         version 1.1 as specified by [RFC2626]
        Command used in the Hyper Text Transfer Protocol for
        sending data from a source to a destination [RFC2626]
        stream of [ISOBMFF] fragments
        (moof and mdat), a more precise definition will follow
    later in this section.
        Target URL of a POST command in the HTTP protocol
        for posting data from a source to a destination.
       Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) as defined in [RFC793]
       identifier/string formatted according to [RFC3986]

   A fragmentedMP4stream can be defined
   using the IETF RFC 5234 ANB [RFC5234] as follows.

   fragmentedMP4stream = headerboxes fragments
   headerboxes = ftyp moov
   fragments = X fragment
   fragment = Moof Mdat

  This fragmentedMP4 stream is used in both profiles.

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3.  Media Ingest Workflows and Use Cases

  In this section we highlight some of the target use cases
  and example workflows for the media ingest.
  Diagram 3 shows an example workflow of media ingest
  with profile 1 in a streaming workflow. The live media
  is ingested into the media processing entity that performs
  operations like on-the-fly encryption, content stitching
  packaging and possibly other operations before
  delivery of the final media presentation to the client.
  This type of distributed media processing offloads
  many functionalities from the live media source.
  As long as the stream originating from the media
  source contains sufficient metadata, the media
  processing entity can generate the media presentation
  for streaming to clients or other derived media
  presentations as needed by a client.

  Diagram 4 shows an alternative example with ingest
  to a content delivery network, or perhaps another
  passive media entity such as a storage. In this case
  the live media source posts the segments and the
  manifests for the media presentation.
  In this case, still fragmented MPEG-4 segments can be used,
  but the ingest works slightly different.

   Diagram 3:
  Streaming workflow with fragmented MPEG-4 ingest in profile 1
  ============       ==============      ==============
  || live   ||ingest ||  Media   || HLS  || Content  ||  HLS
  || media  ||====>>>||processing||===>>>|| Delivery ||==>>> Client
  || source || fmp4  || entity   || DASH || Network  ||  DASH
  ============       ==============      ==============

  Diagram 4:
  Streaming workflow with DASH ingest in profile 2
  ============ingest ==============
  || live   || DASH  || Content  ||
  || media  ||====>>>||Delivery  ||==>>>> Client
  || source ||       || Network  ||
  ============       ==============

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  Practice has shown that the ingest schemes
  can be quite different for the two configurations
  , and that combining them into a single protocol
  will result in overhead such as sending
  duplicate information in the manifest or
  ISOBMFF moov box, and increased
  signalling overhead for starting, closing
  and resetting the connection. Therefore,
  the two procedures for media ingest in
  such two common workflows are presented
  as separate profiles in the next two sections.

  In Diagram 5 we highlight some of the key
  differences for practical consideration between
  the profiles. In profile 1 the encoder can be
  simple as the media processing entity can
  do many of the operations related to the
  delivery such as encryption or generating the streaming
  manifests. In addition the distribution of functionalities
  can make it easier to scale a deployment with many
  live media sources and media processing entities.

  In some cases, an encoder has sufficient
  capabilities to prepare the final presentation for the
  client, in that case content can be ingested directly
  to a more passive media processing entity that provides
  a more pass through like functionality.
  In this case also manifests and other client specific
  information needs to be ingested. Besides these factors
  , chosing a workflow for a video streaming platform depends
  on many factors. The media ingest best practice
  covers these two types of workflows by two different
  profiles. The best choice for a specific platform depends
  on many of the use case specific requirements, circumstances
  and the available technologies.

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  In Diagram 6 we highlight another aspect taken into
  consideration for large scale systems with many users.
  Often one would like to run multiple encoders,
  multiple processing entities and make them available
  to the clients via a load balancer. This way requests
  can be balanced over multiple processing nodes.
  This approach is common when serving web pages,
  and this architecture also applies to video
  streaming platforms that also use HTTP. In Diagram
   6 it is highlighted how one or more multiple live encoders can
  be sending data to one or more processing entities. In
  such a workflow it is important to handle the case
  when one source or media processing entity fails over.
  We call this support for failover. It is an important
  consideration in practical video streaming systems that
  need to run 24/7. Failovers must be handled robustly
  and seamlesslessly without causing service interruption.
  In both profiles we detail how this failover and redundancy
  support can be achieved.

  Diagram 5: Differences profile 1 and profile 2 for use cases
  |Profile   | Encoder/Live source  | Media processing       |
  |Profile 1 |limited overview      |DRM,transcode, watermark|
  |          | simple encoder       |man. create,   packaging|
  |          | multiple sources     |content stitch, timed   |
  |Profile 2 |Global overview       | cache, store, deliver  |
  |          |encoder targets client|                        |
  |          |only duplicate sources| manifest manipulation  |

  Diagram 6:
  workflow with redundant sources and media processing entities

  ============ fmp4  ==============
  || live   || stream||  Media   ||
  || media  ||====>>>||Processing|| \\
  || source ||   //  ||  Entity  ||  \\
  ============  //   ==============   \\  ============
  || live   || //                      \\ || load   ||
  || media  ||// redundant stream       >>||balancer|| ==>>> Client
  || source ||\\ stream                // =============
  ============ \\     =============   //
  || live   ||  \\   || Media     || //
  ||ingest  ||====>>>||Processing ||//
  || source ||   //  || Entity    ||
  ============  //   ===============
  || live   || //
  ||ingest  ||// redundant stream
  || source ||

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4. General Ingest Protocol Behavior

  The media ingest follows the following
  general requirements for both target profiles.
   1. The live encoder or ingest source communicates to
      the publishing point/processing entity using the HTTP
      POST method as defined in the HTTP protocol [RFC2626]
   2. The media ingest source SHOULD use HTTP over TLS [RFC2818]
      to connect to the media processing entity
   3. The live encoder/media source SHOULD repeatedly resolve
      the Hostname to adapt to changes in the IP to Hostname mapping
      such as for example by using the dynamic naming system
      DNS [RFC1035] or any other system that is in place.
   4. The Live encoder media source MUST update the IP to hostname
      resolution respecting the TTL (time to live) from DNS
      query responses, this will enable better resillience
      to changes of the IP address in large scale deployments
      where the IP adress of the publishing point media
      processing nodes may change frequenty.
   5. In case HTTPS[RFC2818] protocol is used,
       basic authentication HTTP AUTH [RFC7617]
       or better methods like TLS client certificates SHOULD be used
   6. As compatibility profile for the TLS encryption
      we recommend the ingest SHOULD use the mozzilla
      intermediate compatibility profile which is supported
      in many available implementations [MozillaTLS].
   7. The encoder or ingest source SHOULD terminate
      the HTTP POST request if data is not being sent
      at a rate commensurate with the MP4 segment duration.
      An HTTP POST request that does not send data can
      prevent publishing points or media processing entities
      from quickly disconnecting from the live encoder or
      media ingest source in the event of a service update.
      For this reason, the HTTP POST for sparse
      data such as sparse tracks SHOULD be short-lived,
      terminating as soon as
      the sparse fragment is sent.
   8. The POST request uses a POST_URL to the basepath of the
      publishing point at the media processing entity and
      MAY use a relative path for different streams and segments.

5. Profile 1: Fragmented MPEG-4 Ingest General Considerations

The first profile assumes ingest to an active media processing entity,
from one or more live ingest sources, ingesting one or more
types of media streams. This advances over the ingest
part of the smooth ingest protocol [MS-SSTR] by using
standardized media container formats based on [ISOBMFF][CMAF].
In addition this allows extension to codecs like [HEVC] and
timed metadata ingest of subtitle and timed text streams.
The workflow ingesting multiple media ingest streams with
fragmented MPEG-4 ingest is illustrated in Diagram 7.

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Diagram 7: fragmented MPEG-4 ingest with multiple ingest sources
============ fmp4  ==============
|| live   || video ||          ||
|| ingest ||====>>>||          ||
|| source ||       ||          ||
============       ||          ||
|| live   || fmp4  ||          ||
|| ingest ||====>>>||  Active  ||      ==============
|| source || audio ||   Media  || HLS  || Content  ||  HLS
============       || procesing||===>>>|| Delivery ||==>>> Client
|| live   || fmp4  ||  entity  || DASH || Network  ||  DASH
||ingest  ||====>>>||          ||       =============
|| source || text  ||          ||
============       ||          ||
|| live   || fmp4  ||          ||
||ingest  || meta  ||          ||
|| source ||  data ||          ||
||        ||====>>>||          ||
============       ==============

In diagrams 8-10 we detail some of the concepts and structures.
Diagram 8 shows the data format structure of fragmented
MPEG-4 [ISOBMFF] and [CMAF]. In this format media meta data
(playback time, sample duration) and sample data (encoded samples)
are interleaved. the moof box as specified in [ISOBMFF] is used
to signal the information to playback and decode the samples
followed in the mdat box.
The ftyp and moov box contain the track specific information
and can be seen as a header of the stream, sometimes referred
as a [CMAF] header. The styp box can be used to signal the
type of segment. The combination of styp moof mdat can be referred
as a segment, the combination of ftyp and moof can be referred
to as an init segment or a CMAF header.

Diagram 8: fragmented mp4 stream:
||ftyp||moov||styp||moof||mdat||styp||moof||mdat|| .....=

In diagram 9 we illustrate the synchronisation model, that
is in many ways similar, but simplified, from the synchronisation
model propose in [CMAF]. Different bit-rate tracks
and or media streams are conveyed in separate fragmented mp4 streams.
by having the boundaries to the segments time alligned for tracks
comprising the same stream at different bit-rates, bit-rate
switching can be achieved. By using a common timeline
different streams can be synchronized at the receiver,
while they are in a separeted fragmented mp4 stream
send over a separate connection, possibly from a different
live ingest source.

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In diagram 10 another advantage of this synchronisation model
is illustrated, the concept of late binding. In the case
of late binding a new stream becomes available. By using
the segment boundaries and a common timeline it can
be received by the media processing entity and embedded
in the presentation. Late binding is useful for many
practical use cases when broadcasting television
content with different types of metadata tracks.

Diagram 9: fmp4 stream synchronisation:
||ftyp||moov||styp||moof||mdat||styp||moof||mdat|| .....=
||ftyp||moov||styp||moof||mdat||styp||moof||mdat|| .....=
||ftyp||moov||styp||moof||mdat||styp||moof||mdat|| .....=

Diagram 10: fmp4 late binding:
||ftyp||moov||styp||moof||mdat||moof||mdat|| .....=

Diagram 11 shows the flow of the media ingest. It starts with a
DNS resolution (if needed) and an authentication step (Authy,
TLS certificate) to establish a secure TCP connection.
In some private datacenter deployments where nodes
are not reachable from outside, a non authenticated connection
MAY also be used. The ingest source then issues an empty POST
to test that the media processing entity is listening. It then
start sending the moov + ftyp box (the init segment), followed
by the rest of the segments in the fragmented MPEG-4 stream. In
the end of the session, for tear down the source can send an
empty mfra box to close the connection.

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Diagram 11: fmp4 ingest flow
||=====================            ============================  ||
||| live ingest source |            |  Media processing entity | ||
||=====================            ============================  ||
||        || <<------  DNS Resolve    -------->> ||              ||
||        || <<------  Authenticate   -------->> ||              ||
||        || <<------POST fmp4stream  -------->> ||              ||
||=============== empty POST to test connection  ================||
||        || <<------ 404 Bad Request -----------||              ||
||        || <<------ 202 OK --------------------||              ||
||        || <<------ 403 Forbidden -------------||              ||
||        || <<------ 404 Bad Request            ||              ||
||        || <<------ 400 Forbidden -------------||              ||
||        ||         Unsupported Media Type      ||              ||
||        || <<------ 415 Forbidden -------------||              ||
||================== Moov + ftyp Sending  =======================||
||============= fragmented MP4 Sending ==========================||
||        || <<------ 404 Bad Request -----------||              ||
||============= mfra box Sending (close) ========================||
||        || <<------ 200 OK --------------------||              ||
||=====================            ============================  ||
||| live ingest source |            |  Media processing entity | ||
||=====================            ============================  ||
||        ||                                     ||              ||

6. Profile 1: Fragmented MPEG-4 Ingest Protocol Behavior

This section describes the protocol behavior specific to
profile 1: fragmented MPEG-4 ingest. Operation of this
profile MUST also adhere to general requirements in secion 4.

6.1. General Protocol Requirements

   1. The live encoder or ingest source SHOULD start
      by sending an HTTP POST request with an empty "body"
      (zero content length) by using the POSTURL
      This can help the live encoder or media
      ingest source to quickly detect whether the
      live ingest publishing point is valid,
      and if there are any authentication
       or other conditions required.
   2. The live encoder or ingest source MUST initiate
      a media ingest connection by POSTING the
      header boxes "ftyp" and "moov" after step 1
   3. The encoder or ingest source SHOULD use chunked transfer
      encoding option of the HTTP POST command [RFC2626]
      as it might be difficult to predict the entire content length
      of the segment. This can also be used for example to support
      use cases that require low latency.

    Mekuria & Zhang          Expires January 15  2019        [Page16]

   4. If the HTTP POST request terminates or times out with a TCP
      error prior to the end of the stream, the encoder MUST issue
      a new connection, and follow the
      preceding requirements. Additionally, the encoder MAY resend
      the previous segment that was already sent again.
   5. The live encoder or ingest source MUST handle
      any error or failed authentication responses
      received from the media processing, by issueing
      a new connection and following the preceding
      requirements inlcluding retransmitting the ftyp and moov boxes.
   6. In case the live stream event is over the live media
      source or ingest source should signal
      the stop by transmitting an empty "mfra" box
      towards the publishing point/processing entity.
   7. The live ingest source SHOULD use a separate TCP
      connection for ingest of each different track
   8. The live ingest source MAY use a separate relative path
      in the POST_URL for ingest of each different track

6.2. Requirements for formatting Media Tracks

   1. The trackFragmentDecodeTime box "tfdt" box
      MUST be present for each segment posted.
   2. The ISOBMFF media fragment duration SHOULD be constant,
      the duration MAY fluctuate to compensate
      for non-integer frame rates. By choosing an appropriate
      timescale (a multiple of the frame rate is recommended)
      this issue SHOULD be avoided.
   3. The MPEG-4 fragment durations SHOULD be between
      approximately 1 and 6 seconds.
   4. The fragment decode timestamps "tfdt" of fragments in the
      fragmentedMP4stream and the indexes base_media_decode_ time
      SHOULD arrive in increasing order for each of the different
      tracks/streams that are ingested.
   5. The segments formatted as fragmented MP4 stream SHOULD use
      a timescale for video streams based on the framerate
      and 44.1 KHz or 48 KHz for audio streams
      or any another timescale that enables integer
      increments of the decode times of
      fragments signalled in the "tfdt" box based on this scale.
   6. The language of the stream SHOULD be signalled in the
      "mdhd" box or "elng" boxes in the
      init segment and/or moof headers ("mdhd").
   7. Encryption specific information SHOULD be signalled
      in the "pssh","schm" and "sinf" boxes following [ISOBMFF][CENC]
   8. Segments posted towards the media procesing entity SHOULD
      contain the bitrate "btrt" box specifying the target
      bitrate of the segments
   9. Segments  posted towards the media procesing entity SHOULD
     contain the "tfdt" box specifying  the fragments decode time
     and the "tfhd" box specifying the track id.

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6.3  Requirements for Timed Text Captions and Subtitle streams

The media ingest follows the following requirements for ingesting
a track with timed text, captions and/or subtitle streams.

   1. The track will be a sparse track signalled by a null media
      header "nmhd" containing the timed text, images, captions
      corresponding to the recommendation of storing tracks
      in fragmented MPEG-4 [CMAF]
   2. Based on this recommendation the trackhandler "hdlr" shall
      be set to "text" for WebVTT and "subt" for TTML following
   3. In case TTML is used the track must use the XMLSampleEntry
      to signal sample description of the sub-title stream [MPEG-4-30]
   4. In case WebVTT is used the track must use the WVTTSampleEntry
      to signal sample description of the text stream [MPEG-4-30]
   5. These boxes SHOULD signal the mime type and specifics as
      described in [CMAF] sections 11.3 ,11.4 and 11.5
   6. The boxes described in 2-5 must be present in the init
      segment (ftyp + moov) for the given track
   7. subtitles in CTA-608 and CTA-708 format SHOULD be conveyed
      following the recommendation section 11.5 in [CMAF] via
      Supplemental Enhancement Information SEI messages
      in the video track [CMAF]
   8. The "ftyp" box in the init segment for the track
      containing timed text, images, captions and sub-titles
      MAY use signalling using CMAF profiles based on [CMAF]

   8a. WebVTT   Specified in 11.2 ISO/IEC 14496-30
        [MPEG-4-30] 'cwvt'
   8b.TTML IMSC1 Text  Specified in 11.3.3 [MPEG-4-30]
       IMSC1 Text Profile   'im1t'
   8c.TTML IMSC1 Image Specified in 11.3.4 [MPEG-4-30]
       IMSC1 Image Profile  'im1i'
   8d. CEA  CTA-608 and CTA-708 Specified in 11.4 [MPEG-4-30]
       Caption data is embedded in SEI messages in video track;

6.4 Requirements for Timed Metadata

  This section discusses the specific formatting requirements
  for ingest of timed metadata related to events and markers for
  ad insertion or other timed metadata  An example of
  these are opportunities  for dynamic live ad insertion
  signalled by SCTE-35 markers. This type of  event signalling
  is different from regular audio/video information
  because of its sparse nature. In this case,
  the signalling data usually does not
  happen continuously, and the intervals can
  be hard to predict. Examples of timed metadata are ID3 tags
  [ID3v2], SCTE-35 markers [SCTE-35] and DASH emsg
  messages defined in section of [DASH]. For example,
  DASH Event messages contain a schemeIdUri that defines
  the payload of the message.
    Mekuria & Zhang          Expires January 15 2019         [Page18]

  Table 1 provides some
  example schemes in DASH event messages and Table 2
  illustrates an example of a SCTE-35 marker stored
  in a DASH emsg.  The presented approach allows ingest of
  timed metadata from different sources,
  possibly on different locations by embedding them in
  sparse metadata tracks.

Table 1 Example of DASH emsg schemes  URI

Scheme URI               | Reference
urn:mpeg:dash:event:2012 | [DASH], 5.10.4
urn:dvb:iptv:cpm:2014    | [DVB-DASH],
urn:scte:scte35:2013:bin | [SCTE-35] 14-3 (2015), 7.3.2
www.nielsen.com:id3:v1   | Nielsen ID3 in MPEG-DASH

Table 2 example of a SCTE-35 marker embedded in a DASH emsg
Tag                     |          Value
scheme_uri_id           | "urn:scte:scte35:2013:bin"
Value                   | the value of the SCTE 35 PID
Timescale               | positive number
presentation_time_delta | non-negative number expressing splice time
                        | relative  to tfdt
event_duration          | duration of event
                        | "0xFFFFFFFF" indicates unknown duration
Id                      | unique identifier for message
message_data            | splice info section including CRC

  The following steps are recommended for timed metadata
  ingest related to events, tags, ad markers and
  program information:

  1. Create the metadata stream as a
     fragmentedMP4stream that conveys the metadata
     , the media handler (hdlr) is "meta",
     the track handler box is a null media header box "nmhd".
  2. The metadata stream applies to the media streams
     in the presentation ingested to active publishing
     point at the media processing entity
  3. The URIMetaSampleEntry entry contains, in a URIbox,
     the URI following the URI syntax in [RFC3986]
     defining the form  of the metadata
     (see the ISO Base media file format
     specification [ISOBMFF]). For example, the URIBox
     could contain for ID3 tags  [ID3v2]
     the URL  http://www.id3.org or
     or urn:scte:scte35:2013a:bin
     for scte 35 markers [SCTE-35]
  4. The timescale of the metadata should match the value
     specified in the media header box "mdhd" of the
     metadata track.
    Mekuria & Zhang          Expires January 15 2019        [Page19]

  5. The Arrival time is signalled in the "tfdt" box
     of the track fragment  as the basemediadecode
     time, this time is often different
     from the media presentation time, which is occurs
     when a message is applied. The duration of
     a metadata fragment can be set to zero,
     letting it be determined by the
     time (tfdt) of a next metadata segment received.
  6. All Timed Metadata samples SHOULD
     be sync samples [ISOBMFF],
     defining the entire set of
     metadata for the time interval
     they cover. Hence, the sync
     sample table box SHOULD
     not be present in the metadata stream.
  7. The metadata segment becomes available to the
     publishing  point/ media processing entity
     when the corresponding track fragment
     from the media that has an equal
     or larger timestamp compared to
     the arrival time signalled
     in the tfdt basemediadecodetime.
     For example, if the sparse fragment
     has a timestamp of t=1000, it is expected that after the
     publishing point/processing entity sees "video"
    (assuming the parent track name is "video")
    fragment timestamp 1000 or beyond, it can retrieve the
    sparse fragment from the binary payload.
  8. The payload of sparse track fragments is conveyed
     in the mdat box as sample information. This enables
     muxing of the metadata tracks. For example
     XML metadata can for example be coded as base64 as
     common for [SCTE-35] metadata messages

6.5 Requirements for Media Processing Entity Failover

  Given the nature of live streaming, good failover support is
  critical for ensuring the availability of the service.
  Typically, media services are designed to handle various types
  of failures, including network errors, server errors, and storage
  issues. When used in conjunction with proper failover
  logic from the live encoder side, highly reliable live streaming
  setups can be build. In this section, we discuss requirements
  for failover scenarios.

  The following steps are required for a live encoder or media
  ingest source to deal with a failing media processing entity.

     Mekuria & Zhang          Expires January 15 2019        [Page20]

  1.    Use a 10-second timeout for establishing the
     TCP connection.
    If an attempt to establish the connection takes longer
    than 10 seconds, abort the operation and try again.
  2.    Use a short timeout for sending the HTTP requests.
    If the target segment duration is N seconds, use a send
    timeout between N and 2 N seconds; for example, if
    the segment duration is 6 seconds,
    use a timeout of 6 to 12 seconds.
    If a timeout occurs, reset the connection,
    open a new connection,
    and resume stream ingest on the new connection.
    This is needed to avoid latency introduced
    by failing connectivity in the workflow.
  3. Resend track segments for which a
     connection was terminated early
  4.    We recommend that the encoder or ingest source
    does NOT limit the number of retries to establish a
    connection or resume streaming after a TCP error occurs.
  5.    After a TCP error:
   a. The current connection MUST be closed,
      and a new connection MUST be created
      for a new HTTP POST request.
   b. The new HTTP POST URL MUST be the same
      as the initial POST URL for the
      segment to be ingested.
   c. The new HTTP POST MUST include stream
      headers ("ftyp", and "moov" boxes)
      identical to the stream headers in the
      initial POST request for fragmented media ingest.
   6.  In case the media processing entity cannot process the
       POST request due to authentication or permission
    problems then it SHOULD return a permission denied HTTP 403
   7.  In case the media processing entity can process the request
       it SHOULD return an HTTP 200 OK or 202 Accepted
   8.  In case the media processing entity can process
       the manifest or segment in the POST request body but finds
       the media type cannot be supported it SHOULD return an HTTP 415
       unsupported media type
   9. In case an unknown error happened during
       the processing of the HTTP
        POST request a HTTP 404 Bad request SHOULD be returned
   10. In case the media processing entity cannot
       proces a segment posted
       due to missing or incorrect init segment, an HTTP 412
       unfulfilled condition SHOULD be returned
   11. In case a media source receives an HTTP 412 response,
       it SHOULD resend "ftyp" and "moov" boxes

     Mekuria & Zhang          Expires January 15 2019      [Page21]

6.6 Requirements for Live Media Source Failover

  Live encoder or media ingest source failover is the second type
  of failover scenario that needs to be addressed for end-to-end
  live streaming delivery. In this scenario, the error condition
  occurs on the encoder side. The following expectations apply
  to the live ingestion endpoint when encoder failover happens:

  1.    A new encoder or media ingest source instance
        SHOULD be instantiated to continue streaming
  2.    The new encoder or media ingest source MUST use
        the same URL for HTTP POST requests as the failed instance.
  3.    The new encoder or media ingest source POST request
        MUST include the same header boxes moov
        and ftyp as the failed instance
  4.    The new encoder or media ingest source
        MUST be properly synced with all other running encoders
        for the same live presentation to generate synced audio/video
        samples with aligned fragment boundaries.
        This implies that UTC timestamps
        for fragments in the "tdft" match between decoders,
        and encoders start running at
        an appropriate segment boundaries.
  5.    The new stream MUST be semantically equivalent
        with the previous stream, and interchangeable
        at the header and media fragment levels.
  6.    The new encoder or media ingest source SHOULD
        try to minimize data loss. The basemediadecodetime tdft
        of media fragments SHOULD increase from the point where
        the encoder last stopped. The basemediadecodetime in the
        tdft box SHOULD increase in a continuous manner, but it
        is permissible to introduce a discontinuity, if necessary.
        Media processing entities or publishing points can ignore
        fragments that it has already received and processed, so
        it is better to error on the side of resending fragments
        than to introduce discontinuities in the media timeline.

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7. Profile 2: DASH Ingest General Considerations

   Profile 2 is designed to ingest media into entities that only
   provide pass through functionality. In this case the media
   ingest source also provides the manifest based on MPEG DASH[DASH]
   or HTTP Live Streaming [RFC8216].

   The key idea here is to reuse the fragmented MPEG-4 ingest to
   enable simulataneous ingest of DASH and HLS based on the
   fragmented MPEG-4 files using commonalities as
   described in [CMAF] which is a format based on fragmented
   MPEG-4 that can be used in both DASH and HLS presentations.

   The flow of operation in profile 2 is shown in Diagram 12. In this
   case the live ingest source (media source) sends a manifest first.
   Based on this manifest the media processing entity can setup
   reception paths for the ingest url

   In the next step segments are send in individual post requests
   using URLS corresponding to relative
   paths and segment names in the manifest.
   e.g. http://hostname/presentationpath/relative_path/segment1.cmf

   This profile re-uses as much functionality as possible from
   profile  1 as the manifest can be seen
   as a complementary addition to the
   fragmented MPEG-4 stream. A difference lies in the way
   the connection is setup and the way data is transmitted,
   which can use relative URL paths for the segments based on the
   paths in the manifest. For the rest, it largely
   uses the same fragmented MPEG-4 layer based on [ISOBMFF]
   and [CMAF].

     Mekuria & Zhang          Expires January 15 2019        [Page23]

   Diagram 12
||=====================            ============================  ||
||| live media source |            |  Media processing entity |  ||
||=====================            ============================  ||
||        ||                                     ||              ||
||===============Initial Manifest Sending========================||
||        ||                                     ||              ||
||        ||-- POST /prefix/media.mpd  -------->>||              ||
||        ||          Succes                     ||              ||
||        || <<------ 200 OK --------------------||              ||
||        ||      Permission denied              ||              ||
||        || <<------ 403 Forbidden -------------||              ||
||        ||             Bad Request             ||              ||
||        || <<------ 400 Forbidden -------------||              ||
||        ||         Unsupported Media Type      ||              ||
||        || <<-- 412 Unfulfilled Condition -----||              ||
||        ||         Unsupported Media Type      ||              ||
||        || <<------ 415 Unsupported Media -----||              ||
||        ||                                     ||              ||
||==================== Segment Sending ==========================||
||        ||-- POST /prefix/chunk.cmaf  ------->>||              ||
||        ||          Succes/Accepted            ||              ||
||        || <<------ 200 OK --------------------||              ||
||        ||          Succes/Accepted            ||              ||
||        || <<------ 202 OK --------------------||              ||
||        ||      Premission Denied              ||              ||
||        || <<------ 403 Forbidden -------------||              ||
||        ||             Bad Request             ||              ||
||        || <<------ 400 Forbidden -------------||              ||
||        ||         Unsupported Media Type      ||              ||
||        || <<------ 415 Forbidden -------------||              ||
||        ||         Unsupported Media Type      ||              ||
||        || <<-- 412 Unfulfilled Condition -----||              ||
||        ||                                     ||              ||
||        ||                                     ||              ||
||=====================            ============================  ||
||| live media source |            |  Media processing entity |  ||
||=====================            ============================  ||
||        ||                                     ||              ||

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8.  profile 2: DASH and HLS Ingest Protocol Behavior

Operation of this profile MUST also adhere
to general requirements in section 4.

8.1  General Protocol Requirements

  1. Before sending the segments
      based on fragmentedMP4Stream the live encoder/source
      MUST send a manifest [DASH]
      with the following the limitations/constraints.
   1a. Only relative URL paths to be used for each segment
   1b. Only unique paths are used for each new presentation
   1c. In case the manifest contains these relative paths,
      these paths SHOULD be used in combination with the
      POST_URL to POST each of the different segments from
      the live encoder or ingest source
      to the processing entity.
  2. The live encoder or ingest source MAY send
     updated versions of the manifest,
     this manifest cannot override current
     settings and relative paths or break currently running and
     incoming POST requests. The updated manifest can only be
     slightly different from the one that was send previously,
     e.g. introduce new segments available or event messages.
     The updated manifest SHOULD be send using a PUT request
     instead of a POST request.

  3. Following media segment requests
     POST_URLs SHOULD be corresponding to the segments listed
       in the manifest as POST_URL + relative URLs.
  4. The encoder or ingest source SHOULD use
     individual HTTP POST commands [RFC2626]
     for uploading media segments when available.

  5. In case fixed length POST Commands are used, the live source
      entity MUST resend the segment to be posted decribed
      in the manifest entirely in case of responses HTTP 400, 404
      412 or 415 together with the init segment consisting
      of "moov" and "ftyp" boxes.

  6. A persistent connection SHOULD be used for the different
        individual POST requests as defined in [RFC2626]  enabling
    re-use of the TCP connection for multiple POST requests.

8.2  Requirements for Formatting Media Tracks

    1. Media data tracks and segments MUST be formatted and delivered
       conforming  to the same requirements as stated in 6.2
    2. Media specific information SHOULD be signalled in the manifest
    3. Formatting described in manifest and media track MUST
       correspond consistently

    Mekuria & Zhang          Expires January 152019          [Page25]

8.3  Requirements for Timed Text Captions and Subtitle stream

    1. Timed Text, caption and subtitle stream tracks  MUST
       be formatted conforming to the same requirements as in 6.3
    2. Timed Text captions and subtitle specific information
       SHOULD also be signalled in the manifest
    3. Formatting described in manifest and
       media track MUST correspond consistently

8.4  Requirements for Timed Metadata

     1. Timed Metadata tracks MAY be formatted conforming
      to the same requirements as in 8.4
     2. In addition, the emsg box containing the metadata
     SHOULD also be signalled in inband in the media
     track as recommended in [CMAF]
     3. DASH event messages SHOULD also
       be signalled in the Manifest

8.4  Requirements for Media Processing Entity Failover
     1. Requirements for failover are similar as stated in 6.4
     2. In addition the live encoder source SHOULD resend the manifest
        before sending any of the other segments

8.5  Requirements for Live Media Source Failover

     1. Requirements for failover are similar as stated in 6.5
     2. In addition the live encoder source SHOULD
     resend the manifest before sending any
     of the other segments

9.  Security Considerations

   Security consideration are extremely important
   for media ingest. Retrieving media from a illicit
   source can cause inappropriate content
   to be broadcasted
   and possibly lead to failure of infrastructure.
   Basic security requirements have been covered in
   section 4.
   No security considerations except the ones mentioned
   in this part of the text are expelictly considered.
   Further security considerations will be updated
   once they have been investigated further based
   on review of this draft.

10.  IANA Considerations

  This memo includes no request to IANA.

      Mekuria & Zhang          Expires January 15 2019   [Page26]

11.  Contributors

Will Law Akamai
James Gruessing BBC R&D
Kevin Moore Amazon AWS Elemental
Kevin Johns CenturyLink
John Deutscher Microsoft
Patrick Gendron Harmonic Inc.
Nikos Kyriopoulos MediaExcel
Rufael Mekuria Unified Streaming
Sam Geqiang Microsoft
Arjen Wagenaar Unified Streaming
Dirk Griffioen Unified Streaming
Matt Poole ITV
Alex Giladi Comcast

12.  References

12.1.  Normative References

    [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

    [DASH]  MPEG ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29 WG11, "ISO/IEC 23009-1:2014:
            Dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP (DASH) -- Part 1:
            Media presentation description and segment formats," 2014.

    [SCTE-35] Society of Cable Television Engineers,
              "SCTE-35 (ANSI/SCTE 35 2013)
               Digital Program Insertion Cueing Message for Cable,"
               SCTE-35 (ANSI/SCTE 35 2013).

    [ISOBMFF] MPEG ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29 WG11, " Information technology
              -- Coding of audio-visual objects Part 12: ISO base
              media file format ISO/IEC 14496-12:2012"

    [HEVC]    MPEG ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29 WG11,
              "Information technology -- High efficiency coding
              and media delivery in heterogeneous environments
              -- Part 2: High efficiency video coding",
              ISO/IEC 23008-2:2015, 2015.

               IETF RFC 793, 1981.

    [RFC3986] R. Fielding, L. Masinter, T. Berners Lee,
              "Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax,"
               IETF RFC 3986, 2004.

    Mekuria & Zhang          Expires January 152019        [Page27]

    [RFC1035] P. Mockapetris,
              IETF RFC 1035, 1987.

    [CMAF]   MPEG ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29 WG11, "Information technology
             (MPEG-A) -- Part 19: Common media application
             format (CMAF) for segmented media,"
             MPEG, ISO/IEC International standard

    [RFC5234] D. Crocker "Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications:
              ABNF"  IETF RFC 5234 2008

    [CENC]   MPEG ISO/IEC JTC1 SC29 WG11 "Information technology --
             MPEG systems technologies -- Part 7: Common encryption
             in ISO base media file format files"
             ISO/IEC 23001-7:2016

    [MPEG-4-30] MPEG ISO/IEC JTC1 SC29 WG11
              "ISO/IEC 14496-30:2014 Information technology
              Coding of audio-visual objects -- Part 30":
              Timed text and other visual overlays in
              ISO base media file format

   [ISO639-2] ISO 639-2  "Codes for the Representation of Names
              of Languages -- Part 2 ISO 639-2:1998"

   [DVB-DASH] ETSI Digital Video Broadcasting
               "MPEG-DASH Profile for Transport of ISOBMFF
               Based DVB Services over IP Based Networks"
               ETSI TS 103 285

   [RFC7617] J Reschke "The 'Basic' HTTP Authentication Scheme"
             IETF RFC 7617 September 2015

12.2.  Informative References

    [RFC2626]  R. Fielding et al
             "Hypertext Transfer Protocol HTTP/1.1",
             RFC 2626 June 1999

    [RFC2818] E. Rescorla RFC 2818 HTTP over TLS
             IETF RFC 2818 May 2000

    [RFC8216] R. Pantos, W. May "HTTP Live Streaming", August 2018
    (last acessed)

    Mekuria & Zhang          Expires January 15   2019       [Page28]

12.3.  URL References

   [fmp4git]    Unified Streaming github fmp4 ingest,

   [MozillaTLS] Mozilla Wikie Security/Server Side TLS
                (last acessed 30th of March 2018)

    [ID3v2]      M. Nilsson  "ID3 Tag version 2.4.0 Main structure"
                November 2000 (last acessed 2nd of May 2018)

[MS-SSTR]   Smooth streaming protocol
                last updated March 16 2018 (last acessed June 11 2018)
Author's Address

   Rufael Mekuria (editor)
   Unified Streaming
   Overtoom 60 1054HK

   Phone: +31 (0)202338801
   E-Mail: rufael@unified-streaming.com

   Sam Geqiang Zhang
   E-mail: Geqiang.Zhang@microsoft.com

    Mekuria & Zhang          Expires August 1 2019         [Page29]

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