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   SIPPING                                                 T. Melanchuk
   Internet Draft                                           G. Sharratt
   Expires: February 14, 2006                                  Convedia
                                                        August 14, 2005


                   Media Objects Markup Language (MOML)
                      draft-melanchuk-sipping-moml-05

Status of this Memo

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005). All Rights Reserved.











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Abstract

   The Media Objects Markup Language (MOML) is a modular and extensible
   language to define media processing objects which execute on media
   servers. The base language defines a set of primitive media objects
   (called primitives) and provides tools to group primitives together
   and specify how they interact with each other. Clients use the base
   MOML, or extend MOML, to create precisely tailored media processing
   objects which may be used as parts of application interactions with
   users or conferences or to transform media flowing internal to a
   media server. IVR is an example of an application interaction with a
   user.







Table of Contents

   1. Introduction...................................................4
   2. Overview.......................................................5
      2.1 Primitives.................................................5
      2.2 Groups.....................................................7
      2.3 Events.....................................................9
   3. Usage with SIP................................................10
   4. Structure and Modularity......................................12
   5. <moml>........................................................14
   6. MOML Core Module..............................................14
      6.1 Elements Received by a Media Server.......................14
         6.1.1 <send>...............................................14
         6.1.2 <exit>...............................................15
         6.1.3 <disconnect>.........................................15
      6.2 Elements Sent by a Media Server...........................16
         6.2.1 <event>..............................................16
   7. Group Module..................................................16
      7.1 <group>...................................................16
      7.2 <groupexit>...............................................17
   8. Basic Primitives Module.......................................17
      8.1 <play>....................................................17
         8.1.1 Child Elements.......................................19
            8.1.1.1 <audio>.........................................19


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            8.1.1.2 <var>...........................................19
            8.1.1.3 <playexit>......................................20
      8.2 <dtmfgen>.................................................20
         8.2.1 Child Elements.......................................21
            8.2.1.1 <dtmfgenexit>...................................21
      8.3 <record>..................................................21
         8.3.1 Child Elements.......................................23
            8.3.1.1 <recordexit>....................................23
      8.4 <dtmf>....................................................23
         8.4.1 Child Elements.......................................25
            8.4.1.1 <pattern>.......................................25
            8.4.1.2 <detect>........................................25
            8.4.1.3 <noinput>.......................................25
            8.4.1.4 <nomatch>.......................................26
            8.4.1.5 <dtmfexit>......................................26
   9. Transform Primitives Module...................................26
      9.1 <vad>.....................................................26
         9.1.1 Child Elements.......................................27
            9.1.1.1 <voice>, <silence>, <tvoice>, <tsilence>........27
      9.2 <gain>....................................................27
      9.3 <agc>.....................................................28
      9.4 <gate>....................................................28
      9.5 <clamp>...................................................28
      9.6 <relay>...................................................29
   10. Speech Module................................................29
      10.1 <speech>.................................................29
         10.1.1 Child Elements......................................31
            10.1.1.1 <grammar>......................................31
            10.1.1.2 <match>........................................31
            10.1.1.3 <noinput>......................................31
            10.1.1.4 <nomatch>......................................32
            10.1.1.5 <speechexit>...................................32
      10.2 <play>...................................................32
         10.2.1 Child Elements......................................32
            10.2.1.1 <tts>..........................................32
   11. Fax Module...................................................33
      11.1 <faxdetect>..............................................33
      11.2 <faxsend>................................................33
         11.2.1 Child Elements......................................35
            11.2.1.1 <sendobj>......................................35
            11.2.1.2 <hdrfooter>....................................35
            11.2.1.3 <rxpoll>.......................................36
            11.2.1.4 <faxstart>.....................................37
            11.2.1.5 <faxnegotiate>.................................37
            11.2.1.6 <faxpagedone>..................................37
            11.2.1.7 <faxobjectdone>................................37
            11.2.1.8 <faxopcomplete>................................37
            11.2.1.9 <faxpollstarted>...............................38
      11.3 <faxrcv>.................................................38


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         11.3.1 Child Elements......................................39
            11.3.1.1 <rcvobj>.......................................39
            11.3.1.2 <txpoll>.......................................40
   12. Failure Codes................................................40
   13. Examples.....................................................41
      13.1 Announcement.............................................41
      13.2 Voice Mail Retrieval.....................................41
      13.3 Play and Record..........................................42
      13.4 Speech Recognition.......................................43
      13.5 Play and Collect.........................................44
      13.6 User Controlled Gain.....................................45
   14. Change Summary...............................................45
   15. Future Work..................................................46
   16. XML Schema...................................................47
   Security Considerations..........................................61
   References.......................................................62
   Acknowledgments..................................................63
   Authors' Addresses...............................................63
   Intellectual Property Statement..................................63
   Full Copyright Statement.........................................64
   Acknowledgement..................................................64



1. Introduction

   This document describes a markup language to configure and define
   media resource objects within a media server. The language allows the
   definition of sophisticated and complex media processing objects
   which may be used for application interactions with users, i.e. as
   part of a user dialog, or as media transformation operations. Media
   Objects Markup Language (MOML) itself does not specify a language
   suitable for constructing complete user interfaces as does VoiceXML
   [7]. Rather, it defines a language from which individual pieces of a
   dialog may be specified.

   MOML is not a standalone language but will generally be used in
   conjunction with other languages such as the Media Sessions Markup
   Language (MSML) [8] or protocols such as the Session Initiation
   Protocol (SIP). MSML is used to invoke and control many different
   services on a media server and to manipulate the flow of media
   streams within a media server. SIP is used to establish media
   sessions and there are conventions to use the SIP Request-URI to
   invoke common media server services [9].

   MOML has both a framework, which describes the composition of media
   resource objects, and the definition of an initial set of primitive
   media resource objects. The following sections describe the structure



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   and usage of MOML followed by sections defining all of the MOML XML
   elements.

   Simple media resources and their composition into more complex
   operations is a central concept of this specification. This concept
   is used to precisely define the required behaviors. It is not meant
   to imply that media servers must be implemented from the same
   building blocks used to describe the behavior.

2. Overview

   MOML is an XML [4] language for composing complex media objects from
   a vocabulary of simple media resource objects called primitives. It
   is primarily a descriptive or declarative language to describe media
   processing objects.

   MOML is intended to be used in different environments. As such, the
   language itself does not define how MOML is used. Each environment in
   which MOML is used must define how it is used, the set of services
   provided and the mechanism for passing information between the
   environment and MOML. The specific mechanisms used to realize the
   interface between MOML and its environment are platform specific.

   This specification defines using MOML with directly with SIP. The
   Media Session Markup Language [8] is an example of another
   environment which uses MOML.

   MOML may be used to simply expose primitive media resource objects
   but will be used more often to describe dialog operations and media
   transformation objects which can be controlled via user interaction.

   MOML does not contain any computation or flow control constructs.
   There are no results automatically generated when media operations
   complete. Results must be explicitly requested using a <send> or
   <exit> element within the definition of the MOML object.

2.1 Primitives

   Primitives perform a single function on a media stream such as
   generating audio, recognizing speech or DTMF, or adjusting the gain.
   They may be composed so that primitives execute concurrently.
   Primitives not composed for concurrent execution simply execute
   sequentially in the order they occur in a MOML document. All
   concurrently executing primitives in the same MOML object (defined in
   one MOML document) can interact with each other through events.

   Currently all primitives use audio media but primitives for text and
   video will be defined in a future version of this specification.



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   Primitives can roughly be considered to fall into one of three
   descriptive categories.

      o  recognizers have a media input but no output. They allow
         different things within a media stream to be recognized or
         detected and for events to be generated based upon received
         media.

      o  transformers have one media input and output and may send and
         receive events;

      o  sources and sinks generate or consume media. They have either a
         media input or a media output but not both. They may receive
         and generate events.

   Primitives may define different media processing behavior (states)
   based upon the events which they receive. Primitives which support
   different processing states must define their default starting state
   and should support the "initial" attribute to allow that state to be
   specified when the primitive is instantiated. All primitives must
   support the "terminate" event class.

   The following types of primitives are defined within this
   specification:

               Recognizers      Transformers      Source/Sink
               ----------------------------------------------
                  dtmf              agc               play
                 faxtone           clamp             record
                 speech             gain             dtmfgen
                   vad              gate             faxsend
                                   relay              faxrcv

   Primitives have shadow variables, similar to those within VoiceXML
   [7], which are automatically assigned values when the primitives are
   used. Upon initialization of a MOML context, all shadow variables
   have the string value "undefined". Each primitive has its own
   instance of shadow variables which are global in scope to the entire
   MOML context.

   Names may be assigned to individual primitives when more than one
   primitive of the same type is used within one MOML document. Shadow
   variables are overwritten if the primitive has not been named and is
   instantiated a second time.

   Shadow variables cannot be modified under user control. They may be
   returned from the MOML context using the <send> element.




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2.2 Groups

   Primitives are composed for concurrent execution by placing them
   within a <group> element. Groups define how media flows between
   multiple concurrently executing primitives. They have one or more
   inputs and one or more outputs. A <group> represents the declaration
   of a complex media processing operation. The event interaction
   between primitives (see the following sub-section) is defined within
   the context of one or more groups. However groups themselves do not
   scope events, they simply define that primitives are concurrently
   executing and a primitive must be executing in order to receive an
   event.

   Groups may be used to describe dialog commands, such as a
   play/collect or play/record. They may also be used to describe media
   objects which transform a media stream while optionally allowing
   application or user control of the transformation. For example a gain
   control could be defined which responds to user speech or DTMF input.
   In this case a recognition primitive would send events to a gain
   control primitive.

   Groups have one attribute which defines the media flow within them.
   They also have a dimension which defines how many media inputs and
   outputs they have. Currently dimensions of 1 and 2 are supported
   based upon the group topology. These correspond to a group with one
   input and one output and a group with two inputs and two outputs.

   Media flow to and from the primitives within the group is based upon
   a topology attribute of the <group> element. This differs from a
   similar mechanism in Media Policy Manipulation in the Conference
   Policy Control Protocol [3] which explicitly defined connections. The
   topology attribute defines a topology schema and implies the group
   dimension.

   There are several common ways in which primitives are often connected
   together. A schema provides a convenient template which can be
   applied to multiple primitives without having to define all of the
   individual media relationships. The following two schemas are
   initially defined for 1 dimensional groups:

      o  parallel: specifies that media sent to the group is sent to
         every primitive which has an input. The group bridges the
         output from every primitive which has an output into a single
         common group output;

      o  serial: specifies that the first primitive listed in the group
         receives the media sent to the group. Its output is to be
         connected to the input of the next primitive defined within the



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         group and so on until the last primitive within the group which
         becomes the group output.

   Groups with these topologies are shown in the two diagrams below. The
   group on the left has a parallel topology and that on the right has a
   serial topology.

           /-> P1 --\
          /          \
   G(in) +---> P2 ----> G(out)     G(in) --> P1 --> P2 --> P3 --> G(out)
          \          /
           \-> P3 --/

   More complex media flows may be created by nesting groups of serial
   and parallel topologies within each other. For example, the diagram
   below has a group with a serial topology nested within a star
   topology.

                  /-----> P1 ------------------------\
                 /                                    \
         Gs(in) +-> Gp(in) --> P2 --> P3 --> Gp(out) -+> Gs(out)

   This combination could be used to create record operation where DTMF
   was to be clamped from the recording itself, but a DTMF key press is
   still used to stop the recording. In this case, P1 would be a DTMF
   recognizer, P2 would be a clamp primitive, and P3 a recorder as shown
   by the following example. This example omits child elements and
   attributes not concerned with the core concept. The following section
   discusses sending events and the details of each of the primitives is
   defined in section 4.

   <group topology="parallel">
      <dtmf/>
      <group topology="serial">
         <clamp/>
         <record/>
      </group>
   </group>

   A single schema, "fullduplex" is defined for a two dimensional group.
   A full-duplex two dimensional group is has exactly two immediate
   children. Those children may be primitives or other one dimensional
   groups. A "fullduplex" group must only be used as the top most group
   and must not be nested. Each primitive (P1) and group (G2) becomes
   half of the full-duplex group as shown in the diagram below.

                  G-A(in1) +-> G2 --> G-B(out1)

                 G-A(out2) <-- P1 <-+ G-B(in2)


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   Full duplex groups are symmetrical when both halves are the same.
   They are asymmetrical when they differ. Asymmetric groups need to
   have a name associated with each side. The left side is defined as
   the input of the first child of the full-duplex group combined with
   the output of the second child. The right side is reverse. These
   sides were labeled A and B respectively in the preceding diagram.

   An example of a full-duplex group is the user operated gain control
   mentioned at the beginning of this sub-section. The gain should
   operate on the audio which a user hears, but the gain is controlled
   by recognizing things such as DTMF or spoken commands in media which
   the user originates. The following shows the XML tag grouping which
   would accomplish this and corresponds to the media flow shown in the
   diagram above. If the user's audio is not required for anything other
   than control of the gain, then the <relay> is not required and the
   internal group could be omitted. A complete XML description for this
   is included in the examples section.

   <group topology="fullduplex">
      <group topology="parallel">
         <dtmf/>
         <relay/>
      </group>
      <gain/>
   </group>

   It is expected that additional topology schemas together with methods
   to allow media flow to be explicitly defined will be developed in a
   future version of this specification.

   Primitives within a group begin concurrently but may finish
   asynchronously based upon events which they receive or their task
   completes. A group terminates when all of the primitives within it
   have completed. If the group contains a <groupexit> element, then the
   contents of that element are executed as part of group termination.

   A group itself may receive a terminate event requesting termination.
   A terminate event sent to the group causes a terminate event to be
   sent to each of its currently active primitives. The <groupexit>
   element is not executed until all primitives have processed their
   respective terminate events.

2.3 Events

   Events provide the mechanism for primitives to interact with each
   other and for a MOML context to interact with its external
   environment. The external environment is defined by the way in which
   a MOML context has been invoked. This will often be through MSML but
   other languages and protocols such as SIP may also be used.


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   Every primitive and group conceptually implements their own event
   queue. Events sent to them get placed into their associated queue.
   Events are removed from their queues and processed in order.
   Primitives within a group conceptually have their own thread of
   execution. Due to the asynchronous nature of servicing events from
   multiple queues, it cannot be assumed that several events sent in
   sequence to different queues, will be processed in the order in which
   they were sent. For example, if recognition of something led to
   sending events to both a <play> and a <record> in that order, it is
   possible that the <record> may process its event before the <play>

   Primitives each define the set of events which they support and the
   behavior associated with their handling of each event. This allow
   many types of behaviors to be defined. For example, VCR type controls
   can be constructed by defining primitives which support events
   corresponding to each control. Media recognition/detection can be
   used to cause those events to be generated.

   Alternatively, events can be originated elsewhere, such as from an
   application server, and simply received by the primitive implementing
   the control. Examples of the use of events include adjusting volume
   (gain) and pause and resume of both announcement playout and record
   creation.

   Primitives act on events based upon the longest match of an event
   name. Event names are a period '.' delimited sequence of tokens. The
   first token, or the root of the name, can be considered an event
   class. Matching allows a standard meaning to be defined and then
   extended based upon what triggers an event's generation. For example,
   a record primitive has different behavior depending upon whether it
   completed because a user stopped speaking or because it was
   cancelled. The recording is retained in the first case but not the
   second.

   Longest match allows new recognizers to be created and used without
   changing how existing primitives are defined. For example, a face
   recognition capability could be created which generates a
   terminate.frowning event when a user looks puzzled. Although no
   primitive directly defines this event, it will still effect a generic
   terminate action. Primitives which require specialized behavior based
   upon frowning may be extended to support this. As well, the event can
   still be exported from the MOML context without requiring that
   primitives receiving the event understand facial expressions.

3. Usage with SIP

   MOML may be used directly with SIP for IVR or fax dialog
   interactions. It can be initially invoked as part of the "Prompt and
   Collect" service described in "Basic Network Media Services with SIP"


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   [9]. That defines service indicators for a small number of well
   defined services using the user part of the SIP Request-URI (R-URI).

   The prompt and collect service uses "dialog" as the service
   indicator. URI parameters further refine the specific IVR request.
   This document defines an additional parameter "moml-param" for the
   dialog service indicator as follows:

   dialog-parameters = ";" ( dialog-param [ vxml-parameters ] )
                           | moml-param
   dialog-param      = "voicexml=" dialog-url
   moml-param        = "moml=" moml-url

   There are no additional URI parameters when MOML is used as the
   dialog language.

   MOML defines discrete IVR dialog commands. These commands may be
   included directly in the body of the INVITE to the "dialog" service
   indicator by using the "cid" [12] URL scheme. This scheme identifies
   a message body part which in this case would contain the MOML
   command. Note that a multipart message body, containing a single
   part, is required even if the INVITE does not contain an SDP offer.
   Subsequent MOML requests are sent in the body of SIP INFO messages as
   are all messages from a media server.

   An example of SIP URI as described above is:

      sip:dialog@mediaserver.example.net;\
          moml=cid:14864099865376@appserver.example.net

   The body part that contained the MOML referenced by the URL would
   have a Content-Id header of:

      Content-Id: <14864099865376@appserver.example.net>

   The results of executing an <exit> or <disconnect>, or of executing a
   <send> which has a "target" attribute value equal to "source", are
   notified in SIP INFO messages using the <event> element. No messages
   are sent if execution completes normally without executing one of
   these elements.

   If there is an error during validation or execution, then a media
   server must notify the error as described above and must include the
   namelist items "moml.error.status" and "moml.error.description". The
   values for these items are defined in section 12.

   A restricted subset of MOML can also be used with the "Announcement"
   service defined in [9]. This service uses "ann" as the service
   indicator and defines parameters that describe an announcement. The


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   "play=" parameter identifies the URL of a prompt or a provisioned
   announcement sequence. The value of the "play=" parameter can refer
   to a MOML body part using a "cid" URL as described above. That body
   part must only contain the <play> primitive.

   Using MOML enhances the announcement service by allowing the client
   to specify a sequence of audio segments rather than requiring each
   sequence to be provisioned. Moreover, MOML defines a standard set of
   variables in contrast to [9] which defines a parameterization
   mechanism but does not formally specify any semantics.

   If a media server does not understand the "cid" scheme or does not
   understand MOML, it must respond with the SIP response code "488 -
   not acceptable here". If the MOML body contains elements other than
   the <play> primitive, or there are errors during validation, a media
   server must respond with a SIP response code "400 - bad request".
   Finally, if there is a discrepancy between parameters specified in
   the Request-URI and corresponding attributes defined in the MOML
   body, the Request-URI parameters must be silently ignored.

   Using MOML does not change the operation of the announcement service
   from that defined in [9]. When the announcement completes, a media
   server issues a SIP BYE request. The INFO method is not used with the
   announcement service.

4. Structure and Modularity

   MOML is designed to be a modular language. Defining the language in
   terms of modules allows different vendors and communities to choose a
   specific language subset, or define different language extensions,
   for achieving a wide range of applications across a diverse set of
   platforms. Modularity combined with namespaces allow independent
   development of new extensions.

   MOML is structured as a set of modules. Only a single module is
   required. That simple core module, moml-core-module, defines a MOML
   request to a media server. It consists of the "primitive"
   abstraction, an abstract element for control flow, the sequential
   execution model, and the <send> element. That is, the core module
   allows for the execution of a sequence of one or more media
   processing primitives with the ability to notify events to the
   invocation environment.

   Primitives are divided into four modules. The first, moml-basic-
   primitives, defines the basic <play>, <record>, <dtmf>, and <vad>
   elements. Another module, moml-transform-primitives, defines the
   simple half duplex filters. More advanced primitives are defined in
   the speech and fax modules. The speech module depends on the play
   module as it extends the capability of <play> by adding synthesized


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   speech. Finally, the group execution model, which is currently the
   only element which changes the flow of control is defined in a
   separate module. All of these module are optional although at least
   one primitive module is required to have a functional implementation.

   The formal process for defining extensions to MOML is to define a new
   module. The new module must provide a text description of what
   extensions are included and how they work. It must also define an XML
   schema file (if applicable) that defines the new module (which may be
   through extension or restriction of an existing module). Dependencies
   upon other modules must be stated. For example a module that extends
   or restricts has a dependency on the original. Finally, the new
   module must be assigned a unique name and version.

   The types of things which can be defined in new modules are:

      o  new primitives

      o  extensions to existing primitives (events, shadow variables,
         attributes, content)

      o  new recognition grammars for existing primitives

      o  new markup languages for speech generation

      o  languages for specifying a topology schema

      o  new pre-defined topology schemas

      o  new variables / segment types (sets & languages)

      o  new control flow elements

   Modules are assembled together to form a specific MOML profile that
   is shared between different implementations. The base MOML profile
   which is defined in this documents consists of the moml-core, group,
   and basic and transform primitives modules. Speech and facsimile are
   examples of optional modules which extend the base language.

   Modules which define primitives must define the following for each
   primitive within the module:

      o  the function which the primitive performs

      o  the attributes which may be used to tailor its behavior

      o  the events which it is capable of understanding




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      o  the shadow variables which provide access to information
         determined as a result of the primitive's operation.

   The mechanism used to insure that a media server and its client share
   a compatible set of modules is not defined. Currently it is expected
   that provisioning will be used, possibly coupled with a future
   auditing capability. Additionally, when used in SIP networks, modules
   could be defined using feature tags and the procedures defined for
   Indicating User Agent Capabilities in SIP [2] used to allow a media
   server to describe its capabilities to other user agents and its
   domain registrar.

5. <moml>

   The root element for MOML. The contents of this element describe
   either a complete execution context for a media resource object or
   the event to be notified to a MOML client.

      Attributes:

         version: "1.0" Mandatory.

         id: an identifier unique to this object. Events returned from
         MOML (the "target" attribute of a <send> is equal to "source")
         will be correlated with this identifier. Mandatory.

      Events:

         terminate: terminates the MOML context. A terminate event gets
         sent to the currently executing <group> or primitive.

6. MOML Core Module

   The core module defines the structural framework and abstractions for
   MOML (via its schema). It also defines the basic elements which are
   not part of the core primitive or control abstractions. These
   elements are defined below.

6.1 Elements Received by a Media Server

6.1.1 <send>

   Sends an event and optional namelist to the recipient identified by
   the target attribute. Event names are defined by the recipient. In
   the case where the recipient is a MOML group or primitive, the events
   are defined within this document. Other recipients may use names that
   are suitable for their environment.




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   The "target" attribute specifies the recipient of the event.
   Recipients may be other MOML primitives or groups executing within
   the object, the object itself, or the environment which invoked MOML.
   Any target which is unknown within the object is assumed to be
   destined to the external environment. By convention, the string
   "source" is used to address that environment but any target name
   distinct from the MOML namespace may be used.

      Attributes:

         event: the name of an event.

         target: the recipient of the event. The recipient may be a MOML
         primitive, the currently executing group, or the MOML
         environment. A primitive is specified by a primitive type,
         optionally appended by a period '.' followed by the identifier
         of a primitive. Identifiers are only needed when more than one
         primitive of the same type exists in the object. The executing
         group is specified using the token "group". The environment is
         specified using the token "source", optionally appended by a
         period '.' followed by any environment specific target.

         namelist: a list of zero or more shadow variables which are
         included with the event.

6.1.2 <exit>

   Exit causes execution of the MOML object to terminate.

      Attributes:

         namelist: a list of one or more shadow variables which may
         optionally be sent to the context which invoked the MOML
         object.

6.1.3 <disconnect>

   Disconnect is similar to <exit> but has the additional semantics of
   indicating to the context which invoked the MOML object, that it
   should disconnect from a media server, the media stream associated
   with the object. The method of disconnection depends upon how the
   media stream was initially established. If SIP was used, a
   <disconnect> would cause a media server to issue a BYE request. The
   request would be sent for the SIP dialog associated with media
   session on which the MOML object was operating.

      Attributes:




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         namelist: a list of one or more shadow variables which may
         optionally be sent to the context which invoked the MOML
         object.

6.2 Elements Sent by a Media Server

6.2.1 <event>

   The <event> element is used to describe an event and its associated
   namelist when MOML is used as a standalone dialog language such as
   with SIP. Events are generated and formatted when a <send>, <exit>,
   or <disconnect> is executed.

      attributes:

         name: the type of event. If the event is generated because of
         the execution of a <send>, the value must be the value of the
         "event" attribute from the <send> element. If the event is
         generated because of the execution of an <exit>, the value must
         be "moml.exit". If the event is generated because of the
         execution of a <disconnect>, the value must be
         "moml.disconnect". If the even is generated because of an
         error, the value must be "moml.error". Mandatory.

         id: the identifier of the MOML object generating the event.
         Mandatory.

   <event> has two children, <name> and <value>, which contain the name
   and value respectively of each namelist item associated with the
   event.

7. Group Module

   The group module defines a single control flow construct that
   specifies concurrent execution. Future modules may define additional
   flow control constructs.

7.1 <group>

   The <group> element allows the contained primitives to be executed
   concurrently.

      Attributes:

         topology: specifies a schema which defines the flow of media
         within the group. Three schemas are initially defined.
         "fullduplex" is specified for use with two dimensional groups.
         "parallel" and "serial" are for use with one dimensional



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         groups. The definition of these topologies is defined in
         section 2. Mandatory.

         id: identifies name of the group. Mandatory when groups are
         nested.

      Events:

         terminate: causes a terminate event to be sent to each element
         contained within the group.

7.2 <groupexit>

   The <groupexit> element allows events to be sent when group
   processing completes. Group processing completes when all contained
   primitives terminate.

      Attributes:

         none

      Events:

         none

8. Basic Primitives Module

   Subsections of a primitive define child elements of that primitive
   and are not themselves considered primitives. They do not receive
   events or populate shadow variables.

8.1 <play>

   Play is used to generate an audio stream. It plays in sequence the
   media created by the child media elements <audio>, <tts>, and <var>.
   When the play stops, either because the terminate event is received
   or all media generation has completed, the <playexit> element, if
   present, is executed. At least one media generation element must be
   present.

   Play supports two states; generate and suspend. Media generation
   occurs in the generate state and is suspended in the suspend state.
   Once in the suspend state, media generation continues upon receiving
   the generate event. The default initial state is generate.

   Audio may be generated in different languages by specifying the
   xml:lang attribute for <play> and/or the child elements of <play>.
   The language is inherited by the child elements but each child can
   specify its own language. Except for physical audio clips, it is an


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   error if a language is specified but the media server can not render
   the audio in the requested language.

      Attributes:

         id: an optional identifier which may be referenced elsewhere
         for sending events to the play primitive.

         interval: specifies the delay between stopping one iteration
         and beginning another. The attribute has no effect if
         iterations is not also specified. Default is no interval.

         iterate: specifies the number of times the media specified by
         the child media elements should be played. Defaults to once
         '1'.

         initial: defines the initial state for the play element.
         Default is "generate".

         maxtime: defines the maximum allowed time for the <play> to
         complete.

         offset: defines an offset, measured in units of time, where the
         <play> is to begin media generation. Offset is only valid when
         all child media elements are <audio>.

         skip: an amount, expressed in time, which will be used to skip
         through the media when "forward" and "backward" events are
         received. Default is 3s (three seconds).

         xml:lang: specifies the language to use for content which can
         be rendered in different languages.

      Events:

         pause: causes the play to enter the suspend state.

         resume: causes play to enter the generate state.

         forward: skips forward through the media. Only has effect when
         all child media elements are <audio>.

         backward: skips backward through the media. Only has effect
         when all child media elements are <audio>.

         restart: skips to the beginning of the media. Only has effect
         when all child media elements are <audio>.

         toggle-state: causes the suspend / generate state to toggle.


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         terminate: terminates the play and assigns values to the shadow
         variables.

      Shadow Variables:

         play.amt: identifies the length of time for which media was
         generated before the play was stopped. This does not include
         time which may have elapsed while the play was in the suspend
         state.

         play.end: contains the event which caused the play to stop.
         When the play stops because all media generation has completed,
         end is assigned the value "play.complete".

8.1.1 Child Elements

8.1.1.1 <audio>

   Identifies pre-recorded audio to play. Local URI references may
   resolve to a single physical audio clip, a logical clip, or a
   provisioned sequence of clips (physical or logical). A logical clip
   is one which can be rendered differently based on the language
   attribute. Logical clips are provisioned for each of the languages
   that a media server supports. Remote URI references are resolved
   according to the capabilities of the remote server.

      Attributes:

         uri: Identifies the location of the audio to be played. The
         file and http schemes are supported.

         iterate: specifies the number of times the audio is to be
         played. Defaults to once '1'.

         xml:lang: specifies the language to use when the URI identifies
         a logical clip, either directly, or as part of a sequence.

8.1.1.2 <var>

   Specifies the generation of audio from a variable using prerecorded
   audio segments. A variable represents a semantic concept (such as
   date or number) and dynamically produces the appropriate speech.

   Prerecorded audio allows an application vendor or service provider to
   choose the exact voice for their audio and therefore completely
   control the "sound and feel" of the service provided to end users. It
   provides very high audio quality and allows the variables to blend
   seamlessly into the surrounding audio segments.



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   Text to speech (TTS) using SSML may also be used to render variables,
   but may not provide as good quality, or allow as complete control of
   the "sound and feel" or user experience. TTS is normally used for
   reading text such as emails and for very large vocabularies such as
   stock names. TTS results in a very clear difference between the
   variables and the surrounding audio segments.

      Attributes:

         type: specifies the type of variable. Mandatory. Variable type
         must be one of "date", "digits", "duration", "month", "money",
         "number", "silence", "time", or "weekday".

         subtype: specifies an optional clarification of type. Specific
         values depend upon the type.

         value: text which should be rendered appropriate to the type
         and subtype attributes.

         xml:lang: specifies the language to use when rendering the
         variable.

8.1.1.3 <playexit>

   The <playexit> element is invoked when generation of all content of
   the <play> has come to completion. The contents of this element may
   be used to send events.

      Attributes:

         none

8.2 <dtmfgen>

   DTMF generator originates one or more DTMF digits in sequence.

      Attributes:

         id: an optional identifier which may be referenced elsewhere
         for sending events to the dtmfgen primitive.

         digits: A string of characters from the alphabet "0-9a-d#*"
         which correspond to a sequence of DTMF tones. Mandatory.

         level: used to define the power level for which the tones will
         be generated. Expressed in dBm0 in a range of 0 to -96 dBm0.
         Larger negative values express lower power levels. Note that
         values lower than -55 dBm0 will be rejected by most receivers
         (TR-TSY-000181, ITU-T Q.24A). Default is -6 dBm0.


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         dur: the duration in milliseconds for which each tone should be
         generated. Implementations may round the value if they only
         support discrete durations. Default 100 ms.

         interval: the duration in milliseconds of a silence interval
         following each generated tone. Implementations may round the
         value if they only support discrete durations. Default 100 ms.

      Events:

         terminate: terminates DTMF generation and assigns values to the
         shadow variables.

      Shadow Variables:

         dtmfgen.end: contains the event which caused DTMF generation to
         stop.

8.2.1 Child Elements

8.2.1.1 <dtmfgenexit>

   The <dtmfgenexit> element is invoked when the DTMF generation
   operation completes or is terminated as a result of receiving the
   terminate event. The <dtmfgenexit> element may be used to send events
   when the recording has completed.

      Attributes:

         none

8.3 <record>

   Record creates a recording. Similar to play, <record> supports two
   states; create and suspend. Received media becomes part of the
   recording when <record> is in the create state and is discarded when
   it is in the suspend state.

   Recording terminates when a terminate event is received or when a
   nospeech event is received and no audio has yet been recorded.
   <record> differentiates different types of terminate events.

      Attributes:

         id: an optional identifier which may be referenced elsewhere
         for sending events to the record primitive.

         append: a boolean which defines whether the recording is
         allowed to be appended to an existing file if dest already


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         exists. Default is "false". The attribute is ignored if the
         scheme is http.

         dest: the destination for the recording. Recording may be
         either local or external based upon the attribute value.
         Currently the file and http schemes are supported.

         format: defines the encoding and file type of the recording.

         initial: defines the initial state for the record element.
         Default is "create".

         maxtime: defines the maximum length of the recording in units
         of time.

      Events:

         pause: causes the record to enter the suspend state. Received
         media is discarded.

         resume: causes record to resume if it was suspended. It has no
         effect otherwise.

         toggle-state: causes the suspend / create state to toggle.

         terminate: terminates the recording and assigns values to the
         shadow variables.

         terminate.cancelled: terminates the recording and assigns
         values to the shadow variables. If the dest attribute used the
         file  scheme, the local recording is deleted. Applications are
         responsible for removing external files created using the http
         scheme.

         terminate.finalsilence: terminates the recording and assigns
         values to the shadow variables. If the dest attribute used the
         file scheme, the final silence is removed from the recording.

         nospeech: terminates the recording and assigns values to the
         shadow variables if it is received and no recording has yet
         been created. The "nospeech" event is ignored if audio has
         already been recorded.

      Shadow Variables:

         record.len: the actual length of the recording measured in
         units of time. This does not include time which may have
         elapsed while the record was in the suspend state.



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         record.end: contains the event which caused the record to
         terminate. When the record terminates because maxtime is
         exceeded, end is assigned the value "record.timeexceeded".

8.3.1 Child Elements

8.3.1.1 <recordexit>

   The <recordexit> element is invoked when the record operation
   completes or when the recording is terminated as a result of
   receiving the terminate event. The <recordexit> element may be used
   to send events when the recording has completed.

      Attributes:

         none

8.4 <dtmf>

   DTMF input fulfils several roles within MOML. It is used to trigger
   events which will affect the media processing operation of other
   primitives. It is also used to collect DTMF digits from a media
   stream which are to be reported back to the user of MOML. Often DTMF
   detection is used for both purposes. Barge is the most common
   example, where a prompt is stopped based upon DTMF input but more
   digits may remain to be collected.

   DTMF detection supports multiple simultaneous recognition patterns.
   Different patterns can be used to trigger sending different events in
   order to implement DTMF controls. Alternatively one pattern may be
   used to represent a collection and another pattern, a substring of
   the first, used as a barge indication.

   Note that all patterns share the same digit collection buffer, inter-
   digit timing, a single <nomatch> element, and a single <noinput>
   element. As such, multiple patterns may not be suitable to support
   simultaneous collections for different purposes. When this is
   required, separate <dtmf> elements should be used instead.

   <dtmf> terminates if any of the <pattern>, <noinput>, or <nomatch>
   elements are matched the maximum number of times that they are
   allowed. The number of times they may match may be specified as an
   attribute of <dtmf> or of the individual child elements.

      Attributes:

         cleardb: a boolean indication of whether the buffer for digit
         collection should be cleared of any collected digits when the
         element is instantiated. If set to false, any digits currently


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         in the buffer are immediately compared against the pattern
         elements.

         fdt: defines the first-digit timer value. The first-digit timer
         is started when DTMF detection is initially invoked. If no DTMF
         digits are detected during this initial interval, the <noinput>
         element is invoked.

         idt: defines the inter-digit timer to be used when digits are
         being collected. When specified, the timers is started when the
         first digit is detected and restarted on each subsequent digit.
         Timer expiration is applied to all patterns. After that, if any
         patterns remain active and a nomatch element is specified, the
         nomatch is executed and DTMF input terminates. The idt
         attribute should only be used when digit collection is being
         performed. No default.

         starttimer: boolean value which defines whether the first digit
         timer (fdt) is started initially. When set to false, the
         starttimer event must be received for it to start. Default
         false.

         iterate: specifies the number of times the <pattern>,
         <noinput>, and <nomatch> elements may be executed unless those
         elements specify differently. The value "forever" may be used
         to indicate that these may be executed any number of times.
         Default is once '1'.

      Events:

         starttimer: starts the first digit timer (fdt) if it has not
         already been started. Has no effect otherwise.

         terminate: terminates the DTMF input and assigns values to the
         shadow variables.

      Shadow Variables:

         dtmf.digits: the string of DTMF digits which have been received
         (the contents of the digit buffer).

         dtmf.len: the number of digits in the digit buffer.

         dtmf.last: the last digit in the digit buffer.

         dtmf.end: contains the event which caused the <dtmf> to
         terminate or is assigned one of "dtmf.match", "dtmf.noinput",
         or "dtmf.nomatch" depending upon which of the corresponding
         elements reached its maximum.


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8.4.1 Child Elements

8.4.1.1 <pattern>

   The pattern element describes one or more DTMF digits that are to be
   recognized. When the pattern is matched, the child elements are
   executed.

      Attributes:

         digits: The digit pattern which should be matched.

         format: an enumerated value which defines the format used to
         express the digit pattern. The format may be "mgcp" or "megaco"
         for patterns expressed as digit map from those specifications,
         or as one of the simple built-in formats defined within this
         specification. Currently, a single built-in format
         "moml+digits" is defined which allows a match based on either
         one or more specific digits, or based upon a specific length
         specification with an optional return key. "moml+digits" is the
         default.

         iterate: specifies the number of times the <pattern> may be
         matched. The value "forever" may be used to indicate that
         <pattern> may be matched any number of times. This value
         overrides any specified in <dtmf>. Default is once '1'.

8.4.1.2 <detect>

   The contents of the <detect> element are executed whenever any DTMF
   is first detected. It may be matched at most once.

      Attributes:

         none

8.4.1.3 <noinput>

   The <noinput> element is used when DTMF is being collected. Children
   of the <noinput> element are executed when DTMF has not been detected
   and the first digit timeout occurs.

      Attributes:

         iterate: specifies the number of times the <noinput> may be
         triggered. The value "forever" may be used to indicate that
         <noinput> may be triggered any number of times. This value
         overrides any specified in <dtmf>. Default is once '1'.



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8.4.1.4 <nomatch>

   The <nomatch> element is used when DTMF is being collected. Children
   of the <nomatch> element are executed when it is determined that none
   of the individual patterns can be matched.

      Attributes:

         iterate: specifies the number of times the <nomatch> may be
         triggered. The value "forever" may be used to indicate that
         <nomatch> may be triggered any number of times. This value
         overrides any specified in <dtmf>. Default is once '1'.

8.4.1.5 <dtmfexit>

   The <dtmfexit> element is invoked when the dtmf input completes
   because one of <pattern>, <noinput>, or <nomatch> occurred its
   maximum number of times.

      Attributes:

         none

9. Transform Primitives Module

   The transform primitives module gathers together the simple
   primitives which work as filters on half duplex media streams.

9.1 <vad>

   this is not a transform primitive but i'm not sure where it should go

   Voice activity detection (VAD) is used to detect voice and silence
   when speech recognition is not required. Similar to both speech and
   DTMF, a VAD has different media conditions which it can match. Those
   conditions can be qualified by a minimum length of time which is
   required for them to be considered recognized.

      Attributes:

         starttimer: boolean value which defines whether the timer is
         started to allow recognition of the initial condition (voice,
         silence). When set to false, the starttimer event must be
         received in order for the initial condition to be recognized.
         The timer does not affect recognition of the transition
         conditions. Default false.

      Events:



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         starttimer: starts the timer to allow recognition of the
         initial condition if it has not already been started. Has no
         effect otherwise.

         terminate: terminates voice activity detection.

      Shadow Variables:

         none

9.1.1 Child Elements

9.1.1.1 <voice>, <silence>, <tvoice>, <tsilence>

   Each child element corresponds to a condition which a VAD can detect.
   The first two detect when voice or silence has been initially present
   for a minimum length of time since the VAD was started. The second
   two require that a transition to the voice or silence condition first
   occur.

      Attributes:

         len: the length of time the condition must persist in order to
         be recognized. In the case of <tvoice> and <tsilence>, the
         length of time applies only to the final recognized condition.

         sen: the maximum length of time the condition not being
         detected may occur without causing the detector to begin
         measuring that condition.

9.2 <gain>

   Gain is used to adjust of the gain of a media stream by a specific
   amount.

      attributes:

         incr: an increment, expressed in dB, which will be used to
         adjust the gain when "louder" and "softer" events are received.
         Default is 3 dB.

         amt: a specific gain to apply specified in dB.

      events:

         mute: self explanatory.

         unmute: self explanatory.



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         reset: sets the gain to zero dB.

         louder: makes the audio on a stream louder.

         softer: makes the audio on a stream quieter.

         amt: sets the gain to the specified value between -96 dB and 9
         dB.

9.3 <agc>

   Automatic gain control is used to have a media server automatically
   adjust the gain of a media stream.

      attributes:

         tgtlvl: the desired target level for AGC specified in dBm0.

         maxgain: the maximum gain that AGC will apply specified in dB.

      events:

         mute: self explanatory.

         unmute: self explanatory.

9.4 <gate>

   A simple filter which will pass or halt media, regardless of the
   format of the media stream, based on the events it receives. <gate>
   shares the same mute and unmute events for compatibility with the
   gain primitives <gain> and <agc>.

      attributes:

         initial: the values "pass" and "halt" define whether media is
         initially allowed to pass. Default is to pass.

      events:

         mute: halts media flow through the primitive.

         unmute: allows media to pass through the primitive.

9.5 <clamp>

   This element is used to filter DTMF tones from a media stream. Media
   other than DTMF tones is passed unchanged.



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      attributes:

         none.

      events:

         none.

9.6 <relay>

   This element is a simple primitive which copies its input to its
   output.

      attributes:

         none.

      events:

         none.

10. Speech Module

   The speech module defines a standalone primitive for automatic speech
   recognition <speech> and extends the <play> primitive defined in the
   basic primitives module to include speech synthesis. As such, this
   module depends on the basic primitives module.

10.1 <speech>

   Activates grammars or user input rules associated with speech
   recognition. If multiple grammars are specified, all are activated.
   All active grammars share the same timers, recognition attributes,
   and <noinput> and <nomatch> elements. Each grammar may have its own
   <match> element.

   <speech> terminates if any of the <grammar>, <noinput>, or <nomatch>
   elements are matched the maximum number of times that they are
   allowed. The number of times they may match may be specified as an
   attribute of <speech> or of the individual child elements.

      Attributes:

         noint: specifies a time period during which speech input must
         be started, otherwise the associated <noinput> element is
         invoked.





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         norect: specifies a maximum time period during in which speech
         must begin to be matched, otherwise the associated <nomatch>
         element is invoked.

         spcmplt: specifies the length of silence necessary after speech
         before a result will be finalized in the case where there is a
         complete match of an active grammar. Following the silence, the
         appropriate <match> element will be triggered if the result is
         above the confidence level. Otherwise a <nomatch> element will
         be triggered.

         spincmplt: specifies the length of silence necessary after
         speech before a result will be finalized in the case where
         there is a incomplete match of all active grammars. Following
         the silence, the <nomatch> element will be triggered.

         confidence: the minimum confidence level which the recognizer
         must have to consider a recognition result as matching a
         grammar. Expressed as an integer between 1-100.

         sens: specifies the sensitivity of the recognizer to determine
         whether speech is present. Lower sensitivity may be required
         for the recognizer to work well in the presence of high
         background noise or line echo.

         starttimer: boolean value which defines whether the no input
         (noint) and no recognition (norect) are started initially. When
         set to false, the starttimer event must be received in order to
         start them. Default false.

         iterate: specifies the number of times the <grammar>,
         <noinput>, and <nomatch> elements may be executed unless those
         elements specify differently. The value "forever" may be used
         to indicate that these may be executed any number of times.
         Default is once '1'.

      Events:

         sens: sets the sensitivity of the recognizer as described
         above.

         starttimer: starts the no input (noint) and no recognition
         (norect) timers if they have not already been started. Has no
         effect otherwise.

         terminate: terminates the speech input and assigns values to
         the shadow variables.

      Shadow Variables:


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         speech.end: contains the event which caused the <speech> to
         terminate or is assigned one of "speech.match",
         "speech.noinput", or "speech.nomatch" depending upon which of
         the corresponding elements reached its maximum.

         speech.results: contains the results of a matched grammar. The
         results are formatted using the Natural Language Semantics
         Markup Language (NLSML) [6]. When this variable is referenced
         to return results, the results are returned as a separate MIME
         entity.

10.1.1 Child Elements

10.1.1.1 <grammar>

   Specifies and activates a speech grammar based on Speech Recognition
   Grammar Specification (SRGS) [5] XML notation. Grammars may be
   referenced by a URI or defined inline. Child elements of <match> are
   executed when the specified speech grammar is matched.

      Attributes:

         uri: specifies the location of an SRGS grammar when the grammar
         is not defined inline.

         iterate: specifies the number of times the <grammar> may be
         matched. The value "forever" may be used to indicate that
         <grammar> may be matched any number of times. This value
         overrides any specified in <speech>. Default is once '1'.

10.1.1.2 <match>

   <match> is a child of <grammar> and specifies the actions to take
   when the corresponding grammar is matched.

10.1.1.3 <noinput>

   The <noinput> element is used when speech is being recognized.
   Children of the <noinput> element are executed when speech has not
   been detected and the no input timeout (noint) occurs.

      Attributes:

         iterate: specifies the number of times the <noinput> may be
         triggered. The value "forever" may be used to indicate that
         <noinput> may be triggered any number of times. This value
         overrides any specified in <speech>. Default is once '1'.




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10.1.1.4 <nomatch>

   The <nomatch> element is used when speech is being recognized.
   Children of the <nomatch> element are executed when it is determined
   that none of the active grammars will match.

      Attributes:

         iterate: specifies the maximum number of times the <nomatch>
         may be triggered. The value "forever" may be used to indicate
         that <nomatch> may be triggered any number of times. This value
         overrides any specified in <speech>. Default is once '1'.

10.1.1.5 <speechexit>

   The <speechexit> element is invoked when the speech input completes
   because one of <grammar>, <noinput>, or <nomatch> occurred its
   maximum number of times.

      Attributes:

         none

10.2 <play>

   The <play> element, as defined in the basic primitives module, is
   extended with a new child element for synthesizing speech. From an
   XML perspective, <tts> is a member of a media substitution group. See
   the schema at the end of this document for details.

10.2.1 Child Elements

10.2.1.1 <tts>

   Contents of the <tts> element are rendered using Text To Speech
   services and must be compliant to the SSML specification. Element
   content may be plain text, contain the SSML <speak> element, or the
   uri attribute should identify the location of text to be rendered.

      Attributes:

         uri: Identifies the location of the text to be rendered. The
         file and http schemes are supported.

         iterate: specifies the number of times the text to speech block
         is to be rendered. Defaults to once '1'.

         xml:lang: specifies the language to use when it is not
         explicitly specified as an attribute for <speak>.


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11. Fax Module

   The fax module defines primitives which allow a media server to
   provide facsimile services.

11.1 <faxdetect>

   Fax tone detection is used to detect the presence of the T.30 CNG
   tone in a media stream. Child elements of <faxtone> are executed when
   the CNG tone is detected.

      Attributes:

         none

11.2 <faxsend>

   The <faxsend> primitive provides the functionality of a calling fax
   terminal. This typically means sending a set of pages. However, it
   can also mean requesting the called terminal to send pages instead
   of, or in addition to, sending pages. The fax images to send are
   defined by the <sendobj> elements, described below.

   Requesting the called terminal to send pages happens when the
   <rxpoll> element is included as part of <faxsend>. This element may
   be included in addition to, or instead of, the <sendobj> element. One
   <sendobj> (at a minimum) or <rxpoll> element must be present. When
   both are present, a media server will first send pages and will then
   poll the other terminal, requesting pages.

   Because fax is a distinct media type, the <faxsend> primitive is not
   expected to interact with other primitives. Rather, it will interact
   using fax protocols with a remote fax terminal (or gateway) and will
   send requested status events to its invoking environment. During fax
   operation, shadow variables are used to record the progress and
   parameters of the varying stages of fax operation.

   Status events are requested by including one or more status request
   elements. These elements correspond to different stages or events in
   fax operation and cause pre-defined events to be sent to the invoking
   environment when they occur. Since the only recipient of these events
   is expected to be a fax application server, requests are simplified
   by associating a pre-defined namelist of shadow variables with each
   event. This decision may be revisited to allowed tailored namelists
   based on further implementation experience. Status requests apply
   both to sending and polling operation.



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      Attributes:

         lclid: the identifier that a media server uses to identify
         itself.

         minspeed: the minimum acceptable speed to negotiate for the
         operation.

         maxspeed: the maximum speed to negotiate for the operation.
         This attribute is primarily for testing purposes.

         ecm: specifies whether Error Correction Mode (ECM) is allowed
         to be used if supported by the remote terminal. Defaults to
         "true".

      Events:

         terminate: terminates the fax send operation.

      Shadow Variables:

         fax.rmtid: the identifier of the remote fax terminal.

         fax.rate: the negotiated speed for the operation.

         fax.resolution: identifies the resolution of the image. Both
         metric and inch based resolutions are defined. Metric based
         resolutions are: 75x75, 150x150, 204x98, 204x196, 204x391,
         408x391. Inch based resolutions are: 200x200, 300x300, 400x400,
         600x600.

         fax.pagesize: identifies the negotiated page size. Metric sizes
         are "A3", "A4", "A5", "A6", and "B4". Inch based page sizes are
         "Letter" and "Legal".

         fax.encoding: identifies the image encoding utilized. Valid
         values are "MH", "R", "MMR", and "JPEG".

         fax.ecm: identifies whether ECM operation was used.

         fax.pagebadlines: the number of bad lines in a page.

         fax.objbadlines: the number of bad lines in an object.

         fax.opbadlines: the number of bad lines in an operation.

         fax.objuri: the objuri of the current object.

         fax.resendcount: the number of pages resent due to errors.


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         fax.totalpages: the number of pages processed or stored.

         fax.totalobjects: the count of the objects used in the
         operation.

         fax.duration: the duration of the operation expressed as a
         duration in seconds and milliseconds (e.g. "23s250ms").

         fax.result: contains the reason which caused the fax operation
         to complete. When the operation completes successfully, the
         value will be assigned "fax.success". Other values include:
         "fax.partial", "fax.nofax", "fax.remotedisconnect",
         "fax.uri.access.error", and "fax.invalid.startpage".

11.2.1 Child Elements

11.2.1.1 <sendobj>

   <sendobj> is used to define a fax transmission. There may be multiple
   instances of the element which will be transmitted in order.

      Attributes:

         objuri: a URI that points to the fax image that will be
         transmitted. Mandatory.

         startpage: the first page of a multi-page objuri to send.

         pagecount: page count.

11.2.1.2 <hdrfooter>

   <hdrfooter> describes the header/footer that a media server will put
   on pages. The header or footer may be defined as the content of the
   <format> child element. The <format> element is only allowed if the
   type attribute has a value of "header" or "footer".

      Attributes:

         type: specifies whether a header or a footer should be put on
         pages and identifies the source of the header or footer. The
         following enumerated values may be used:

            "header" indicates that the media server should put a header
                     on pages using the contents of the <format>
                     element.

            "nohdr"  indicates that there should be no header or footer.



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            "footer" indicates that the media server should put a footer
                     on pages using the contents of the <format>
                     element.

         style: defines the style of insertion onto a fax page that a
         media server should use for the header or footer. Valid styles
         are "append", "overlay", or "replace".

   <format> is a child of the <hdrfooter> element that defines the style
   format to be used for the header or footer. It uses a "C" language
   style format statement (as shown below) to define the contents and
   layout of the header or footer.

     code    length   name              format

      %a       3     day of week       3-character abbreviation
      %d       2     date              01-31
      %m       2     month             01-12
      %y       2     year              00-99
      %Y       4     year              0000-9999
      %I       2     12 hour           01-12
      %H       2     24 hour           00-23
      %M       2     minute            00-59
      %S       2     seconds           00-59
      %p       2     AM/PM             AM or PM
      %P       2     page number       01-99
      %T       2     total pages       01-99
      %l       20    local ID (sender) 0-9, + or spaces
      %r       20    remote ID (rcvr)  0-9, + or spaces
      %%       1     percent           display % in header/ftr

11.2.1.3 <rxpoll>

   <rxpoll> provides the information necessary for a receive polling
   operation to occur. The object(s) to be received are defined by one
   or more <rcvobj> elements. The <rcvobj> is defined further under the
   child elements of <faxrcv>. The <rxpoll> element may also include a
   description of the header/footer that a media server should put on
   received pages. The <hdrfooter> element and it's usage is described
   above.

      Attributes:

         rmtid: specifies the identifier of the remote fax terminal that
         to be associated with a polling operation. A media server must
         not execute a polling operation unless the value of rmtid
         matches that of the connected remote machine.




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11.2.1.4 <faxstart>

   Requests that an event be sent when fax operation has begun. When
   triggered, the following will be executed:

   <send target="source" event="fax.start"/>

11.2.1.5 <faxnegotiate>

   Requests that an event be sent when a negotiation has been completed.
   Multiple events may be sent each time a DCS frame is sent or
   received. When triggered, the following will be executed:

   <send target="source" event="fax.negotiate"
      namelist="fax.rmtid
         fax.rate
         fax.resolution
         fax.pagesize
         fax.encoding
         fax.ecm"/>

11.2.1.6 <faxpagedone>

   Requests that an event be sent when a page has been sent or received.
   When triggered, the following will be executed:

   <send target="source" event="fax.pagedone"
         namelist="fax.resolution
         fax.pagesize
         fax.encoding
         fax.pagebadlines
         fax.resendcount"/>

11.2.1.7 <faxobjectdone>

   Requests that an event be sent when an objuri has been completed.
   When triggered, the following will be executed:

   <send target="source" event="fax.objectdone"
         namelist="fax.objuri
         fax.objbadlines
         fax.resendcount
         fax.totalpages
         fax.result"/>

11.2.1.8 <faxopcomplete>

   Requests that an event be sent when an operation has been completed.
   When triggered, the following will be executed:


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   <send target="source" event="fax.opcomplete"
         namelist="fax.totalpages
         fax.opbadlines
         fax.resendcount
         fax.totalobjects
         fax.duration
         fax.result"/>

11.2.1.9 <faxpollstarted>

   Requests that an event be sent when a polling operation has started.
   When triggered, the following will be executed:

   <send target="source" event="fax.opcomplete"
         namelist="fax.rmtid
         fax.rate
         fax.resolution
         fax.pagesize
         fax.encoding
         fax.ecm"/>

11.3 <faxrcv>

   The <faxrcv> primitive provides the functionality of a called fax
   terminal. Typically this type of operation is to receive pages.
   However, it can include sending pages instead of, or in addition to,
   receiving them. The fax objects to receive are defined by the
   <rcvobj> elements, described below.

   A media server will send pages as a polled terminal when the <txpoll>
   element is included as part of <faxrcv>. This element may be included
   in addition to, or instead of, the <rcvobj> element. One <rcvobj> or
   <txpoll> element must be present. When both are present, a media
   server will first receive pages and will then allow the other
   terminal to poll the media server, requesting pages.

   Because fax is a distinct media type, the <faxrcv> primitive is not
   expected to interact with other primitives. Rather, it will interact
   using fax protocols with a remote fax terminal and will send
   requested status events to its invoking environment. During fax
   operation, shadow variables are used to record the progress and
   parameters of the varying stages of fax operation.

   Status events are requested by including one or more status request
   elements. These elements correspond to different stages or events in
   fax operation and cause pre-defined events to be sent to the invoking
   environment when they occur. Since the only recipient of these events
   is expected to be a fax application server, requests are simplified
   by associating a pre-defined namelist of shadow variables with each


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   event. This decision may be revisited to allowed tailored namelists
   based on further implementation experience. Status requests apply
   both to receiving and polling operation.

      Attributes:

         lclid: the identifier that a media server uses to identify
         itself.

         ecm: specifies whether ECM mode is allowed to be used if
         supported by the remote terminal. Defaults to "true".

      Events:

         terminate: terminates the fax reception operation.

      Shadow Variables:

         <faxrcv> supports the same set of shadow variables as <faxsend>

11.3.1 Child Elements

   In addition to the elements defined below, <faxrcv> may also have the
   following child elements which were defined under <faxsend>:

      o  <hdrfooter>
      o  <faxstart>
      o  <faxnegotiate>
      o  <faxpagedone>
      o  <faxobjectdone>
      o  <faxopcomplete>
      o  <faxpollstarted>

   Their meaning and usage is the same as previously defined.

11.3.1.1 <rcvobj>

   <rcvobj> is used to define fax objects that a media server will
   receive. There may be multiple instances of the element which will be
   used in order.

      Attributes:

         objuri: a URI that points to the location that a received image
         is to be stored. Mandatory.

         maxpages: the maximum number of pages that will be stored in
         objuri.



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11.3.1.2 <txpoll>

   <txpoll> provides the information for a polling operation to occur as
   part of a fax receive operation. Multiple object(s) to be send may be
   supplied by one or more <sendobj> elements. In the event of multiple
   occurrences, a media server must select the <sendobj> element whose
   rmtid attribute matches that of the remote terminal.

   The <sendobj> element was defined previously as a child element of
   <faxsend>. For <txpoll> is extended with an rmtid attribute that
   specifies the identifier of the remote fax terminal and is used to
   select the specific <sendobj> to send.

   A media server will put a header/footer on transmitted pages based on
   any <hdrfooter> element included as part of <txpoll>.

      Attributes:

         none

12. Failure Codes

   Failure codes are used to indicate reasons for failures. The
   appropriate code and description must be passed to the invoking
   environment on failure.

         Request Error (4xx)

   400  Bad Request
   401  Unknown Element
   402  Unsupported Element
   403  Missing mandatory element content
   404  Forbidden element content
   405  Invalid element content
   406  Unknown attribute
   407  Attribute not supported
   408  Missing mandatory attribute
   409  Forbidden attribute is present
   410  Invalid attribute value

         Server Error (5xx)

   500  Internal media server error
   510  Not in service
   511  Service Unavailable
   520  No resource to fulfill request
   521  Internal limit exceeded




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13. Examples

13.1 Announcement

   The following is a simple announcement scenario. Two recorded audio
   files are played in sequence followed by generated speech followed by
   a variable. The results are reported once media generation completes.

   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <moml version="1.0" id="12345">
      <play>
         <audio uri="file://clip1.wav"/>
         <audio uri="http://host1/clip2.wav"/>
         <tts uri="http://host2/text.ssml"/>
         <var type="date" subtype="mdy" value="20030601"/>
      </play>
      <send target="source" event="done" namelist="play.amt play.end"/>
   </moml>

13.2 Voice Mail Retrieval

   Below is an example which shows a simple voice mail retrieval
   operation consisting of playing a message and allowing the user to
   pause and resume play using '5' to toggle the state. The operation
   would terminate when the play completed or the user entered '#'.
   During the play, the user can advance forward and backward through
   the message as well as rewinding to the beginning.

   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <moml version="1.0" id="12345">
      <group topology="parallel">
         <play>
            <audio uri="file://message.wav"/>
            <playexit>
               <send target="group" event="terminate"/>
            </playexit>
         </play>
         <dtmf iterate="forever">
            <pattern digits="5">
               <send target="play" event="toggle-state"/>
            </pattern>
            <pattern digits="6">
               <send target="play" event="forward"/>
            </pattern>
            <pattern digits="7">
               <send target="play" event="backward"/>
            </pattern>
            <pattern digits="8">
               <send target="play" event="restart"/>


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            </pattern>
            <pattern digits="#">
               <send target="play" event="terminate"/>
            </pattern>
         </dtmf>
      </group>
   </moml>

13.3 Play and Record

   A more complex example is a play and record operation. This sources
   and sinks media and uses voice activity DTMF detection and
   recognition to influence behavior. Any DTMF input or voice activity
   will barge the play and cause the record to begin. However, if the
   prompt was barged with a DTMF digit of '#', the record terminates
   without starting. When the play terminates, it send a starttimer
   event to the VAD to allow it to recognize an initial silence
   condition. The recording will be terminated (without starting) when
   the VAD detects an initial 3 seconds of silence.

   Once resumed (based upon voice detection) the recording may be
   terminated under several conditions. It will terminate after 5
   seconds of silence or after 60 seconds elapses. It will also
   terminate if a '#' key is recognized. Every aspect of this behavior
   can be modified by changing what is recognized and the events which
   are sent.

   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <moml  version="1.0" id="12345">
      <group topology="parallel">
         <play>
            <audio uri="file://prompt.wav"/>
            <playexit>
               <send target="vad" event="starttimer"/>
            </playexit>
         </play>
         <dtmf>
            <pattern digits="#">
               <send target="record" event="terminate.termkey"/>
            </pattern>
            <detect>
               <send target="play" event="terminate"/>
            </detect>
         </dtmf>
         <vad>
            <voice len="10ms">
               <send target="play" event="terminate"/>
               <send target="record" event="resume"/>
            </voice>


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            <silence len="3s">
               <send target="record" event="nospeech"/>
            </silence>
            <tsilence len="5s">
               <send target="record" event="terminate.finalsilence"/>
            </tsilence>
         </vad>
         <record initial="suspend" maxtime="60s"
                 dest="file://record.wav" format="g729">
            <recordexit>
               <send target="group" event="terminate"/>
            </recordexit>
         </record>
         <groupexit>
            <send target="source" event="done"
                  namelist="record.len record.end"/>
         </groupexit>
      </group>
   </moml>

13.4 Speech Recognition

   The following simple example requests that a user speak the name of a
   city and returns the result.

   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <moml version="1.0" id="12345">
      <group topology="parallel">
         <play>
            <audio uri="file://prompt.wav"/>
         </play>
         <speech>
            <grammar version="1.0">
               <rule id="city" scope="public">
                  <item>
                     <one-of>
                        <item>vancouver</item>
                        <item>new york</item>
                        <item>london</item>
                     </one-of>
                  </item>
               </rule>
               <match>
                  <send target="group" event="terminate"/>
               </match>
            </grammar>
            <noinput>
               <send target="group" event="terminate"/>
            </noinput>


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            <nomatch>
               <send target="group" event="terminate"/>
            </nomatch>
         </speech>
         <groupexit>
            <send target="source" event="done"
                          namelist="speech.end speech.results"/>
         </groupexit>
      </group>
   </moml>

13.5 Play and Collect

   This example prompts a user to enter 4 DTMF digits terminated by the
   '#' key. The prompt will be barged and the user has 10 seconds to
   begin entering input or no input will be indicated.

   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <moml version="1.0" id="12345">
      <group topology="parallel">
         <play>
            <audio uri="file://prompt.wav"/>
            <playexit>
               <send target="dtmf" event="starttimer"/>
            </playexit>
         </play>
         <dtmf fdt="10s" idt="16s">
            <pattern digits="xxxx#">
               <send target="group" event="terminate"/>
            </pattern>
            <detect>
               <send target="play" event="terminate"/>
            </detect>
            <noinput>
               <send target="group" event="terminate"/>
            </noinput>
            <nomatch>
               <send target="group" event="terminate"/>
            </nomatch>
         </dtmf>
         <groupexit>
            <send target="source" event="done"
                  namelist="dtmf.digits dtmf.end"/>
         </groupexit>
      </group>
   </moml>





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13.6 User Controlled Gain

   This shows an example of nesting groups to create an arbitrary full
   duplex media control. DTMF is detected on media flowing in one
   direction and used to adjust the gain applied to media flowing in the
   opposite direction. Additionally, the stream which is used to detect
   DTMF has DTMF removed and its gain automatically adjusted before
   leaving the group. This widget could be used between a conference
   participant and a conference mixer.

   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <moml  version="1.0" id="12345">
      <group topology="fullduplex">
         <group topology="parallel">
            <dtmf>
               <pattern digits="1" iterate="forever">
                  <send target="gain" event="louder"/>
               </pattern>
               <pattern digits="2" iterate="forever">
                  <send target="gain" event="softer"/>
               </pattern>
            </dtmf>
            <group topology="serial">
               <clamp/>
               <agc tgtlvl="0"/>
            </group>
         </group>
         <gain amt="0" incr="5"/>
      </group>
   </moml>

14. Change Summary

   The following are the changes between the -05 version of the draft
   and the -04 version:

      o  no changes.

   The following are the primary changes between this version of the
   draft and the -01 version:

      o  specified the use of MOML directly in SIP (see section 3)

      o  specified the <event> element for notifying events in SIP INFO
         messages

      o  added <gate> transform primitive which can gate the flow of
         media regardless of its format



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      o  extended sending events to "source" to allow event names
         specific to the source naming conventions to be included. This
         can allow such features as the source relaying an event to
         another MOML object it has created.

      o  modularized the language and specified rules to extend it in
         order to allow it to be independently tailored to different
         environments and  platforms (see section 4)

   Between the -01 version and the -00 version the changes were:

      o  added primitives to detect, send, and receive fax

      o  added "xml:lang" attribute to <play> <audio> <var> and <tts>.
         children of <play> inherit from play unless overridden.

      o  allow the uri in <audio> to refer to a logical clip (physical
         determined by language) and sequence as well as a physical clip
         (for local uri references).

      o  restructured the schema as a partial step towards
         modularization and the ability to subset and extend the
         language in a standards compliant manner.

      o  made <dtmfgen> to be the same level as <play> and not a child
         of <play>

      o  changed "pipe" and "star" to be "serial" and "parallel"

      o  made all termination events consistently use the root
         "terminate". previously some primitives used the root  "stop"

      o  changed "max" attribute to "iterate" for the <dtmf>, <pattern>,
         <noinput>, and <nomatch>, and <speech> elements.

      o  change "iterations" attribute of <play> and <audio> to
         "iterate".

      o  removed explicit "lhs" / "rhs" labeling of full duplex objects

15. Future Work

   Some of the likely functions to be added in future release of MOML
   include:

      o  further refinement to the schemas with respect to





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         modularization

      o  algorithmic tone generation and detection

      o  video and multimedia

16. XML Schema

   The base MOML schema defines the <moml> element and includes all of
   the modules which together define the full language. The <moml>
   element defines that a given document may be either a request to a
   media server or an event notified by a media server.

   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
   elementFormDefault="unqualified" attributeFormDefault="unqualified">
      <xs:include schemaLocation="moml-group-module.xsd"/>
      <xs:include schemaLocation="moml-basic-primitives-module.xsd"/>
      <xs:include
          schemaLocation="moml-transform-primitives-module.xsd"/>
      <xs:include schemaLocation="moml-speech-module.xsd"/>
      <xs:include schemaLocation="moml-fax-module.xsd"/>
      <xs:element name="moml">
         <xs:complexType>
            <xs:choice>
               <xs:group ref="momlRequest"/>
               <xs:element ref="event"/>
            </xs:choice>
            <xs:attribute name="version" type="xs:string"
                use="required" fixed="1.0"/>
            <xs:attribute name="id" type="momlID.datatype"
                use="required"/>
         </xs:complexType>
      </xs:element>
   </xs:schema>

   Following is the schema which defines the core module (moml-core-
   module.xsd). It is included by each of the other MOML modules.

   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
       elementFormDefault="unqualified"
       attributeFormDefault="unqualified">
      <xs:include schemaLocation="moml-datatypes.xsd"/>
      <xs:group name="momlRequest">
         <xs:choice maxOccurs="unbounded">
            <xs:group ref="executeType"/>
            <xs:element ref="send" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
         </xs:choice>


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      </xs:group>
      <xs:element name="primitive" type="primitiveType"
          abstract="true"/>
      <xs:complexType name="primitiveType">
         <xs:attribute name="id" type="momlID.datatype"/>
      </xs:complexType>
      <xs:element name="control" type="controlType" abstract="true"/>
      <xs:complexType name="controlType"/>
      <xs:group name="executeType">
         <xs:choice maxOccurs="unbounded">
            <xs:element ref="primitive"/>
            <xs:element ref="control"/>
         </xs:choice>
      </xs:group>
      <xs:group name="sendType">
         <xs:choice>
            <xs:choice>
               <xs:element name="exit" type="exitType"/>
               <xs:element name="disconnect" type="exitType"/>
            </xs:choice>
            <xs:sequence>
               <xs:element ref="send" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
               <xs:choice minOccurs="0">
                  <xs:element name="exit" type="exitType"/>
                  <xs:element name="disconnect" type="exitType"/>
               </xs:choice>
            </xs:sequence>
         </xs:choice>
      </xs:group>
      <xs:element name="send">
         <xs:complexType>
            <xs:attribute name="event" type="momlEvent.datatype"
                use="required"/>
            <xs:attribute name="target" type="momlTarget.datatype"
                use="required"/>
            <xs:attribute name="namelist" type="momlNamelist.datatype"/>
         </xs:complexType>
      </xs:element>
      <xs:complexType name="exitType">
         <xs:attribute name="namelist" type="momlNamelist.datatype"/>
      </xs:complexType>
      <xs:element name="event">
         <xs:complexType>
            <xs:sequence maxOccurs="unbounded">
               <xs:element name="name" type="xs:string"/>
               <xs:element name="value" type="xs:string"/>
            </xs:sequence>




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            <xs:attribute name="name" type="xs:string" use="required"/>
            <xs:attribute name="id" type="xs:string" use="required"/>
         </xs:complexType>
      </xs:element>
   </xs:schema>

   The schema for the group module (moml-group-module.xsd) is:

   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
       elementFormDefault="unqualified"
       attributeFormDefault="unqualified">
      <xs:include schemaLocation="moml-datatypes.xsd"/>
      <xs:include schemaLocation="moml-core-module.xsd"/>
      <xs:element name="group" substitutionGroup="control">
         <xs:complexType>
            <xs:sequence>
               <xs:group ref="executeType"/>
               <xs:element name="groupexit" minOccurs="0">
                  <xs:complexType>
                     <xs:group ref="sendType"/>
                  </xs:complexType>
               </xs:element>
            </xs:sequence>
            <xs:attribute name="id" type="momlID.datatype"/>
            <xs:attribute name="topology" use="required">
               <xs:simpleType>
                  <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
                     <xs:enumeration value="serial"/>
                     <xs:enumeration value="parallel"/>
                     <xs:enumeration value="fullduplex"/>
                  </xs:restriction>
               </xs:simpleType>
            </xs:attribute>
         </xs:complexType>
      </xs:element>
   </xs:schema>

   The schema for the basic primitives module (moml-basic-primitives-
   module.xsd) is:

   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
       elementFormDefault="unqualified"
       attributeFormDefault="unqualified">
      <xs:include schemaLocation="moml-datatypes.xsd"/>
      <xs:include schemaLocation="moml-core-module.xsd"/>
      <xs:import namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace"
          schemaLocation="http://www.w3.org/2001/xml.xsd"/>


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      <xs:element name="play" substitutionGroup="primitive">
         <xs:complexType>
            <xs:complexContent>
               <xs:extension base="primitiveType">
                  <xs:sequence>
                     <xs:choice maxOccurs="unbounded">
                        <xs:element name="audio">
                           <xs:complexType>
                              <xs:attribute name="uri" type="xs:anyURI"
                                  use="required"/>
                              <xs:attribute name="iterate"
                                  type="iterate.datatype" default="1"/>
                              <xs:attribute ref="xml:lang"/>
                           </xs:complexType>
                        </xs:element>
                        <xs:element ref="media"/>
                     </xs:choice>
                     <xs:choice minOccurs="0">
                        <xs:element name="playexit">
                           <xs:complexType>
                              <xs:group ref="sendType"/>
                           </xs:complexType>
                        </xs:element>
                     </xs:choice>
                  </xs:sequence>
                  <xs:attribute name="interval"
                      type="posDuration.datatype" use="optional"/>
                  <xs:attribute name="iterate" type="iterate.datatype"
                      use="optional" default="1"/>
                  <xs:attribute name="offset" type="duration.datatype"
                      use="optional"/>
                  <xs:attribute name="initial" use="optional"
                      default="generate">
                     <xs:simpleType>
                        <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
                           <xs:enumeration value="generate"/>
                           <xs:enumeration value="suspend"/>
                        </xs:restriction>
                     </xs:simpleType>
                  </xs:attribute>
                  <xs:attribute name="maxtime"
                      type="posDuration.datatype" use="optional"/>
                  <xs:attribute name="skip" type="duration.datatype"
                      use="optional" default="3s"/>
                  <xs:attribute ref="xml:lang"/>
               </xs:extension>
            </xs:complexContent>
         </xs:complexType>
      </xs:element>


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      <xs:element name="record" substitutionGroup="primitive">
         <xs:complexType>
            <xs:choice minOccurs="0">
               <xs:element name="recordexit">
                  <xs:complexType>
                     <xs:group ref="sendType"/>
                  </xs:complexType>
               </xs:element>
            </xs:choice>
            <xs:attribute name="append" type="boolean.datatype"
                use="optional" default="false"/>
            <xs:attribute name="dest" type="xs:anyURI" use="optional"/>
            <xs:attribute name="format" use="required">
               <xs:simpleType>
                  <xs:restriction base="xs:string"/>
               </xs:simpleType>
            </xs:attribute>
            <xs:attribute name="maxtime" type="posDuration.datatype"
                use="required"/>
            <xs:attribute name="initial" use="optional"
                default="create">
               <xs:simpleType>
                  <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
                     <xs:enumeration value="create"/>
                     <xs:enumeration value="suspend"/>
                  </xs:restriction>
               </xs:simpleType>
            </xs:attribute>
         </xs:complexType>
      </xs:element>
      <xs:element name="dtmf" substitutionGroup="primitive">
         <xs:complexType>
            <xs:complexContent>
               <xs:extension base="primitiveType">
                  <xs:sequence>
                     <xs:element name="pattern" maxOccurs="unbounded">
                        <xs:complexType>
                           <xs:group ref="sendType"/>
                           <xs:attribute name="digits" type="xs:string"
                               use="required"/>
                           <xs:attribute name="format">
                              <xs:simpleType>
                                 <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
                                    <xs:enumeration value="mgcp"/>
                                    <xs:enumeration value="megaco"/>
                                    <xs:enumeration
                                        value="moml+digits"/>
                                 </xs:restriction>
                              </xs:simpleType>


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                           </xs:attribute>
                           <xs:attribute name="iterate"
                               type="iterate.datatype" default="1"/>
                        </xs:complexType>
                     </xs:element>
                     <xs:element name="detect" minOccurs="0">
                        <xs:complexType>
                           <xs:group ref="sendType"/>
                        </xs:complexType>
                     </xs:element>
                     <xs:element name="noinput" type="iterateSendType"
                         minOccurs="0"/>
                     <xs:element name="nomatch" type="iterateSendType"
                         minOccurs="0"/>
                     <xs:element name="dtmfexit" minOccurs="0">
                        <xs:complexType>
                           <xs:group ref="sendType"/>
                        </xs:complexType>
                     </xs:element>
                  </xs:sequence>
                  <xs:attribute name="cleardb" type="boolean.datatype"
                      default="true"/>
                  <xs:attribute name="fdt" type="posDuration.datatype"
                      default="0s"/>
                  <xs:attribute name="idt" type="posDuration.datatype"
                      default="4s"/>
                  <xs:attribute name="edt" type="posDuration.datatype"
                      default="4s"/>
                  <xs:attribute name="starttimer"
                      type="boolean.datatype" default="false"/>
                  <xs:attribute name="iterate" type="iterate.datatype"
                      default="1"/>
               </xs:extension>
            </xs:complexContent>
         </xs:complexType>
      </xs:element>
      <xs:element name="dtmfgen" substitutionGroup="primitive">
         <xs:complexType>
            <xs:choice minOccurs="0">
               <xs:element name="dtmfgenexit">
                  <xs:complexType>
                     <xs:group ref="sendType"/>
                  </xs:complexType>
               </xs:element>
            </xs:choice>
            <xs:attribute name="level" use="optional" default="-6">
               <xs:simpleType>
                  <xs:restriction base="xs:nonPositiveInteger">
                     <xs:maxInclusive value="0"/>


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                     <xs:minInclusive value="-96"/>
                  </xs:restriction>
               </xs:simpleType>
            </xs:attribute>
            <xs:attribute name="digits" type="dtmfDigits.datatype"
                use="required"/>
            <xs:attribute name="dur" type="posDuration.datatype"
                use="optional" default="100ms"/>
            <xs:attribute name="interval" type="posDuration.datatype"
                use="optional" default="100ms"/>
         </xs:complexType>
      </xs:element>
      <xs:complexType name="iterateSendType">
         <xs:group ref="sendType"/>
         <xs:attribute name="iterate" type="iterate.datatype"
             default="1"/>
      </xs:complexType>
      <xs:element name="media" type="mediaType" abstract="true"/>
      <xs:complexType name="mediaType">
         <xs:attribute ref="xml:lang" type="xs:language"/>
         <xs:attribute name="iterate" type="iterate.datatype"/>
      </xs:complexType>
      <xs:element name="var" substitutionGroup="media">
         <xs:complexType>
            <xs:complexContent>
               <xs:extension base="mediaType">
                  <xs:attribute name="type" use="required">
                     <xs:simpleType>
                        <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
                           <xs:enumeration value="date"/>
                           <xs:enumeration value="digits"/>
                           <xs:enumeration value="duration"/>
                           <xs:enumeration value="month"/>
                           <xs:enumeration value="money"/>
                           <xs:enumeration value="number"/>
                           <xs:enumeration value="silence"/>
                           <xs:enumeration value="time"/>
                           <xs:enumeration value="weekday"/>
                        </xs:restriction>
                     </xs:simpleType>
                  </xs:attribute>
                  <xs:attribute name="subtype" type="xs:string"
                      use="optional"/>
                  <xs:attribute name="value" type="xs:string"
                      use="required"/>
               </xs:extension>
            </xs:complexContent>



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         </xs:complexType>
      </xs:element>
   </xs:schema>

   The schema for the transform primitives module (moml-transform-
   primitives-module.xsd) is:
   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
       elementFormDefault="unqualified"
       attributeFormDefault="unqualified">
      <xs:include schemaLocation="moml-datatypes.xsd"/>
      <xs:include schemaLocation="moml-core-module.xsd"/>
      <xs:import namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace"
          schemaLocation="http://www.w3.org/2001/xml.xsd"/>
      <xs:element name="vad" substitutionGroup="primitive">
         <xs:complexType>
            <xs:all>
               <xs:element name="voice" type="vadPatternType"
                   minOccurs="0"/>
               <xs:element name="silence" type="vadPatternType"
                   minOccurs="0"/>
               <xs:element name="tvoice" type="vadPatternType"
                   minOccurs="0"/>
               <xs:element name="tsilence" type="vadPatternType"
                   minOccurs="0"/>
            </xs:all>
            <xs:attribute name="starttimer" type="boolean.datatype"
                default="false"/>
         </xs:complexType>
      </xs:element>
      <xs:element name="gain" substitutionGroup="primitive">
         <xs:complexType>
            <xs:attribute name="incr" default="3">
               <xs:simpleType>
                  <xs:restriction base="xs:positiveInteger">
                     <xs:maxInclusive value="96"/>
                  </xs:restriction>
               </xs:simpleType>
            </xs:attribute>
            <xs:attribute name="amt" use="required">
               <xs:simpleType>
                  <xs:restriction base="xs:integer">
                     <xs:minInclusive value="-96"/>
                     <xs:maxInclusive value="96"/>
                  </xs:restriction>
               </xs:simpleType>
            </xs:attribute>
         </xs:complexType>
      </xs:element>


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      <xs:element name="agc" substitutionGroup="primitive">
         <xs:complexType>
            <xs:attribute name="tgtlvl" use="required">
               <xs:simpleType>
                  <xs:restriction base="xs:nonPositiveInteger">
                     <xs:minInclusive value="-40"/>
                     <xs:maxInclusive value="0"/>
                  </xs:restriction>
               </xs:simpleType>
            </xs:attribute>
            <xs:attribute name="maxgain" default="10">
               <xs:simpleType>
                  <xs:restriction base="xs:nonNegativeInteger">
                     <xs:minInclusive value="0"/>
                     <xs:maxInclusive value="40"/>
                  </xs:restriction>
               </xs:simpleType>
            </xs:attribute>
         </xs:complexType>
      </xs:element>
      <xs:element name="gate" substitutionGroup="primitive">
         <xs:complexType>
            <xs:attribute name="initial" default="pass">
               <xs:simpleType>
                  <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
                     <xs:enumeration value="pass"/>
                     <xs:enumeration value="halt"/>
                  </xs:restriction>
               </xs:simpleType>
            </xs:attribute>
         </xs:complexType>
      </xs:element>
      <xs:element name="clamp" substitutionGroup="primitive">
         <xs:complexType/>
      </xs:element>
      <xs:element name="relay" substitutionGroup="primitive">
         <xs:complexType/>
      </xs:element>
      <xs:complexType name="vadPatternType">
         <xs:group ref="sendType"/>
         <xs:attribute name="iterate" type="iterate.datatype"
             default="1"/>
         <xs:attribute name="len" type="posDuration.datatype"
             use="required"/>
         <xs:attribute name="sen" type="posDuration.datatype"
             use="optional"/>
      </xs:complexType>
   </xs:schema>



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   Following is the schema for the speech primitives module (moml-
   speech-module.xsd). Note that several URL were split across several
   lines for formatting reasons.

   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
       elementFormDefault="qualified"
       attributeFormDefault="unqualified">
      <xs:include schemaLocation="moml-datatypes.xsd"/>
      <xs:include schemaLocation="moml-core-module.xsd"/>
      <xs:include schemaLocation="moml-basic-primitives-module.xsd"/>
      <xs:include schemaLocation="http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/
          WD-speech-synthesis-20020405/synthesis-core.xsd"/>
      <xs:include schemaLocation="http://www.w3.org/TR/
          speech-grammar/grammar-core.xsd"/>
      <xs:element name="speech" substitutionGroup="primitive">
         <xs:complexType>
            <xs:complexContent>
               <xs:extension base="primitiveType">
                  <xs:sequence>
                     <xs:element name="grammar" maxOccurs="unbounded">
                        <xs:complexType>
                           <xs:complexContent>
                              <xs:extension base="grammar">
                                 <xs:choice>
                                    <xs:element name="match"
                                        type="iterateSendType"
                                        minOccurs="0"/>
                                 </xs:choice>
                                 <xs:attribute name="uri"
                                     type="xs:anyURI"/>
                                 <xs:attribute name="iterate"
                                     type="iterate.datatype"
                                     default="1"/>
                              </xs:extension>
                           </xs:complexContent>
                        </xs:complexType>
                     </xs:element>
                     <xs:element name="noinput" type="iterateSendType"
                         minOccurs="0"/>
                     <xs:element name="nomatch" type="iterateSendType"
                         minOccurs="0"/>
                     <xs:element name="speechexit" minOccurs="0">
                        <xs:complexType>
                           <xs:group ref="sendType"/>
                        </xs:complexType>
                     </xs:element>
                  </xs:sequence>
                  <xs:attribute name="noint"


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                      type="posDuration.datatype"/>
                  <xs:attribute name="norect"
                      type="posDuration.datatype"/>
                  <xs:attribute name="spcmplt"
                      type="posDuration.datatype"/>
                  <xs:attribute name="confidence">
                     <xs:simpleType>
                        <xs:restriction base="xs:positiveInteger">
                           <xs:maxInclusive value="100"/>
                        </xs:restriction>
                     </xs:simpleType>
                  </xs:attribute>
                  <xs:attribute name="sens" type="xs:positiveInteger"/>
                  <xs:attribute name="starttimer"
                      type="boolean.datatype" default="false"/>
                  <xs:attribute name="iterate" type="iterate.datatype"
                      default="1"/>
               </xs:extension>
            </xs:complexContent>
         </xs:complexType>
      </xs:element>
      <xs:element name="tts" substitutionGroup="media">
         <xs:complexType mixed="true">
            <xs:complexContent mixed="true">
               <xs:extension base="mediaType">
                  <xs:choice minOccurs="0">
                     <xs:element ref="speak"/>
                  </xs:choice>
                  <xs:attribute name="uri" type="xs:anyURI"
                      use="required"/>
               </xs:extension>
            </xs:complexContent>
         </xs:complexType>
      </xs:element>
   </xs:schema>

   Following is the schema for the fax primitives module (moml-fax-
   module.xsd).

   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
       elementFormDefault="qualified"
       attributeFormDefault="unqualified">
      <xs:include schemaLocation="moml-datatypes.xsd"/>
      <xs:include schemaLocation="moml-core-module.xsd"/>
      <xs:element name="faxdetect" substitutionGroup="primitive">
         <xs:complexType>
            <xs:choice>
               <xs:group ref="sendType"/>


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            </xs:choice>
         </xs:complexType>
      </xs:element>
      <xs:element name="faxsend" substitutionGroup="primitive">
         <xs:complexType>
            <xs:sequence>
               <xs:element name="sendobj" type="sendobjType"
                   minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
               <xs:element name="hdrfooter" type="hdrfooterType"
                   minOccurs="0"/>
               <xs:element name="rxpoll" minOccurs="0">
                  <xs:complexType>
                     <xs:sequence>
                        <xs:element name="rcvobj" type="rcvobjType"
                            maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
                        <xs:element name="hdrfooter"
                            type="hdrfooterType" minOccurs="0"/>
                     </xs:sequence>
                     <xs:attribute name="rmtid" type="faxid.datatype"
                         use="required"/>
                  </xs:complexType>
               </xs:element>
               <xs:group ref="faxstatusrequest"/>
            </xs:sequence>
            <xs:attribute name="lclid" type="faxid.datatype"
                use="optional"/>
            <xs:attribute name="minspeed" type="faxspeed.datatype"
                use="optional"/>
            <xs:attribute name="maxspeed" type="faxspeed.datatype"
                use="optional"/>
            <xs:attribute name="ecm" type="boolean.datatype"
                use="optional"/>
         </xs:complexType>
      </xs:element>
      <xs:element name="faxrecv" substitutionGroup="primitive">
         <xs:complexType>
            <xs:sequence>
               <xs:element name="rcvobj" type="rcvobjType" minOccurs="0"
                   maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
               <xs:element name="hdrfooter" type="hdrfooterType"
                   minOccurs="0"/>
               <xs:element name="txpoll" minOccurs="0">
                  <xs:complexType>
                     <xs:sequence>
                        <xs:element name="sendobj" type="sendobjType"
                            maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
                        <xs:element name="hdrfooter"
                            type="hdrfooterType" minOccurs="0"/>
                     </xs:sequence>


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                     <xs:attribute name="rmtid" type="faxid.datatype"/>
                  </xs:complexType>
               </xs:element>
               <xs:group ref="faxstatusrequest"/>
            </xs:sequence>
            <xs:attribute name="lclid" type="faxid.datatype"
                use="optional"/>
            <xs:attribute name="ecm" type="boolean.datatype"
                default="true"/>
         </xs:complexType>
      </xs:element>
      <xs:group name="faxstatusrequest">
         <xs:all>
            <xs:element name="faxstart" minOccurs="0"/>
            <xs:element name="faxnegotiate" minOccurs="0"/>
            <xs:element name="faxpagedone" minOccurs="0"/>
            <xs:element name="faxobjectdone" minOccurs="0"/>
            <xs:element name="faxopcomplete" minOccurs="0"/>
            <xs:element name="faxpollstart" minOccurs="0"/>
         </xs:all>
      </xs:group>
      <xs:complexType name="hdrfooterType">
         <xs:choice>
            <xs:element name="format" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"
                maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
         </xs:choice>
         <xs:attribute name="type" type="hdrfooter.datatype"/>
         <xs:attribute name="style" type="hdrfooterstyle.datatype"/>
      </xs:complexType>
      <xs:complexType name="formatType">
         <xs:simpleContent>
            <xs:extension base="xs:string">
               <xs:attribute name="style">
                  <xs:simpleType>
                     <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
                        <xs:enumeration value="append"/>
                        <xs:enumeration value="overlay"/>
                        <xs:enumeration value="replace"/>
                     </xs:restriction>
                  </xs:simpleType>
               </xs:attribute>
            </xs:extension>
         </xs:simpleContent>
      </xs:complexType>
      <xs:complexType name="rcvobjType">
         <xs:attribute name="objuri" type="xs:anyURI" use="required"/>
         <xs:attribute name="maxpages" type="xs:positiveInteger"/>
      </xs:complexType>
      <xs:complexType name="sendobjType">


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         <xs:attribute name="objuri" type="xs:anyURI" use="required"/>
         <xs:attribute name="startpage" type="xs:positiveInteger"/>
         <xs:attribute name="pagecount" type="xs:positiveInteger"/>
      </xs:complexType>
      <xs:simpleType name="faxid.datatype">
         <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
            <xs:pattern value="[0-9+*- ]{20}"/>
         </xs:restriction>
      </xs:simpleType>
      <xs:simpleType name="faxspeed.datatype">
         <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
            <xs:enumeration value="2400"/>
            <xs:enumeration value="4800"/>
            <xs:enumeration value="7200"/>
            <xs:enumeration value="9600"/>
            <xs:enumeration value="12000"/>
            <xs:enumeration value="14400"/>
         </xs:restriction>
      </xs:simpleType>
      <xs:simpleType name="hdrfooter.datatype">
         <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
            <xs:enumeration value="header"/>
            <xs:enumeration value="footer"/>
            <xs:enumeration value="autohdr"/>
            <xs:enumeration value="nohdr"/>
         </xs:restriction>
      </xs:simpleType>
      <xs:simpleType name="hdrfooterstyle.datatype">
         <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
            <xs:enumeration value="append"/>
            <xs:enumeration value="overlay"/>
            <xs:enumeration value="replace"/>
         </xs:restriction>
      </xs:simpleType>
   </xs:schema>

   Following is the schema which defines the basic datatypes used by the
   other schemas.

   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
       elementFormDefault="qualified"
       attributeFormDefault="unqualified">
      <xs:simpleType name="momlID.datatype">
         <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
            <xs:pattern value="[a-zA-Z0-9][a-zA-Z0-9._\-]*"/>
         </xs:restriction>
      </xs:simpleType>
      <xs:simpleType name="momlEvent.datatype">


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         <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
            <xs:pattern value="[a-zA-Z0-9][a-zA-Z0-9._\-]*"/>
         </xs:restriction>
      </xs:simpleType>
      <xs:simpleType name="momlNamelist.datatype">
         <xs:restriction base="xs:string"/>
      </xs:simpleType>
      <xs:simpleType name="dtmfDigits.datatype">
         <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
            <xs:pattern value="[0-9#*]+"/>
         </xs:restriction>
      </xs:simpleType>
      <xs:simpleType name="iterate.datatype">
         <xs:union memberTypes="xs:positiveInteger">
            <xs:simpleType>
               <xs:restriction base="xs:negativeInteger">
                  <xs:minInclusive value="-1"/>
               </xs:restriction>
            </xs:simpleType>
            <xs:simpleType>
               <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
                  <xs:enumeration value="forever"/>
               </xs:restriction>
            </xs:simpleType>
         </xs:union>
      </xs:simpleType>
      <xs:simpleType name="momlTarget.datatype">
         <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
            <xs:pattern value="[a-zA-Z0-9][a-zA-Z0-9._\-]*"/>
         </xs:restriction>
      </xs:simpleType>
      <xs:simpleType name="boolean.datatype">
         <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
            <xs:enumeration value="true"/>
            <xs:enumeration value="false"/>
         </xs:restriction>
      </xs:simpleType>
      <xs:simpleType name="duration.datatype">
         <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
            <xs:pattern value="(\+|\-)?([0-9]*\.)?[0-9]+(ms|s)"/>
         </xs:restriction>
      </xs:simpleType>
      <xs:simpleType name="posDuration.datatype">
         <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
            <xs:pattern value="(\+)?([0-9]*\.)?[0-9]+(ms|s)"/>
         </xs:restriction>
      </xs:simpleType>
   </xs:schema>


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Security Considerations

   MOML is invoked through other languages and protocols. Its security
   depends on that provided by those environments.

References

   [1] J. Rosenberg, H. Schulzrinne, G. Camarillo, A. Johnston, J.
   Peterson, R. Sparks, M. Handley, and E. Schooler, "SIP: Session
   Initiation Protocol", RFC3261, Internet Engineering Taskforce, June
   2002.

   [2] J. Rosenberg, H. Schulzrinne, and P. Kyzivat, "Indicating User
   Agent Capabilities in the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)",
   Internet Engineering Taskforce, December 2003. Work in progress.

   [3] R. Mahy and N. Ismail, "Media Policy Manipulation in the
   Conference Policy Control Protocol", Internet Draft, Internet
   Engineering Taskforce, Feb. 2003. Work in progress.

   [4] World Wide Web Consortium, "Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0
   (Second Edition)", W3C Recommendation, Oct. 2000.

   [5] World Wide Web Consortium, "Speech Recognition Grammar
   Specification Version 1.0" (SRGS), W3C Candidate Recommendation, June
   26, 2002

   [6] World Wide Web Consortium, "Natural Language Semantics Markup
   Language (NLSML) for the Speech Interface Framework", W3C Working
   Draft, May 2001.

   [7] World Wide Web Consortium, "Voice Extensible Markup Language
   (VoiceXML) Version 2.0, W3C Candidate Recommendation, February 20,
   2003

   [8] T. Melanchuk, "Media Sessions Markup Language (MSML)", Internet
   Draft, Internet Engineering Task Force, Feb. 2005. Work in progress.

   [9] J. Van Dyke, E. Burger, A. Spitzer, "Basic Network Media Services
   with SIP", Internet Draft, Internet Engineering Task Force, March
   2003. Work in progress.

   [10] C. Jennings, SIP Support for Application Initiation, Internet
   Draft, Internet Engineering Taskforce, Oct. 2002. Work in progress.

   [11] A. B. Roach, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)-Specific Event





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                 Media Objects Markup Language (MOML)         Aug 2005


   Notification, RFC 3265, Internet Engineering Taskforce, June 2002.

   [12] E. Levinson, "Content-ID and Message-ID Uniform Resource
   Locators", RFC 2392, Internet Engineering Taskforce, August 1998.

Acknowledgments

   Adnan Saleem and Yong Xin of Convedia, have provided key insights,
   both theoretic and through development experience. Gilles Compienne
   of Ubiquity Software has provided feedback on several versions of
   this draft. Chris Boulton and Ben Smith, both of Ubiquity, and
   Michael Rice of VocalData helped clarify several issues in the -00
   draft, while Bruce Walsh and Kevin Fitzgerald, both of Spectel,
   provided important feedback on that draft. Cliff Schornak of
   Commetrex significantly contributed to the facsimile work.

Authors' Addresses

   Tim Melanchuk
   Convedia
   4190 Still Creek Drive, Suite 300
   Vancouver, BC, V5C 6C6
   Canada

   email: timm@convedia.com

   Garland Sharratt
   Convedia
   4190 Still Creek Drive, Suite 300
   Vancouver, BC, V5C 6C6
   Canada

   email: gsharratt@convedia.com



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   found in BCP 78 and BCP 79.



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                 Media Objects Markup Language (MOML)         Aug 2005


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   This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
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