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     Network Working Group                                        Chris Metz
     Internet Draft                                             Luca Martini
     Expires: January 2006                                     Cisco Systems
     
                                                                Florin Balus
                                                               Jeff Sugimoto
                                                             Nortel Networks
     
                                                                July 9, 2005
     
     
     
                              AII Types for Aggregation
                           draft-metz-aii-aggregate-00.txt
     
     
     
     
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     Copyright Notice
     
        Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005).  All Rights Reserved.
     
     Abstract
     
        [PWE3 Control] defines the signaling mechanisms for establishing
        point-to-point pseudowires between two provider edge (PE) nodes. The
        Generalized ID FEC element contained in PWE3 signaling protocols
        include TLV fields that identify pseudowire endpoints called
        attachment individual identifiers (AII). This document defines an AII
        structure in the form of new AII type-length-value fields that
        supports AII aggregation for improved scalability. It is envisioned
        that this would be useful in large inter-domain virtual private wire
        service networks where pseudowires are established between selected
        local and remote PE nodes based on customer need.
     
     Conventions used in this document
     
        The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
        "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
        document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119 Error!
        Reference source not found..
     
     Table of Contents
     
     
        1. Introduction...................................................2
        2. Proposed Structure for New AII Types...........................4
           2.1. Short Prefix AII Type.....................................5
           2.2. Long Prefix AII Type.....................................11
        3. IANA Considerations...........................................13
        4. Security Considerations.......................................13
        5. Acknowledgments...............................................14
        6. References....................................................15
        Author's Addresses...............................................15
        Intellectual Property Statement..................................16
        Disclaimer of Validity...........................................16
        Copyright Statement..............................................17
        Acknowledgment...................................................17
     
     1. Introduction
     
        [PWE3-CONTROL] defines the signaling mechanisms for establishing
        point-to-point pseudowires (PWs) between two provider edge (PE)
        nodes. When a PW is set up, the LDP signaling messages include a FEC
        element containing information about the PW type and an endpoint
     
     
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        identifier used in the selection of the PW forwarder that binds the
        PW to the attachment circuit at each end.
     
        There are two types of FEC elements defined for this purpose: PWid
        FEC (type 128) and the Generalized ID (GID) FEC (type 129). The PWid
        FEC element includes a fixed-length 32 bit value called the PWid that
        serves as an endpoint identifier. The same PWid value must be
        configured on the local and remote PE prior to PW setup.
     
        The GID FEC element includes TLV fields for attachment individual
        identifiers (AII) that, in conjunction with an attachment group
        identifier (AGI), serve as PW endpoint identifiers. The endpoint
        identifier on the local PE (denoted as <AGI, source AII or SAII) is
        called the source attachment identifier (SAI) and the endpoint
        identifier on the remote PE (denoted as <AGI, target AII or TAII) is
        called the target attachment identifier (TAI). The SAI and TAI can be
        distinct values. This is useful for applications and provisioning
        models where the local PE (with a particular SAI) does not know and
        must somehow learn (e.g. via MP-BGP auto-discovery) of remote TAI
        values prior to launching PW setup messages towards the remote PE.
     
        The use of the GID FEC TLV provides the flexibility to structure
        (source or target) AII values to best fit particular application or
        provisioning model needs [L2VPN-SIG]. For example an AII structure
        that summarizes or aggregates a large number of individual AII values
        could significantly reduce the burden on AII distribution mechanisms
        (e.g. MP-BGP) and on PE memory needed to store this AII information.
        Note that during the setup process, PW signaling messages would carry
        fully qualified AII values (as part of the SAI and TAI) and not the
        AII aggregate.
     
        An aggregate AII structure and corresponding IP next hop address
        could form the basis for enabling inter-domain MS-PW routing and
        signaling in a manner similar to the way that BGP-advertised IP
        address prefixes and next hops enable inter-domain IP routing. This
        would be useful in large inter-domain VPWS networks where PWs are
        established between local and remote PE based on customer need [REQ-
        MH-PW]. Note that this draft does not discuss if, how, or where in
        the network the aggregation of AII values is performed, how AII
        aggregates are distributed nor does it discuss how PW setup messages
        are routed through a network based on <AII aggregate, IP next hop>
        tuples.
     
        An AII that is globally unique would facilitate PW management and
        security in large inter-AS and inter-provider environments. Providers
        would not have to worry about AII value overlap during provisioning
        or the need for AII ôNATsö during signaling. Globally unique AII
     
     
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        values could aid in troubleshooting and could be subjected to source-
        validity checks during AII distribution and signaling.
     
        An AII that can be automatically derived from a providerÆs existing
        IP address space can simplify the provisioning process. In addition
        an AII structure that is backwards compatible with previous endpoint
        identifier semantics (i.e. PWid) would help providers to converge
        upon a PW provisioning and signaling behavior employing GID FEC TLVs.
     
        In summary the purpose of this draft is to define an AII structure
        based on [PWE3-CONTROL] that:
     
        o  Enables many discrete attachment individual identifiers to be
           aggregated into a single AII aggregate. This will enhance
           scalability by reducing the burden on AII distribution mechanisms
           and on PE memory.
     
     
        o  Ensures global uniqueness if desired by the provider. This will
           facilitate Internet-wide PW connectivity and provide a means for
           providers to perform source validation on the AII distribution
           (e.g. MP-BGP) and signaling (e.g. LDP) channels.
     
     
        o  Supports a uniform PW signaling mechanism employing the GID FEC
           TLV structure for endpoints provisioned with the AII types defined
           in this draft including those previously configured with the older
           FEC 128 PWid value.
     
     
     
        This is accomplished by defining two new AII types and associated
        formats of the value fields.
     
     2. Proposed Structure for New AII Types
     
        The format of the GID FEC TLV is defined in [PWE3-CONTROL] and is
        illustrated in figure 1:
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |     129       |C|         PW Type             |PW info Length |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |   AGI Type    |    Length     |      Value                    |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        ~                    AGI  Value (contd.)                        ~
        |                                                               |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |   AII Type    |    Length     |      Value                    |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        ~                   SAII  Value (contd.)                        ~
        |                                                               |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |   AII Type    |    Length     |      Value                    |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        ~                   TAII Value (contd.)                         ~
        |                                                               |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     
     
                             Figure 1 GID FEC TLV Format
     
        In this document the Attachment Group Identifier (AGI) type retains
        the semantics specified in [PWE3-CONTROL]. Definition of specific AGI
        types is outside the scope of this document. However if the AGI is
        non-null, then the SAI consists of the AGI together with the SAII,
        and the TAI consists of the TAII together with the AGI.  If the AGI
        is null, then the SAII and TAII are the SAI and TAI respectively.
     
        New AII types and the format of their associated AII value fields are
        defined next.
     
     2.1. Short Prefix AII Type
     
        The Short Prefix AII type permits varying levels of AII summarization
        to take place thus reducing the scaling burden on the aforementioned
        AII distribution mechanisms and PE memory. In other words it no
        longer becomes necessary to distribute or configure all individual
        AII values (which could number in the tens of thousands or more) on
        local PEs prior to establishing PWs to remote PEs. An AII aggregate
        representing a range of individual candidate AII values on the remote
        PEs coupled with corresponding IP reachability information leading to
        the remote PE is all that is required. The next obvious step would be
        to route a PW setup message containing a fully qualified target AII
        type towards the IP next hop address associated with the AII
     
     
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        aggregate. The details of how this is performed are not discussed in
        this document.
     
        The Short Prefix AII type uses a combination of a providerÆs globally
        unique identifier (Global ID) and a variable length prefix up to 32
        bits in length to create globally unique AII aggregates. It is termed
        the Short Prefix AII type because of the shorter 32-bit prefix used
        here as compared to the longer 256-bit prefix used in the Long Prefix
        AII type defined in the next section.
     
        The encoding of the Short Prefix AII type is shown in figure 2.
     
         0                   1                   2                   3
         0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |  AII Type=01  |    Length     |   Flags       | Global ID     |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |            Global ID (contd.)                 | Prefix Length |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |                            Prefix                             |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |                           AC ID                               |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     
     
                       Figure 2 Short Prefix AII TLV Structure
     
     
     
        o  AII Type = 0x01
     
     
        o  Length = length of value field in octets
     
     
        o  Flags = One octet flags field reserved for future use. The FLAGS
           field MUST be set to zero when transmitting a message containing
           this AII type and MUST BE ignored when receiving a message
           containing this AII type.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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        o  Global ID = This is a 4 octet field containing a value that is
           unique to the provider. The global ID can contain the 2 octet or 4
           octet value of the providerÆs Autonomous System Number, a global
           unicast IPv6 /48 prefix assigned to the provider or some other
           globally unique value up to 4 octets in length. It is expected
           that the global ID will be derived from the globally unique AS
           number of the autonomous system hosting the PEs containing the
           actual AIIs. If the PE hosting the AIIs is present in an
           autonomous system where the provider is not running BGP, chooses
           not to expose this information or does not wish to use the global
           ID, then the global ID field  MUST be set to zero. If the global
           ID is derived from a 2-octet AS number, then the high-order 2
           octets of this 4 octet field MUST be set to zero.
     
           Please note that the use of the providerÆs AS number as a global
           ID DOES NOT have anything at all to do with the use AS numberÆs in
           protocols such as BGP.
     
     
        o  Prefix Length = One octet value representing the significant
           length of the 32-bit prefix in bits.
     
     
        o  Prefix = The 32-bit prefix is a value assigned by the provider or
           it can be automatically derived from the PEÆs /32 IPv4 loopback
           address. Note that it is not required that the 32-bit prefix have
           any association with the IPv4 address space used in the providerÆs
           IGP or BGP for IP reachability.
     
           If the prefix length is less than 32 then the 32-bit prefix field
           is padded with zeroes out to 32 bits, but only the first <prefix
           length> bits are significant. On receipt, bits beyond the first
           <prefix length> number of bits MUST be ignored.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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        o  Attachment Circuit (AC) ID = This is a fixed length four octet
           field used to further refine identification of an attachment
           circuit on the PE. For example if the target PE advertises a short
           prefix AII aggregate representing all of its attachment circuits
           using a single aggregate value, then the AC ID included in a fully
           qualified Short Prefix AII Type (i.e. advertised for policy
           reasons or included in a PW signaling message) can be used to
           identify specific attachment circuits on that target PE.
     
           If the AC ID is not present then the AC ID field MUST be null and
           the AII Length field is set to 9.
     
           The presence of a non-null AC ID in conjunction with zeroed out
           global ID and prefix fields (i.e. prefix length equals zero)
           enables backwards compatibility with PW end-points provisioned
           with the older FEC 128 PWid value. This may be useful to provider
           who will to converge upon GID FEC 129 signaling semantics.
     
        Here are some examples of how the Short Prefix AII type applies. We
        assume that the AGI is null and that the prefix where appropriate is
        auto-generated from the configured /32 IPv4 loopback address of the
        PE.
     
     
     
        ôAll AIIs located in ASN = 2ö is summarized as:
     
        AII Type = 0x01
        Length = variable
        Flags = 0x00
        Global ID = 0x00000002
        Prefix Length = 0
        Prefix = all zeroes
        AC ID = null
     
        This enables AII aggregation at the ASN level. A provider might use
        this to advertise AII aggregate ôreachabilityö to other providers in
        an inter-domain PW provisioning scenario.
     
     
     
        ôAll AIIs contained in ASN = 2 and located on remote PEs with
        addresses beginning with 192.0.2/24ö is summarized as:
     
        AII Type = 0x01
     
     
     
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        Length = variable
        Flags = 0x00
        Global ID = 0x00000002
        Prefix Length = 24
        Prefix = 192.0.2.0
        AC ID = null
     
        Here we have aggregated all AIIs contained on up to 254 remote PEs in
        a specific ASN into a single AII aggregate. This would likely apply
        in an inter-domain case and would be used to limit external AII
        reachability to just those PEs sharing a common IPv4 prefix.
     
     
     
        ôAll AIIs contained on a single remote PE (192.0.2.21) located in ASN
        = 2ö is summarized as:
     
        AII Type = 0x01
        Length = variable
        Flags = 0x00
        Global ID = 0x00000002
        Prefix Length = 32
        Prefix = 192.0.2.21
        AC ID = null
     
        This is per-PE aggregation. Observe that this could be useful in a
        single-domain environment. A local PE would only need to learn and
        store the AII aggregate of the remote PE rather then learn and store
        each individual AII value.
     
     
        AS in the previous example but now the provider wants to advertise a
        couple of specific AC IDs (00000001 and 00000003) on the remote PE of
        192.0.2.3. Again the analogy is inter-domain routing where providers
        export more specific routes as a means of expressing routing policy.
        The provider in this case may wish to express their PW connectivity
        policies to these two respective attachment circuits on this PE.
     
        There would now be a single AII aggregate summarized as:
     
     
     
        AII Type = 0x01
        Length = variable
        Flags = 0x00
        Global ID = 0x00000002
        Prefix Length = 32
     
     
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        Prefix = 192.0.2.3
        AC ID = null
     
        and two discrete AII ôspecificsö encoded as:
     
     
        AII Type = 0x01
        Length = variable
        Flags = 0x00
        Global ID = 0x00000002
        Prefix Length = 32
        Prefix = 192.0.2.3
        AC ID = 00000001
     
     
     
        and à
     
     
     
        AII Type = 0x01
        Length = variable
        Flags = 0x00
        Global ID = 0x00000002
        Prefix Length = 32
        Prefix = 192.0.2.3
        AC ID = 00000003
     
     
        Note that in this case we have punched a couple of holes into the AII
        aggregate space that will increase the amount of AII information that
        must be distributed.
     
        And finally here is an example where the global ID is zeroed and
        combination of the prefix (192.0.2.3) and AC ID (00000004) are used
        to identify a particular AII:
     
        AII Type = 0x01
        Length = variable
        Flags = 0x00
        Global ID = 0x00000000
        Prefix Length = 32
        Prefix = 192.0.2.3
        AC ID = 00000004
     
     
     
     
     
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     2.2. Long Prefix AII Type
     
        The Long Prefix AII type employs a global ID and variable-length
        prefixes up to 256 bits (versus 32 bits for the Short Prefix AII
        type) in length to create AII values and their aggregates. The Long
        Prefix AII type might be useful to providers with an NSAP-based
        provisioning system or who are migrating a network with an NSAP
        addressing scheme to a network supporting PW connectivity. It can
        also be used to auto-generate AII aggregates based on /128 IPv6 and
        /32 IPv4 PE loopbacks.
     
        The encoding of the Long Prefix AII type is shown in figure 3:
     
     
         0                   1                   2                   3
         0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        | AII Type=02   |    Length     |   Flags       | Global ID     |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |          Global ID (contd.)                   | Prefix Length |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |                                                               |
        |                                                               |
        |                                                               |
        |                            Prefix                             |
        |                                                               |
        |                                                               |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     
                       Figure 3 Long Prefix AII TLV Structure
     
     
        o  AII Type = 0x02
     
     
        o  Length = length of value field in octets
     
     
        o  Flags = One octet flags field reserved for future use. The FLAGS
           field MUST be set to zero when transmitting a message containing
           this AII type and MUST BE ignored when receiving a message
           containing this AII type.
     
     
     
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        o  Global ID = This is a 4 octet field containing a value that is
           unique to the provider. The global ID can contain the 2 octet or 4
           octet value of the providerÆs Autonomous System Number, a global
           unicast IPv6 /48 prefix assigned to the provider or some other
           globally unique value up to 4 octets in length. It is expected
           that the global ID will be derived from the globally unique AS
           number of the autonomous system hosting the PEs containing the
           actual AIIs. If the PE hosting the AIIs is present in an
           autonomous system where the provider is not running BGP, chooses
           not to expose this information or does not wish to use the global
           ID, then the global ID field MUST be set to zero. If the global ID
           is derived from a 2-octet AS number, then the high-order 2 octets
           of this 4 octet field MUST be set to zero.
     
           Please note that the use of the providerÆs AS number as a global
           ID DOES NOT have anything at all to do with the use AS numberÆs in
           protocols such as BGP.
     
     
        o  Prefix Length = One octet value representing the length of the
           prefix in bits.
     
     
        o  Prefix = The Prefix is a value assigned by the provider or it can
           be automatically derived from the PEÆs local addressing scheme
           such as IPv6, NSAP or IPv4.
     
           If the prefix length is less than 256 then the prefix field is
           padded with zeroes out to 256 bits, but only the first <prefix
           length> bits are significant. On receipt, bits beyond the first
           <prefix length> number of bits MUST be ignored.
     
     
        This AII type does not employ an optional AC ID field. This is
        because there are sufficient bits available in the prefix field to
        hold a fully qualified target PE value auto-generated from 160 bit
        NSAP or 128 bit IPv6 addresses with the remainder available for
        attachment circuit identification.
     
        Here is an example of how the Long Prefix AII type applies. Again we
        assume that the AGI value is null and that the AII aggregate is auto-
        generated from the loopback address of the PE.
     
        ôAll AIIs contained on a single remote IPv6 PE
        (2001:DB8:C003:1:0:0:0:1234) located in ASN = 3ö is summarized as:
     
        AII Type = 0x02
     
     
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        Length = variable
        Flags = 0x00
        Global ID = 0x00000003
        Prefix Length = 128
        Prefix = 2001:DB8:C003:1:0:0:0:1234
     
        This is an example of per-PE aggregation. Identification of a
        specific attachment circuit (01) on this PE requires a fully
        qualified long prefix AII type consisting of:
     
        AII Type = 0x02
        Length = variable
        Flags = 0x00
        Global ID = 0x00000003
        Prefix Length = 256
        Prefix = 2001:DB8:C003:1:0:0:0:1234::01
     
     
     
     3. IANA Considerations
     
        This document requests that IANA allocate three AII types from the
        "Attachment Individual Identifier (AII) Type" registry defined in
        [IANA].
     
        The suggested values for the AAI types are:
     
        Value       Description
     
        0x01        Short Prefix AII Type
     
        0x02        Long Prefix AII Type
     
     
     
     4. Security Considerations
     
        AII values appear in AII distribution protocols [MP-BGP-AUTO-DISC]
        and PW signaling protocols [PWE3-CONTROL] and are subject to various
        authentication schemes (i.e. MD5) if so desired.
     
        The use of global ID values (e.g. ASN) in the inter-provider case
        could enable a form of source-validation checking to ensure that the
        AII value (aggregated or explicit) originated from a legitimate
        source.
     
     
     
     
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     5. Acknowledgments
     
        Thanks to Carlos Pignataro, Scott Brim, Skip Booth and George Swallow
        for their input into this draft.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     6. References
     
        [PWE3-CONTROL], ôPseudowire Setup and Maintenance using LDPö,
                  draft-ietf-pwe3-control-protocol-17.txt, June 2005
     
     
     
        [IANA], "IANA Allocations for pseudo Wire Edge to Edge Emulation
                  (PWE3)" Martini,Townsley, draft-ietf-pwe3-iana-allocation-
                  10.txt, work in progress), June 2005
     
     
     
        [L2VPN-SIG], ôProvisioning Models and Endpoint Identifiers in L2VPN
                  Signalingö, draft-ietf-l2vpn-signaling-03.txt, Feb. 2005
     
     
     
        [REQ-MH-PW], ôRequirements for inter domain Pseudo-Wiresö,  draft-
                  ietf-pwe3-ms-pw-requirements-00.txt, Internet Draft, June
                  2005
     
     
     
        [MP-BGP-AUTO-DISC], ôUsing BGP as an Auto-Discovery Mechanism for
                  Layer-3 and Layer-2 VPNsö, Ould-Brahim, H. et al, draft-
                  ietf-l3vpn-bgpvpn-auto-06.txt, June 2005
     
     
     
     Author's Addresses
     
     Chris Metz
     Cisco Systems, Inc.
     3700 Cisco Way
     San Jose, Ca. 95134
     Email: chmetz@cisco.com
     
     Luca Martini
     Cisco Systems, Inc.
     9155 East Nichols Avenue, Suite 400
     Englewood, CO, 80112
     Email: lmartini@cisco.com
     
     Florin Balus
     Nortel
     3500 Carling Ave.
     
     
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     Ottawa, Ontario, CANADA
     Email: balus@nortel.com
     
     Jeff Sugimoto
     Nortel
     3500 Carling Ave.
     Ottawa, Ontario, CANADA
     Email: sugimoto@nortel.com
     
     
     
     
     
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     Internet-Draft        AII Types for Aggregation               July 2005
     
     
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