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Network Working Group                                      G. Montenegro
Internet-Draft                                     Microsoft Corporation
Expires: January 12, 2006                                 N. Kushalnagar
                                                              Intel Corp
                                                           July 11, 2005


                    AODV for IEEE 802.15.4 Networks
                    draft-montenegro-lowpan-aodv-00

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005).

Abstract

   This document describes how to use the Ad Hoc On-Demand Vector
   Protocol (AODV) in IEEE 802.15.4 networks.








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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.1   Requirements notation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  AODV Operation over IEEE 802.15.4  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  Suggested AODV Simplifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   4.  Packet Delivery in a Mesh  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   5.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   6.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   7.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   8.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     8.1   Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     8.2   Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . .  8




































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1.  Introduction

   The IEEE 802.15.4 standard [ieee802.15.4] targets low power personal
   area networks.  The "IPv6 over IEEE 802.15.4" document
   [I-D.montenegro-lowpan-ipv6-over-802.15.4] defines basic
   functionality required to carry IPv6 packets over IEEE 802.15.4
   networks (including an adaptation layer, header compression, etc).
   Likewise, the functionality required for packet delivery in IEEE
   802.15.4 meshes is defined, as mesh topologies are expected to be
   common in LoWPAN networks.  However, neither the IEEE 802.15.4
   standard nor the "IPv6 over IEEE 802.15.4" specification provide any
   information as to how such a mesh topology could be obtained and
   maintained.

   This document specifies how to use the Ad Hoc On-Demand Vector
   Protocol (AODV) [RFC3561] to provide mesh routing in IEEE 802.15.4
   networks.  To distinguish this instantiation of the protocol from
   AODV over IPv4 and AODV over IPv6, the label "LoWPAN-AODV" is used in
   this document.  Given the very stringent limitations of the target
   devices, this document offers guidance regarding simplifications that
   are recommended to the base AODV specification.  Given the
   specificity of certain deployment scenarios, it is not expected that
   AODV will always be the best choice for a mesh routing protocol.
   Nevertheless, specifying how other mesh routing protocols may apply
   is out of scope of this document.

1.1  Requirements notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

2.  AODV Operation over IEEE 802.15.4

   Except for the exceptions mentioned in this section, AODV operation
   over IEEE 802.15.4 networks is as defined in [I-D.perkins-manet-
   aodvbis].

   The addresses used in AODV control messages are IEEE 802.15.4 IEEE
   64-bit extended addresses [EUI64] (however, 16-bit short address
   support may be added later).  Additionally, it should be noted that
   as used in this specification, AODV is not layered on top of IP, but
   underneath it.  It is an underlay.  As such, it creates a mesh
   network topology underneath and unbeknownst to IP.  IP sees a PAN as
   a single link.  This is similar to how other technologies regularly
   create complex structures underneath IP (e.g., ethernet spanning tree
   bridges, token ring source routing, ATM, etc).  Of course, this does
   not preclude simultaneously using AODV above IP.  One can envision a



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   sub-IP mesh creating the illusion that all the devices on that PAN
   are on the same IPv6 link (sharing the same IPv6 prefix).  At the
   same time, normal usage of AODV (above IP) could tie together several
   such "links" (potentially using different technologies for each) into
   a larger mesh.

   AODV over IPv4 makes use of broadcast in its route discovery.  It
   does so in order to propagate the Route Request control packets
   (RREQs).  In this specification, such broadcast packets are obtained
   by setting the PAN id to the broadcast PAN (0xffff) and by setting
   the destination address to the broadcast short address (0xffff)

   AODV control packets use the encapsulation defined in
   [I-D.montenegro-lowpan-ipv6-over-802.15.4].  All AODV control packets
   shall use the prot_type value TBD (suggested value of 4).  This
   prot_type is used to send AODV messages in a manner similar to how
   normal AODV uses the properly assigned UDP port (654).  In both
   cases, the different types of AODV control packets (i.e., RREQ, RREP,
   RERR and RREP-ACK) are handled via Types.  This specification uses
   the same Types and message formats as defined for normal AODV
   [I-D.perkins-manet-aodvbis].

3.  Suggested AODV Simplifications

   Besides the main AODV specification [RFC3561], several efforts aim at
   further correctness [I-D.perkins-manet-aodvbis] or simplifications of
   the protocol, as in the AODVjr proposal [AODVjr] or the TinyAODV
   implementation [TinyAODV].  Similarly, DyMO allows for minimalist
   implementation leaving non-essential functionality as optional
   [I-D.ietf-manet-dymo].  In keeping with the spirit of the above,
   LoWPAN-AODV simplifies AODV as follows:
   o  The only AODV control messages required to be implemented are RREQ
      (Route Request) and RREP (Route Reply).

   o  Only the final destination responds to a RREQ by sending an RREP.

   o  Only hop count is used to determine best routes.

   o  Hello messages are not used.  Instead, the IEEE 802.15.4
      acknowledgement mechanism is used to determine if a neighbor is no
      longer responsive.  This information is obtained when transmitting
      a packet with acknowledgements turned on.


4.  Packet Delivery in a Mesh

   Packet delivery is done by using the "Final Destination" field
   defined and procedures defined in [I-D.montenegro-lowpan-ipv6-over-



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   802.15.4].

5.  IANA Considerations

   This document requests that IANA assign a value out of the prot_type
   (Protocol Type) registry defined in [I-D.montenegro-lowpan-ipv6-over-
   802.15.4].  The value requested is for LoWPAN-AODV (suggested value:
   4).

6.  Security Considerations

   TBD.

7.  Acknowledgements

   TBD.

8.  References

8.1  Normative References

   [EUI64]    "GUIDELINES FOR 64-BIT GLOBAL IDENTIFIER (EUI-64)
              REGISTRATION AUTHORITY", IEEE http://standards.ieee.org/
              regauth/oui/tutorials/EUI64.html.

   [I-D.ietf-ipv6-2461bis]
              Narten, T., "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)",
              draft-ietf-ipv6-2461bis-03 (work in progress), May 2005.

   [I-D.ietf-ipv6-rfc2462bis]
              Thomson, S., "IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration",
              draft-ietf-ipv6-rfc2462bis-08 (work in progress),
              May 2005.

   [I-D.montenegro-lowpan-ipv6-over-802.15.4]
              Montenegro, G., "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE
              802.15.4 Networks",
              draft-montenegro-lowpan-ipv6-over-802.15.4-02 (work in
              progress), February 2005.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2434]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 2434,
              October 1998.

   [RFC2460]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6



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              (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998.

   [RFC3513]  Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "Internet Protocol Version 6
              (IPv6) Addressing Architecture", RFC 3513, April 2003.

   [RFC3561]  Perkins, C., Belding-Royer, E., and S. Das, "Ad hoc On-
              Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing", RFC 3561,
              July 2003.

   [ieee802.15.4]
              IEEE Computer Society, "IEEE Std. 802.15.4-2003",
              October 2003.

8.2  Informative References

   [AODVjr]   Chakeres, Ian and Klein-Berndt, Luke, "AODVjr, AODV
              Simplified", ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and
              Communications Review pp. 100-101, July 2002.

   [I-D.ietf-ipngwg-icmp-v3]
              Conta, A., "Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMPv6)for
              the Internet Protocol Version  6 (IPv6) Specification",
              draft-ietf-ipngwg-icmp-v3-06 (work in progress),
              November 2004.

   [I-D.ietf-manet-dymo]
              Chakeres, I., "Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) Routing",
              draft-ietf-manet-dymo-02 (work in progress), June 2005.

   [I-D.perkins-manet-aodvbis]
              Perkins, C., "Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV)
              Routing", draft-perkins-manet-aodvbis-01 (work in
              progress), February 2004.

   [KW03]     Karlof, Chris and Wagner, David, "Secure Routing in Sensor
              Networks: Attacks and Countermeasures", Elsevier's AdHoc
              Networks Journal, Special Issue on Sensor Network
              Applications and Protocols vol 1, issues 2-3,
              September 2003.

   [RFC3439]  Bush, R. and D. Meyer, "Some Internet Architectural
              Guidelines and Philosophy", RFC 3439, December 2002.

   [RFC3756]  Nikander, P., Kempf, J., and E. Nordmark, "IPv6 Neighbor
              Discovery (ND) Trust Models and Threats", RFC 3756,
              May 2004.

   [TinyAODV]



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              "TinyAODV Implementation", TinyOS Source Code Repository h
              ttp://cvs.sourceforge.net/viewcvs.py/tinyos/tinyos-1.x/
              contrib/hsn/.


Authors' Addresses

   Gabriel Montenegro
   Microsoft Corporation

   Email: gabriel_montenegro_2000@yahoo.com


   Nandakishore Kushalnagar
   Intel Corp

   Email: nandakishore.kushalnagar@intel.com


































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Acknowledgment

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   Internet Society.




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