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IP Flow Information Export                                  C. Munukutla
Internet-Draft                                                   S. Vaid
Intended status: Standards Track                  Juniper Networks, Inc.
Expires: January 28, 2021                                      A. Mahale
                                                                D. Patel
                                                            Google, Inc.
                                                           July 27, 2020


 IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX) Information Elements Extension for
                         Forwarding Exceptions
               draft-mvmd-opsawg-ipfix-fwd-exceptions-00

Abstract

   This draft proposes couple of new Forwarding exceptions related
   Information Elements (IEs) and Templates for the IP Flow Information
   Export (IPFIX) protocol.  These new Information Elements and
   Exception Template can be used to export information about any
   forwarding errors in a network.  This essential information is
   adequate to correlate packet drops to any control plane entity and
   map it to an impacted service.  Once exceptions are correlated to a
   particular entity, an action can be assigned to mitigate such
   problems essentially enabling self-driving networks.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 28, 2021.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2020 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.





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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.1.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.2.  Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Information Elements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  New Information Elements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.1.  Proposed New Information Elements . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.2.  Definition of Exceptions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   5.  Exception Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     5.1.  IPFIX Exception Template 1 for Forwarding Exceptions  . .   7
     5.2.  IPFIX Exception Template 2 for Forwarding Exceptions  . .   8
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     6.1.  Information Elements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     6.2.  Forwarding Exception Codes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   8.  Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12

1.  Introduction

   All networks are susceptible to traffic drops due to a number of
   factors.  Traffic drops can go unnoticed unless they are service
   impacting.  In a multi-layered network architecture, it is tedious
   manual work to localize and root cause traffic blackholing issues.
   Transient drops are even harder to detect.  Existing methodologies
   that rely on periodically monitoring interfaces on several hosts in a
   network does not guarantee timely detection, and are not scalable for
   large networks.

   In order to eliminate this tedious monitoring work-flow, objective is
   to simplify localization and build correlation of dropped packets to
   particular entity.  The network entity shall identify the dropped
   packets by monitoring dropped counters or doing a deep packet



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   inspection of the packet discarded by the forwarding ASIC.  The
   implementation of the method used to detect the drop is outside the
   scope of this document.  Dropped packets will be sampled in the
   forwarding-path and sent to a host or software queue along with type
   of exception, in/out interface information and other relevant meta
   data.  This will be a push model where the node encountering the
   error will emit the information about dropped packets and associated
   meta-data.  Techniques for IP Packet Selection [RFC5475] describes
   Sampling and Filtering techniques for IP packet selection either
   using Systematic Sampling or Random Sampling.

   The IPFIX Protocol Specification [RFC7011] defines a generic exchange
   mechanism for collecting flow information.  It supports source-
   triggered export of information via the push model approach.  The
   IPFIX Information Model [IANA-IPFIX] defines a list of standard
   Information Elements (IEs) which can be carried by the IPFIX
   protocol.

   This document focuses on telemetry information for dropped packet
   exceptions, and proposes an extension to IPFIX message format for
   collecting sampled exceptions.  Some of the IPFIX Information
   Elements (IEs) already exist, some will be defined along with
   corresponding formats.  It is also possible to achieve sampling of
   the dropped packets by using sampling methods like SFLOW but details
   of other sampling methods are outside the scope of this document.

1.1.  Terminology

   IPFIX-specific terminology (e.g.  Information Element, Template,
   Template Record, Options Template Record, Template Set, Collector,
   Exporter, Data Record) used in this document is defined in Section 2
   of [RFC7011].  As in [RFC7011] these IPFIX-specific terms have the
   first letter of a word capitalized.  This document also makes use of
   the same terminology and definitions as Section 2 of [RFC5470].

1.2.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

2.  Scope

   This document specifies the information model used for reporting
   packet-based forwarding exceptions.  [RFC7011] provides guidance on
   the choices of the transport protocols used for IPFIX and their



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   effects.  Encoded IPFIX exception packets need to be reliably
   transported to the collector.  The choice of the actual transport
   protocol is beyond the scope of this document.

   This document assumes that all devices reporting exceptions will use
   existing IPFIX framework/module to send encoded packets to the
   collector.  This would mean that the network device will specify the
   template that it is going to use for each of the events.  The
   templates can be of varying length, and there could be multiple
   templates that a network device could use to encode the exceptions.

   The implementation details of the collector application are beyond
   the scope of this document.

3.  Information Elements

   The Exception template could contain a subset of the IEs shown in
   Table 1, depending upon the exception reported.

   Whenever packet drop happens inside forwarding plane, following
   information is key to understanding the issue: reason for packet
   drop, flow which encountered the drop (packet content), additional
   meta-data e.g. flow direction (ingress/egress), nexthop index, input
   interface, output interface, etc. on which this packet was flowing.

   The following table includes all the existing IEs that a device
   reporting IPFIX Exceptions using Exception Template would typically
   need.  The formats of IEs and IPFIX IDs are listed in the table
   below.






















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     +-------------------------------+--------+-------+--------------+
     | Field Name                    |  Size  |  IANA | Description  |
     |                               | (bits) | IPFIX |              |
     |                               |        |   ID  |              |
     +-------------------------------+--------+-------+--------------+
     | flowDirection                 |   8    |  61   | The direction|
     |                               |        |       | of the Flow  |
     |                               |        |       | observed at  |
     |                               |        |       | Observation  |
     |                               |        |       | point.       |
     |                               |        |       |              |
     | ingressInterface              |   32   |  10   | Index of IP  |
     |                               |        |       | interface    |
     |                               |        |       | where packets|
     |                               |        |       | of this flow |
     |                               |        |       | are being    |
     |                               |        |       | received.    |
     |                               |        |       |              |
     | egressInterface               |   32   |  14   | Index of IP  |
     |                               |        |       | interface    |
     |                               |        |       | where packets|
     |                               |        |       | of this flow |
     |                               |        |       | are being    |
     |                               |        |       | sent.        |
     |                               |        |       |              |
     | dataLinkFrameSize             |   16   |  312  | Specified    |
     |                               |        |       | length of    |
     |                               |        |       | data link    |
     |                               |        |       | frame.       |
     |                               |        |       |              |
     | dataLinkFrameSection          |  65535 |  315  | Carries n    |
     |                               |        |       | octets from  |
     |                               |        |       | data link    |
     |                               |        |       | frame of     |
     |                               |        |       | selected     |
     |                               |        |       | frame.       |
     | commonPropertiesID            |   64   |  137  | Identifier of|
     |                               |        |       | a set of     |
     |                               |        |       | common       |
     |                               |        |       | properties   |
     |                               |        |       | that is      |
     |                               |        |       | unique per   |
     |                               |        |       | observation  |
     |                               |        |       | domain.      |
     +-------------------------------+--------+-------+--------------+
             Table 1: Forwarding Exception Information Elements

                           Information Elements



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4.  New Information Elements

4.1.  Proposed New Information Elements

   The proposed new IEs that a device reporting Exceptions using
   Exception template would need are listed in Table 2 below.

   +---------------------------+---------------------+-----------------+
   | Field Name                | Abstract Data Type  | Description     |
   |                           |                     |                 |
   +---------------------------+---------------------+-----------------+
   | forwardingExceptionCode   | unsigned32          | Unique code for |
   |                           |                     | every exception |
   |                           |                     |                 |
   | forwardingNextHopID       | unsigned64          | Forwarding NH - |
   |                           |                     | index associated|
   |                           |                     | with packet that|
   |                           |                     | encountered     |
   |                           |                     | this exception  |
   +---------------------------+---------------------+-----------------+
               Table 2: New Information Elements

                         New Information Elements

   The Information Elements defined in Figure 1 are proposed to be
   incorporated into the IANA IPFIX Information Elements registry
   [IANA-IPFIX]

4.2.  Definition of Exceptions

   Every network will encounter issues like packet loss, from time to
   time.  Some of the causes for such a loss of traffic or a block in
   transmission of data packets include overloaded system conditions,
   misconfiguration, profiles and policies that restrict the bandwidth
   or priority of traffic, network outages, or disruption with physical
   cable faults.  Packet loss could also happen because of incorrect
   stitching of the forwarding path or a mismatch between control plane
   and data plane state.  Exception code entails the reason/error code
   due to which this packet has been dropped.

   forwardingExceptionCode will be defined in "IPFIX Information
   Elements" registry.  This list can be expanded in the future as
   necessary.  The data record will have corresponding exception code
   value to indicate forwarding error that caused the traffic drop.

   An implementation may choose to encode device internal exception
   codes as forwardingExceptionCode.  In such scenarios, Enterprise Bit




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   MUST be set to 1 and corresponding Enterprise Number MUST be present
   as described in [RFC7011]

   A list of commonly used forwarding Exception codes will be identified
   and listed as part of Table 3 below.

   +----------------+--------------------------------------------------+
   | Forwarding     |           Reason                                 |
   | Exception Code |                                                  |
   +----------------+--------------------------------------------------+
   |       1        | FIREWALL_DISCARD                                 |
   |       2        | TTL_EXPIRY                                       |
   |       3        | DISCARD_ROUTE                                    |
   |       4        | BAD_IPV4_CHECKSUM                                |
   |       5        | REJECT_ROUTE                                     |
   |       6        | BAD_IPV4_HEADER (Version incorrect or IHL < 5)|
   |       7        | BAD_IPV6_HEADER (Version incorrect)              |
   |       8        | BAD_IPV4_HEADER_LENGTH (V4 frame is too short)   |
   |       9        | BAD_IPV6_HEADER_LENGTH                           |
   |       10       | BAD_IPV6_OPTIONS_PACKET(too many option headers) |
   |       ..       | ..                                               |
   +----------------+--------------------------------------------------+

                         Table 3: Exception Codes

   Reachability to any given destination inside the router is defined
   using a next-hop which is typically represented in the forwarding
   path as an index.  The nexthop index uniquely identifies the egress
   path a packet would take to reach the destination.  This could
   include information about the outgoing interface, forwarding features
   configured for the packet path etc.

   An implementation may choose to report linecard and forwarding ASIC
   information on which an exception occurs, but mechanism to export
   these fields is out of the scope of this document.

5.  Exception Templates

   This section presents a list of templates for reporting exceptions
   using newly proposed IEs in addition to few existing IEs.

5.1.  IPFIX Exception Template 1 for Forwarding Exceptions

   Exception Template defined in Figure 1 may be used to export
   forwarding Exceptions.






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   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |         Set ID = 2                |      Length = N octets        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |       Template ID = 256           |       Field Count = N         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0|   forwardingExceptionCode       |       Field Length = 4        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0|   forwardingNextHopId           |       Field Length = 8        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0|      flowDirection              |       Field Length = 1        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0|     ingressInterface            |       Field Length = 4        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0|     egressInterface             |       Field Length = 4        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0|     dataLinkFrameSize           |       Field Length = 2        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0|    dataLinkFrameSection         |       Field Length = 65535    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                          Padding (opt)                            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

            IPFIX Exception Template for Forwarding Exceptions

5.2.  IPFIX Exception Template 2 for Forwarding Exceptions

   Alternatively, Exception Template defined in Figure 2 may be used.
   This includes Information Element 137 to represent following fields:
   forwardingNexthopId, ingressInterface, underlyingIngressInterface and
   egressInterface.





















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   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |         Set ID = 2                |      Length = N octets        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |       Template ID = 256           |       Field Count = N         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0|   forwardingExceptionCode       |       Field Length = 4        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0|      flowDirection              |       Field Length = 1        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0|     commonPropertiesId1         |       Field Length = 8        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0|     commonPropertiesId2         |       Field Length = 8        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0|     commonPropertiesId3         |       Field Length = 8        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0|     commonPropertiesId4         |       Field Length = 8        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0|     dataLinkFrameSize           |       Field Length = 2        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0|    dataLinkFrameSection         |       Field Length = 65535    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                          Padding (opt)                            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

           IPFIX Exception Template 2 for Forwarding Exceptions

6.  IANA Considerations

6.1.  Information Elements

   IANA manages the IPFIX Information Elements registry at [IANA-IPFIX].
   This document introduces two new IPFIX Information Elements.

   Name: forwardingExceptionCode
   ElementID: TBD
   Description: Exception code is an identifier uniquely describing
   cause of irregularity or traffic drop on a device.
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned32
   Data Type Semantics: identifier

   Name: forwardingNexthopId
   ElementID: TBD
   Description: Nexthop ID is a unique identifier for a Nexthop on a
   device.
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned64
   Data Type Semantics: identifier





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6.2.  Forwarding Exception Codes

   This document requests addition of a new registry for Forwarding
   Exception Codes.

   +----------------+--------------------------------------------------+
   | Forwarding     |           Reason                                 |
   | Exception Code |                                                  |
   +----------------+--------------------------------------------------+
   |       1        | FIREWALL_DISCARD                                 |
   |       2        | TTL_EXPIRY                                       |
   |       3        | DISCARD_ROUTE                                    |
   |       4        | BAD_IPV4_CHECKSUM                                |
   |       5        | REJECT_ROUTE                                     |
   |       6        | BAD_IPV4_HEADER (Version incorrect or IHL < 5)|
   |       7        | BAD_IPV6_HEADER (Version incorrect)              |
   |       8        | BAD_IPV4_HEADER_LENGTH (V4 frame is too short)   |
   |       9        | BAD_IPV6_HEADER_LENGTH                           |
   |       10       | BAD_IPV6_OPTIONS_PACKET(too many option headers) |
   |       ..       | ..                                               |
   +----------------+--------------------------------------------------+

                         Table 3: Exception Codes

   All assignments in this registry are to be performed via Expert
   Review.

7.  Security Considerations

   Security Considerations listed in detail for IPFIX in [RFC7011] apply
   to this document as well.  As described in [RFC7011], the IPFIX
   messages exchanged between network device and collector MUST be
   protected to provide confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity.
   Without those characteristics, the messages are subject to various
   kinds of attacks.  These attacks are described in great detail in
   [RFC7011].

8.  Contributors

     Manikandan Musuvathi Poornachary
     Juniper Networks, Inc.
     Electra Exora Business Park~Marathahalli-Sarjapur Outer Ring Road,
     Bangalore, KA - 560103
     India
     Email: mpoornachary@juniper.net






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     Vishnu Pavan Beeram
     Juniper Networks, Inc.
     1133 Innovation Way
     Sunnyvale, CA  94089
     USA
     Email: vbeeram@juniper.net

     Raveendra Torvi
     Juniper Networks, Inc.
     10 Technology Park Dr
     Westford, MA  01886
     USA
     Email: rtorvi@juniper.net

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC5475]  Zseby, T., Molina, M., Duffield, N., Niccolini, S., and F.
              Raspall, "Sampling and Filtering Techniques for IP Packet
              Selection", RFC 5475, DOI 10.17487/RFC5475, March 2009,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5475>.

   [RFC7011]  Claise, B., Ed., Trammell, B., Ed., and P. Aitken,
              "Specification of the IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX)
              Protocol for the Exchange of Flow Information", STD 77,
              RFC 7011, DOI 10.17487/RFC7011, September 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7011>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

9.2.  Informative References

   [IANA-IPFIX]
              IANA, "IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX) Entities",
              <https://www.iana.org/assignments/ipfix>.

   [RFC5470]  Sadasivan, G., Brownlee, N., Claise, B., and J. Quittek,
              "Architecture for IP Flow Information Export", RFC 5470,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5470, March 2009,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5470>.



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Authors' Addresses

   Venkata Naga Chaitanya Munukutla
   Juniper Networks, Inc.
   10 Technology Park Dr
   Westford, MA  01886
   USA

   Email: vmunuku@juniper.net


   Shivam Vaid
   Juniper Networks, Inc.
   Electra, Exora Business Park- Marathahalli-Sarjapur Outer Ring Road
   Bangalore, Karnataka  560103
   India

   Email: shivamv@juniper.net


   Aditya Mahale
   Google, Inc.
   1600 Amphitheatre Parkway
   Mountain View, CA  94043
   USA

   Email: amahale@google.com


   Devang Patel
   Google, Inc.
   1600 Amphitheatre Parkway
   Mountain View, CA  94043
   USA

   Email: pateldevang@google.com















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