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Network Working Group                                          A. Newton
Internet-Draft                                            VeriSign, Inc.
Expires: August 8, 2002                                          S. Kerr
                                                                RIPE NCC
                                                        February 7, 2002


                Internet Registry Directory Requirements
                  draft-newton-ir-dir-requirements-00

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 8, 2002.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2002). All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   Internet registries expose administrative and operational data via
   varying directory services. This document defines the common
   requirements for the directory services of these Internet registries.










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Table of Contents

   1.    Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.    Internet Registry Communities  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   2.1   Registries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   2.1.1 Regional Internet Registries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   2.1.2 Local Internet Registries  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   2.1.3 Internet Routing Registries  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   2.1.4 Domain Registries  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   2.1.5 Domain Registrars  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   2.2   Implementers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   2.3   End Users  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   2.3.1 Service Providers and Network Operators  . . . . . . . . . .  7
   2.3.2 Intellectual Property Holders  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   2.3.3 Law Enforcement  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   2.3.4 Certificate Authorities  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   2.4   Other Actors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   3.    Functional Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   3.1   Common Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   3.1.1 Mining Prevention  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   3.1.2 Minimal Technical Reinvention  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   3.1.3 Standard and Extensible Schemas  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   3.1.4 Level of Access  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   3.1.5 Client Processing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   3.1.6 Entity Referencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   3.1.7 Contact Lookup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   3.1.8 Nameserver Lookup  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   3.1.9 Decentralization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   3.2   RIR Functions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   3.2.1 Network Lookup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   3.2.2 Autonomous System Lookup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   3.2.3 DNS Referencing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   3.2.4 Network Search by Contact  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   3.3   IRR Functions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   3.3.1 Mirroring  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   3.3.2 Router Lookup  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   3.3.3 Route Lookup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   3.3.4 Route set Lookup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   3.4   Domain Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   3.4.1 Domain Status Lookup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   3.4.2 Domain Registrant Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   3.4.3 Domain Information Lookup  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   3.4.4 Nameserver Search  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   3.4.5 Escrow Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   3.4.6 Authentication Distribution  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   3.4.7 Domain Name Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   3.4.8 DNS Referencing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   4.    Feature Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   4.1   Client Authentication  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12


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   4.2   Referrals  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   4.3   URIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   4.4   Structured Queries and Responses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   4.5   Existing Schema Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   4.6   Defined Schemas  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   4.7   Serialization Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   5.    Internationalization Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   6.    IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   7.    Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
         References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
         Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   A.    Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   B.    Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   B.1   Forums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   B.2   Contributions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
         Full Copyright Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20



































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1. Background

   The expansion and growth of the Internet has seen the registry
   function of a traditionally centralized and managed Network
   Information Center become the responsibility of various autonomous,
   functionally disparate, and globally distributed Internet
   registries. With the broadening number of Internet registries, the
   uses of their administrative directory services have expanded from
   the original and traditional use of the whois[4] protocol to include
   the use of whois outside the scope of its specification, formal and
   informal definitions of syntax, undocumented security mechanisms,
   the use of other protocols, such as rwhois[3], to fulfill other
   needs, and proposals for the use of other technologies such as
   LDAP[1] and XML.

   The scope of the requirements captured in this document relate to
   the directory services of the specified Internet registries (Section
   2.1) and their related communities (Section 2.2,Section 2.3, and
   Section 2.4). The requirements are of both the current use of these
   directory services and the desired functionality based on input from
   relevant forums (Appendix B.1). These requirements are not specific
   to any protocol.

   The requirements captured in this document are for the purpose of
   designing technical specifications. The words used in this document
   for compliance with RFC2119[8] do not reference or specify policy
   and speak only to the capabilities in the derived technology. The
   scope of the requirements in this document are also restricted to
   access of data from Internet registries. Requirements for
   modification, addition, or provisioning of data in Internet
   registries are out of scope.




















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2. Internet Registry Communities

   The Internet registries are composed of various communities which
   provide scope for the requirements in this document. These
   communities can be generalized into the following categories:
   registries, implementers, end-users, and other actors.

2.1 Registries

2.1.1 Regional Internet Registries

   Regional Internet Registries (RIR's) administer the allocation of IP
   address space and autonomous system numbers. Each RIR serves a
   specific geographic region, and collectively they service the entire
   Internet. Each RIR is a membership-based, non-profit organization
   that facilitates and implements global addressing policy based on
   the direction of their regional community.

2.1.2 Local Internet Registries

   Local Internet Registries (LIR's) and National Internet Registries
   (NIR's) are sub-registries of RIR's and coordinate the same
   functions of the RIR's for smaller, more specific geographic
   regions, sovereign nations, and localities.

2.1.3 Internet Routing Registries

   Internet Routing Registries are routing policy databases. Their
   purpose is to provide information helpful in administering Internet
   routers. Frequently, the syntax and contents are defined by RPSL[5].

   IRR's are operated by academic, commercial, governmental, and other
   types of organizations, including several of the RIR's. The contents
   of the databases vary and reflect the needs of the users directly
   served (e.g. an ISP may look up route entries added by their
   customers to decide whether to accept specific route advertisements
   they receive).

   Unlike RIR and domain registry data, IRR data is often duplicated
   between separate organizations. The IRR data has the unique
   characteristics of being largely available through other sources
   (i.e. it is advertised by the Internet routing protocols) and most
   often having a common data format, RPSL.

2.1.4 Domain Registries

   Domain registries are responsible for the registration of domains
   for use with DNS[2] and forward lookups (i.e. does not include the
   IN-ADDR.ARPA or IP6.ARPA domains). These registries have typically


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   served two main domain functions: as the registry for a gTLD or as a
   registry for a ccTLD. In many instances, one entity will operate
   multiple TLD's, both of the gTLD and ccTLD type. A gTLD or ccTLD
   domain registry operator may be a governmental entity,
   non-governmental, non-commercial entity, or a commercial entity.

   Some ccTLD's have second-level domain registrations similar in
   nature to gTLD's or have distinctly separate entities operating
   second-level domain registries similar in nature to gTLD's within
   the ccTLD.

   Domain registries usually follow one of two models for conducting
   registrations of domains. The "thick" model is the more traditional
   model. In a "thick" domain registry, the registry contains both the
   operational data for the domain and the contact or social data for
   the domain. In this model, the registry is typically the interface
   to the domain registrant but may also interface with the domain
   registrant through domain registrars. The "thin" model domain
   registry contains only operational data for domains. In the "thin"
   model, contact or social data for the domain are maintained by a
   domain registrar.

   Domain registries not described in this section are not the subject
   of this document and may have requirements that are out of scope for
   this subject matter.

2.1.5 Domain Registrars

   Domain registrars accept domain registrations from registrants on
   behalf of domain registries, both "thick" and "thin". In a "thin"
   model registry/registrar system, a domain registrar maintains the
   contact and social data of a domain while the registry maintains the
   operational data of a domain. In a "thick" model registry/registrar
   system, a domain registrar passes both the operational data and
   contact data to the registry. Domain registrars may register a
   domain on behalf of a registrant in more than one domain registry.

2.2 Implementers

   Implementers of client software are often either affiliated with
   large network operators, registry operators, or commercial entities
   offering value-added services, or are general citizens of the
   Internet. Much of the client software for use with the directory
   services of Internet registries is either freely available, open
   source, or both, or available as a service. Implementers of server
   software are often affiliated with operators or commercial entities
   specializing in the out-sourcing of development for Internet
   registries.



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2.3 End Users

2.3.1 Service Providers and Network Operators

   Service providers and network operators provide connectivity,
   routing, and naming services to many other entities, some commercial
   and some non-commercial, both large and small. Their operational and
   administrative staff often interact with Internet registries on
   behalf of other end-users. Service providers and network operators
   interact with all of the Internet registry operators outlined in
   this document on a frequent and consistent basis.

2.3.2 Intellectual Property Holders

   Intellectual Property Holders have legal rights to domain names
   based on copyright and trademark laws of various governments. They
   use the directory services of Internet registries, mostly domain
   registries and registrars, for purposes of maintaining and defending
   claims to domain names consistent with applicable laws and
   regulations.

2.3.3 Law Enforcement

   Law enforcement agencies use the directory services of Internet
   registries in the enforcement of laws within their jurisdictions.

2.3.4 Certificate Authorities

   Certificate authorities use the directory services of Internet
   registries as part of their verification process when issuing
   certificates for Internet named hosts.

2.4 Other Actors

   Requirements must also consider the influence and regulations placed
   on the use of Internet registry directory services by other actors.
   These actors include governments, non-governmental policy-setting
   bodies, and other non-governmental organizations.













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3. Functional Requirements

   Functional requirements describe an overall need or process for
   which the directory service is used by an Internet registry to
   fulfill its obligations to provide access to its respective
   customers, members, or other constituents. This section makes
   reference to terms and definitions declared in Appendix A. This
   section makes use of the term "service" to denote the protocol or
   protocols derived from these requirements.

3.1 Common Functions

3.1.1 Mining Prevention

   The service MUST have a mechanism to limit the amount of data that
   may be accessed. The service MAY have different limits for different
   types of data, as well as authenticated and non-authenticated
   entities.

3.1.2 Minimal Technical Reinvention

   The service MUST NOT employ unique technology solutions for all
   aspects and layers above the network and transport layers of the
   total service solution and SHOULD make use of existing technology
   standards where applicable. The service MUST employ the use of
   network and transport layer standards as defined by the Internet
   Engineering Task Force.

3.1.3 Standard and Extensible Schemas

   The service MUST define standard schemas for the exchange of data
   needed to implement the functionality in this document. In addition,
   there MUST be a means to allow for the use of schemas not defined by
   the needs of this document. Both types of schemas MUST use the same
   schema language.

3.1.4 Level of Access

   The service MUST be capable of authenticating priviledged entities
   and MUST be capable of restricting access of priviledged data to
   only priviledged entities. In addition, the service MUST be capable
   of serving both priviledged data and non-priviledged data and MUST
   allow for the classification of data, be it social or operational
   data, as priviledged data or non-priviledged data for the purpose of
   restricting its access.

3.1.5 Client Processing

   The service MUST be capable of allowing machine parsable requests


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   and responses.

3.1.6 Entity Referencing

   There MUST be a mechanism for an entity contained within a server to
   be referenced uniquely by an entry in another server.

3.1.7 Contact Lookup

   The service SHOULD allow access to social data of contact entities
   given a unique reference to the contact entity.

3.1.8 Nameserver Lookup

   The service SHOULD allow access to operational and social data given
   the fully-qualified host name or IP address of a nameserver.

3.1.9 Decentralization

   The service MUST be decentralized in design and principle and MUST
   NOT require the aggregation of data to a central repository, server,
   or entity. The service MAY allow for the optional aggregation of
   data indexes or hints. The service MUST NOT require aggregation of
   data indexes or hints.

3.2 RIR Functions

3.2.1 Network Lookup

   The service MUST provide access to operational and social data of a
   network given an IP address contained within the network. The
   service SHOULD provide access to address-to-name mapping information
   (IN-ADDR.ARPA or IP6.ARPA) of a network given an IP address
   contained within the network.

3.2.2 Autonomous System Lookup

   The service MUST provide access to operational and social data of a
   network given the Autonomous System Number of a network.

3.2.3 DNS Referencing

   The service MUST use DNS[2] to determine the authoritative source of
   information about address-to-name mapping (IN-ADDR.ARPA or
   IP6.ARPA). The service SHOULD use DNSSEC[7] when available for this
   purpose.





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3.2.4 Network Search by Contact

   The service SHOULD provide access to a list of networks given a
   contact name or a subset of a contact name associated with the
   networks.

3.3 IRR Functions

3.3.1 Mirroring

   The service SHOULD provide near real-time mirroring of operational
   routing data. The service MAY provide this capability via a
   mechanism separate from that which the service provides for other
   data access means.

3.3.2 Router Lookup

   The service MUST provide access to operational and social data of an
   Internet router given the fully-qualified domain name of the
   Internet router.

3.3.3 Route Lookup

   The service MUST provide access to operational and social data of a
   network route given the network number of a route.

3.3.4 Route set Lookup

   The service MUST provide access to operational and social data of a
   network route set given the name of the network route set.

3.4 Domain Functions

3.4.1 Domain Status Lookup

   The service MUST provide access to the status of a domain given the
   domain's fully qualified name. This status MUST indicate the
   activation status of the domain. The activation status is the same
   as would be available in Section 3.4.3.

3.4.2 Domain Registrant Search

   The service MUST provide the capability of searching for registrants
   by name or a reasonable name subset. The service MUST provide a
   mechanism to distribute this search across all applicable domain
   registries and registrars. The service SHOULD have a means to narrow
   the scope of a search to a specific TLD.




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3.4.3 Domain Information Lookup

   The service MUST provide access to operational and social data
   specific to a domain given the domain's fully qualified name (FQDN).
   This information SHOULD include the activation status, registrant
   name and contact data, hosting nameservers, and the technical,
   billing, or other entity types associated with the domain and their
   relevant contact data.

3.4.4 Nameserver Search

   The service MAY allow the ability to list all domains hosted by a
   specific nameserver given the fully-qualified host name or IP
   address, if applicable, of the nameserver. The service MAY provide a
   mechanism to distribute this search across all applicable domain
   registries and registrars.

3.4.5 Escrow Support

   The service MUST provide a means to escrow data of domain registrars
   to an escrow entity using a common schema. This escrow capability
   SHOULD be "off-line" and "out-of-band" from the normal operations of
   the service.

3.4.6 Authentication Distribution

   The service MUST be capable of allowing a centralized authority
   entity the means to distribute authentication information of
   entities accessing the service. The service MUST not require all
   Internet registries to participate in distributed authentication and
   SHOULD allow the participation by an Internet registry in
   distributed authentication by many centralized authority entities.

3.4.7 Domain Name Search

   The service MUST allow searching for domains given a reasonable
   subset of a domain name. The service MUST provide a mechanism to
   distribute this search across all applicable domain registries and
   registrars. There should be a means to narrow this search based on a
   TLD. The search mechanism SHOULD provide for differences in domain
   names between the native representation and the canonical form
   existing in the registry.

3.4.8 DNS Referencing

   The service MUST use DNS[2] to determine the authoritative source of
   information about domain names. The service SHOULD use DNSSEC[7]
   when available for this purpose.



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4. Feature Requirements

   Feature requirements describe the perceived need derived from the
   functional requirements for specific technical criteria of the
   directory service. This section makes references to terms and
   definitions declared in Appendix A . This section makes use of the
   term "service" to denote the protocol or protocols derived from
   these requirements.

4.1 Client Authentication

   Entities accessing the service (users) MUST be provided a mechanism
   for passing credentials to a server for the purpose of
   authentication.

4.2 Referrals

   To distribute queries for search continuations and to issue entity
   references, the service MUST provide a referral mechanism.

4.3 URIs

   To distribute queries for search continuation and to issue entity
   references, the service MUST define a URI scheme and syntax.

4.4 Structured Queries and Responses

   To provide for machine consumption as well as human consumption, the
   service MUST employ structured queries and responses.

4.5 Existing Schema Language

   To provide structured queries and responses and allow for minimal
   technological reinvention, the service MUST employ a pre-existing
   schema language.

4.6 Defined Schemas

   To provide for machine consumption as well as human consumption, the
   service MUST define schemas for use the structured queries and
   responses.

4.7 Serialization Definition

   To provide for data escrow and allow for minimal technological
   reinvention, the service MUST employ a pre-existing serialization
   specification.




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5. Internationalization Considerations

   Requirements defined in this document MUST consider the best
   practices spelled out in [6].















































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6. IANA Considerations

   There are no IANA considerations.
















































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7. Security Considerations

   This document contains requirements for the validation of
   authenticated entities and the access of authenticated entities
   compared with the access of non-authenticated entities. This
   document does not define the mechanism for validation of
   authenticated entities. Requirements defined in this document MUST
   allow for the implementation of this mechanism according best common
   practices.

   In addition, this document contains requirements for referrals and
   entity references. Client implementations based on these
   requirements SHOULD take proper care in the safe-guarding of
   credential information when resolving referrals or entity references
   according to best common practices.




































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References

   [1]  Wahl, M., Howes, T. and S. Kille, "Lightweight Directory Access
        Protocol (v3)", RFC 2251, December 1997.

   [2]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
        specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987.

   [3]  Williamson, S., Kosters, M., Blacka, D., Singh, J. and K.
        Zeilstra, "Referral Whois (RWhois) Protocol V1.5", RFC 2167,
        June 1997.

   [4]  Harrenstien, K., Stahl, M. and E. Feinler, "NICNAME/WHOIS", RFC
        954, October 1985.

   [5]  Alaettinoglu, C., Villamizar, C., Gerich, E., Kessens, D.,
        Meyer, D., Bates, T., Karrenberg, D. and M. Terpstra, "Routing
        Policy Specification Language (RPSL)", RFC 2622, June 1999.

   [6]  Alvestrand, H.T., "IETF Policy on Character Sets and
        Languages", BCP 18, RFC 2277, January 1998.

   [7]  Eastlake, D., "Domain Name System Security Extensions", RFC
        2535, March 1999.

   [8]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
        Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [9]   <http://www.ietf.org/proceedings/00dec/00dec-41.htm>

   [10]  <http://www.ietf.org/proceedings/01aug/51-40.htm>

   [11]  <http://www.uwho.verisignlabs.com/Final-WhoIsPanel-Aug15-Resume
         .pdf>

   [12]  <http://www.ripe.net/ripe/meetings/archive/ripe-40/minutes/min_
         database.html>

   [13]  <http://www.nanog.org/mtg-0110/lookup.html>












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Authors' Addresses

   Andrew L. Newton
   VeriSign, Inc.
   21345 Ridgetop Circle
   Sterling, VA  20166
   USA

   Phone: +1 703 948 3382
   EMail: anewton@research.netsol.com
   URI:   http://www.verisignlabs.com/


   Shane Kerr
   RIPE NCC
   Singel 258
   Amsterdam  1016 AB
   The Netherlands

   Phone: +31 20 535 4427
   EMail: shane@ripe.net






























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Appendix A. Glossary

   o  TLD: Initials for "top level domain." Referes to domains in
      DNS[2]that are hierarchically at the level just beneath the root.

   o  ccTLD: Initials for "country code top level domain." TLD's which
      use one of the two character country codes defined by ISO.

   o  gTLD: Initials for "generic top level domain." TLD's that do not
      use one of the two character country codes defined by ISO.

   o  social data: Data containing names and contact information (i.e.
      postal addresses, phone numbers, e-mail addresses) of humans or
      legal entities.

   o  operational data: Data necessary to the operation of networks and
      network related services and items.

   o  RIR: Initials for "regional Internet registry."

   o  IRR: Initials for "Internet routing registry."

   o  authenticated entity: A person, or person acting on behalf of an
      organization, who has provided validatable credentials of
      identification via client software to the directory service of an
      Internet registry.

   o  non-authenticated entity: A person, or person acting on behalf of
      an organization, who has not provided validatable credentials of
      identification via client software to the directory service of an
      Internet registry.

   o  priviledged entity: A person, or person acting on behalf of an
      organization, with authorization to access data.

   o  non-priviledged entity: A person, or person acting on behalf on
      an organization, with no authorization to access data.

   o  priviledged data: Data accessible by a priviledged entities.

   o  non-priviledged data: Data accessible by priviledged entities and
      non-priviledged entities.

   o  forward lookup: a DNS lookup where a domain name is resolved to
      an IP address.

   o  reverse lookup: a DNS lookup where an IP address is resolved to a
      domain name.



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Appendix B. Acknowledgements

B.1 Forums

   The proceedings of the following public forums were used as input to
   the scope and requirements for this document:

   o  whois BOF of the 49th IETF[9]; December 10-15, 2000; San Diego,
      CA, USA

   o  whoisfix BOF of the 51st IETF[10]; August 5-10, 2001; London,
      England

   o  First UWho Consultation[11]; August 15, 2001; Washington, DC, USA

   o  Second UWho Consultation; November 15, 2001; Marina del Rey, CA,
      USA

   o  Third UWho Consultation; November 19, 2001; Washington, DC, USA

   o  DNR WG of RIPE 40, October 1-5, 2001; Praque, Czech Republic

   o  Database WG of RIPE 40[12]; October 1-5, 2001; Praque, Czech
      Republic

   o  General Session of NANOG 23[13]; October 21-23; Oakland, CA, USA

   o  DNR WG of RIPE 41, January 14-18, 2002; Amsterdam, The Netherlands

   o  Database WG of RIPE 41, January 14-18, 2002; Amsterdam, The
      Netherlands

B.2 Contributions

   Comments, suggestions, and feedback of significant substance have
   been provided by Leslie Daigle, Mark Kosters, and Cathy Murphy.















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Full Copyright Statement

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Acknowledgement

   Funding for the RFC editor function is currently provided by the
   Internet Society.



















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