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Versions: 00

Network Working Group                                             W. Kim
Internet-Draft                                                    J. Lee
Intended status: Informational                                   J. Park
Expires: March 18, 2012                                          D. Kwon
                                                                    NSRI
                                                      September 15, 2011


            The ARIA Cipher Algorithm and Its Use with IPsec
                    draft-nsri-ipsecme-aria-ipsec-00

Abstract

   This document describes the use of the ARIA block cipher algorithm in
   conjunction with several different modes of operation within IKE and
   IPsec.  It describes the use of ARIA in CBC, CTR, GCM and CCM modes
   to encrypt and/or authenticate IKE and ESP traffic.  It also
   describes the use of ARIA in XCBC, CMAC, and GMAC modes to
   authenticate IKE, ESP and AH traffic.  The use of ARIA in XCBC and
   CMAC modes for pseudorandom functions is also included.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
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   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on March 18, 2012.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect



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   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
     1.1.  ARIA  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
     1.2.  Modes of Operation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
     1.3.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
   2.  Encryption and Combined Mode Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
     2.1.  ARIA-CBC and ARIA-CTR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
     2.2.  ARIA-CCM and ARIA-GCM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
   3.  Integrity-Protection (Authentication) Algorithms  . . . . . . . 5
     3.1.  ARIA-XCBC and ARIA-CMAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
     3.2.  ARIA-GMAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
   4.  Pseudo-Random Functions (PRFs)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
   5.  IKEv2 Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
     5.1.  Keying Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
     5.2.  Transform Type 1  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
     5.3.  Transform Type 2  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
     5.4.  Transform Type 3  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
     5.5.  Key Length Attribute  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
   8.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
     8.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
     8.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9






















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1.  Introduction

   This document describes how to use ARIA in conjunction with several
   different modes of operation within IKE [RFC5996] and IPsec
   ([RFC4301][RFC4302][RFC4303]).  Within IKE, it is used either to
   protect the IKE SA's traffic (encryption and integrity-protection
   algorithms) or to generate keying material (pseudorandom functions).
   Within IPsec, it is used to protect the IPsec/child SA's traffic, and
   IKE is capable of negotiating its use for that purpose.

   For encryption algorithms, the use of ARIA in cipher block chaining
   (CBC) mode and counter (CTR) mode is described.  Both are used to
   encrypt IKE and/or ESP traffic, providing confidentiality protection
   to the traffic.  For integrity-protection algorithms, the use of ARIA
   in eXtended CBC (XCBC) mode, CMAC mode and GMAC mode is described.
   These are used to authenticate IKE and/or IPsec traffic, providing
   integrity protection to the traffic.  For combined mode algorithms,
   the use of ARIA in counter with CBC-MAC (CCM) mode and Galois/Counter
   Mode (GCM) is described.  Both are used to encrypt and integrity
   protect IKE and/or ESP traffic, providing both confidentiality and
   integrity protection to the traffic.  For pseudorandom functions, the
   use of ARIA in XCBC mode and CMAC mode is described.  Both are used
   to generate the secret keys that are used in IKE SAs and IPsec SAs.

   This document does not provide an overview of IPsec.  However,
   information about how the various components of IPsec and the way in
   which they collectively provide security services is available in
   [RFC4301], [RFC4302], [RFC4303] and [RFC5996].

1.1.  ARIA

   ARIA is a general-purpose block cipher algorithm developed by Korean
   cryptographers in 2003.  It is an iterated block cipher with 128-,
   192-, and 256-bit keys and encrypts 128-bit blocks in 12, 14, and 16
   rounds, depending on the key size.  It is secure and suitable for
   most software and hardware implementations on 32-bit and 8-bit
   processors.  It was established as a Korean standard block cipher
   algorithm in 2004 [ARIAKS] and has been widely used in Korea,
   especially for government-to-public services.  It was included in
   PKCS #11 in 2007 [ARIAPKCS].  The algorithm specification and object
   identifiers are described in [RFC5794].

1.2.  Modes of Operation

   Block ciphers ARIA and AES share common characteristics including key
   size and block length.  ARIA does not have any restrictions for modes
   of operation that are used with this block cipher.  So several
   definitions for ARIA modes of operation such as changes to packet



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   formats, detailed algorithmic computations, and special
   considerations within relevant protocols can be specified according
   as those which were previously specified for AES.  This document does
   not describe such definitions appropriate for the specific ARIA mode
   of operation, but attempts to indicate the reference of the
   corresponding AES mode of operation.  The only difference in the
   processing is that the underlying encryption primitive is ARIA
   instead of AES.

1.3.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

2.  Encryption and Combined Mode Algorithms

   We specify four algorithms within IKE and IPsec ESP, (1) ARIA in CBC
   Mode (ARIA-CBC), (2) ARIA in CTR Mode (ARIA-CTR), (3) ARIA in CCM
   Mode (ARIA-CCM) and (4) ARIA in GCM (ARIA-GCM).

   ARIA-CBC and ARIA-CTR are used to encrypt IKE and/or ESP traffic.
   When ARIA-CTR is used to provide confidentiality, the use of
   integrity protection is strongly recommended.  As a single algorithm
   which can provide both encryption and integrity protection, ARIA-CCM
   and ARIA-GCM are used for IKE and/or ESP traffic.

2.1.  ARIA-CBC and ARIA-CTR

   The use of ARIA-CBC and ARIA-CTR within ESP is defined as AES-CBC
   [RFC3602] and AES-CTR [RFC3686].  [RFC3602] can also be a reference
   of ARIA-CBC within IKE, while ARIA-CTR within IKE refers to
   [RFC5930], which extends [RFC3686] to enable the use of AES-CTR to
   provide confidentiality for IKEv2 traffic.

2.2.  ARIA-CCM and ARIA-GCM

   The use of ARIA-CCM and ARIA-GCM within ESP is defined as AES-CCM
   [RFC4309] and AES-GCM [RFC4106].  The use of ARIA-CCM and ARIA-GCM
   within IKE is defined as AES in [RFC5282].  ARIA-CCM is a block-mode
   algorithm with a random IV that is sent in the packet along with the
   encrypted data, a 24-bit salt value; a 128-bit key and ICV sizes of
   64, 96 and 128 bits.  ARIA-GCM has the same structure with ARIA-CCM,
   except that a 32-bit salt value is used.







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3.  Integrity-Protection (Authentication) Algorithms

   We specify three algorithms within IKE and IPsec, (1) ARIA in
   eXtended CBC Mode (ARIA-XCBC), (2) ARIA in CMAC Mode (ARIA-CMAC) and
   (3) ARIA in GMAC Mode (ARIA-GMAC).  These are block cipher modes of
   operation providing integrity-protection, and can be used as an
   authentication mechanism within the context of the IKE and/or IPsec
   AH and ESP protocols.  This protection is provided by computing an
   Integrity Check Value (ICV), which is included in the packet.

3.1.  ARIA-XCBC and ARIA-CMAC

   XCBC and CMAC are variants of CBC-MAC, which are secure for message
   of varying lengths (unlike classic CBC-MAC).  The use of ARIA-XCBC
   and ARIA-CMAC is defined as AES-XCBC [RFC3566] and AES-CMAC
   [RFC4494].  Both are integrity-protection algorithms with a 128-bit
   block and 128-bit key and 128-bit ICV.  For use within IKE and IPsec,
   the ICV is truncated to 96 bits.

3.2.  ARIA-GMAC

   ARIA-GMAC is a variant of ARIA-GCM that provides integrity protection
   without encryption.  It has two versions: an integrity-protection
   algorithm for use within AH, and a combined mode algorithm with null
   encryption for use within ESP.  It can use key sizes of 128, 192, and
   256 bits; the ICV is always 128 bits, and is not truncated.  The use
   ARIA-GMAC within IPsec is defined as AES-GMAC [RFC4543].

   ARIA-GMAC cannot be used by IKE to protect its own SAs, since IKE SA
   traffic requires encryption.

4.  Pseudo-Random Functions (PRFs)

   IKE uses pseudorandom functions (PRFs) to generate the secret keys
   that are used in IKE SAs and IPsec SAs.  These PRFs are generally the
   same algorithms used for integrity protection, but their output is
   not truncated, since all of the generated bits are used for the keys
   in general.

   We specify two algorithms within IKE as PRFs, (1) ARIA-XCBC and (2)
   ARIA-CMAC.  The use of ARIA-XCBC and ARIA-CMAC within IKE is defined
   as AES-XCBC [RFC4434] and AES-CMAC [RFC4615].

5.  IKEv2 Conventions

   This section describes the conventions used to generate keying
   material for use with ARIA modes of operation using the Internet Key
   Exchange (IKEv2).  The identifiers and attributes needed to negotiate



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   a security association that uses ARIA modes of operation are also
   specified.

5.1.  Keying Material

   The PRF in IKE is used iteratively to derive keying material of
   arbitrary size, called KEYMAT.  Keying material consisting of the
   actual ARIA key and the nonce is extracted from the output string
   without regard to boundaries, but is derived in the same way as AES
   modes of operation.

5.2.  Transform Type 1

   For IKEv2 negotiations, IANA is requested to assign IKE Transform
   Type 1 Identifiers for ARIA-CBC, ARIA-CTR, ARIA-CCM and ARIA-GCM, as
   recorded in Section 7.

5.3.  Transform Type 2

   For IKEv2 negotiations, IANA is requested to assign IKE Transform
   Type 2 Identifiers for ARIA-XCBC, ARIA-CMAC and ARIA-GMAC, as
   recorded in Section 7.

5.4.  Transform Type 3

   For IKEv2 negotiations, IANA is requested to assign IKE Transform
   Type 3 Identifiers for ARIA-XCBC and ARIA-CMAC, as recorded in
   Section 7.

   For the usage of ARIA-GMAC within AH, each key size requires its own
   IANA value because IKE does not have to negotiate the key size.  For
   the usage of ARIA-GMAC within ESP, there is only one IANA value,
   because IKE negotiations specify the key size.

5.5.  Key Length Attribute

   ARIA modes of operation can be used with any of the three ARIA key
   sizes.  The way that the key size is indicated is different for
   Transform Type 1 and the others.

   For Transform Type 1, there is a single encryption identifier.  The
   IKE Key Length attribute MUST be used with each use of this
   identifier to indicate the key size.  The Key Length attribute MUST
   have a value of 128-, 192-, or 256-bit, and is used in the same way
   as AES modes of operation.

   For Transforms Type 2 and Type 3, the IKE Key Length attribute MUST
   NOT be used.  Like ARIA-GMAC, each key size has its own separate



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   integrity transform identifier and algorithm name.

6.  Security Considerations

   At the time of writing this document no security problem has been
   found on ARIA (see [TSL]).

   The security considerations in [RFC3566], [RFC3602], [RFC3686],
   [RFC4106], [RFC4309], [RFC4434], [RFC4494], [RFC4543], [RFC4615] and
   [RFC5282] apply to this document as well.  Within IKE and IPsec, ARIA
   modes of operation do not create additional security considerations
   beyond those of AES modes of operation.

7.  IANA Considerations

   IANA is requested to allocate Transform Type 1 (Encryption Algorithm
   Transform IDs) Identifiers for ARIA-CBC, ARIA-CTR, ARIA-CCM, and
   ARIA-GCM with an explicit IV in the "IKEv2 Parameters" registry:

   Number    Name

   <TBD1>    ENCR_ARIA_CBC;
   <TBD2>    ENCR_ARIA_CTR;
   <TBD3>    ENCR_ARIA_CCM_8;
   <TBD4>    ENCR_ARIA_CCM_12;
   <TBD5>    ENCR_ARIA_CCM_16;
   <TBD6>    ENCR_ARIA_GCM_8;
   <TBD7>    ENCR_ARIA_GCM_12;
   <TBD8>    ENCR_ARIA_GCM_16;
   <TBD9>    ENCR_NULL_AUTH_ARIA_GMAC;

   IANA is also requested to allocate Transform Type 2 (Pseudo-random
   Function Transform IDs) Identifiers for ARIA-XCBC and ARIA-CMAC with
   an explicit IV in the "IKEv2 Parameters" registry:

   Number    Name

   <TBD1>    PRF_ARIA_128_XCBC;
   <TBD2>    PRF_ARIA_128_CMAC;












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   IANA is also requested to allocate Transform Type 3 (Integrity
   Algorithm Transform IDs) Identifiers for ARIA-XCBC, ARIA-CMAC, and
   ARIA-GMAC with an explicit IV in the "IKEv2 Parameters" registry:

   Number    Name

   <TBD1>    AUTH_ARIA_128_XCBC_96;
   <TBD2>    AUTH_ARIA_128_CMAC_96;
   <TBD3>    AUTH_ARIA_128_GMAC;
   <TBD4>    AUTH_ARIA_192_GMAC;
   <TBD5>    AUTH_ARIA_256_GMAC;

8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]   Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
               Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3566]   Frankel, S. and H. Herbert, "The AES-XCBC-MAC-96
               Algorithm and Its Use With IPsec", RFC 3566,
               September 2003.

   [RFC3602]   Frankel, S., Glenn, R., and S. Kelly, "The AES-CBC Cipher
               Algorithm and Its Use with IPsec", RFC 3602,
               September 2003.

   [RFC3686]   Housley, R., "Using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
               Counter Mode With IPsec Encapsulating Security Payload
               (ESP)", RFC 3686, January 2004.

   [RFC4106]   Viega, J. and D. McGrew, "The Use of Galois/Counter Mode
               (GCM) in IPsec Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)",
               RFC 4106, June 2005.

   [RFC4301]   Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the
               Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, December 2005.

   [RFC4302]   Kent, S., "IP Authentication Header", RFC 4302,
               December 2005.

   [RFC4303]   Kent, S., "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)",
               RFC 4303, December 2005.

   [RFC4309]   Housley, R., "Using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
               CCM Mode with IPsec Encapsulating Security Payload
               (ESP)", RFC 4309, December 2005.




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   [RFC4434]   Hoffman, P., "The AES-XCBC-PRF-128 Algorithm for the
               Internet Key Exchange Protocol (IKE)", RFC 4434,
               February 2006.

   [RFC4494]   Song, JH., Poovendran, R., and J. Lee, "The AES-CMAC-96
               Algorithm and Its Use with IPsec", RFC 4494, June 2006.

   [RFC4543]   McGrew, D. and J. Viega, "The Use of Galois Message
               Authentication Code (GMAC) in IPsec ESP and AH",
               RFC 4543, May 2006.

   [RFC4615]   Song, J., Poovendran, R., Lee, J., and T. Iwata, "The
               Advanced Encryption Standard-Cipher-based Message
               Authentication Code-Pseudo-Random Function-128 (AES-CMAC-
               PRF-128) Algorithm for the Internet Key Exchange Protocol
               (IKE)", RFC 4615, August 2006.

   [RFC5282]   Black, D. and D. McGrew, "Using Authenticated Encryption
               Algorithms with the Encrypted Payload of the Internet Key
               Exchange version 2 (IKEv2) Protocol", RFC 5282,
               August 2008.

   [RFC5794]   Lee, J., Lee, J., Kim, J., Kwon, D., and C. Kim, "A
               Description of the ARIA Encryption Algorithm", RFC 5794,
               March 2010.

   [RFC5930]   Shen, S., Mao, Y., and NSS. Murthy, "Using Advanced
               Encryption Standard Counter Mode (AES-CTR) with the
               Internet Key Exchange version 02 (IKEv2) Protocol",
               RFC 5930, July 2010.

   [RFC5996]   Kaufman, C., Hoffman, P., Nir, Y., and P. Eronen,
               "Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2 (IKEv2)",
               RFC 5996, September 2010.

8.2.  Informative References

   [ARIAKS]    Korean Agency for Technology and Standards, "128 bit
               block encryption algorithm ARIA - Part 1: General (in
               Korean)", KS X 1213-1:2009, December 2009.

   [ARIAPKCS]  RSA Laboratories, "Additional PKCS #11 Mechanisms",
               PKCS #11 v2.20 Amendment 3 Revision 1, January 2007.

   [TSL]       Tang, X., Sun, B., Li, R., Li, C., and J. Yin, "A meet-
               in-the-middle attack on reduced-round ARIA", The Journal
               of Systems and Software Vol.84(10), pp. 1685-1692,
               October 2011.



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Authors' Addresses

   Woo-Hwan Kim
   National Security Research Institute
   P.O.Box 1, Yuseong
   Daejeon  305-350
   Korea

   EMail: whkim5@ensec.re.kr


   Jungkeun Lee
   National Security Research Institute
   P.O.Box 1, Yuseong
   Daejeon  305-350
   Korea

   EMail: jklee@ensec.re.kr


   Je-Hong Park
   National Security Research Institute
   P.O.Box 1, Yuseong
   Daejeon  305-350
   Korea

   EMail: jhpark@ensec.re.kr


   Daesung Kwon
   National Security Research Institute
   P.O.Box 1, Yuseong
   Daejeon  305-350
   Korea

   EMail: ds_kwon@ensec.re.kr















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