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DANE                                                        E. Osterweil
Internet-Draft                                                  G. Wiley
Intended status: Standards Track                                T. Okubo
Expires: September 25, 2015                                      R. Lavu
                                                             A. Mohaisen
                                                          VeriSign, Inc.
                                                          March 24, 2015


     Opportunistic Encryption with DANE Semantics and IPsec: IPSECA
                     draft-osterweil-dane-ipsec-02

Abstract

   The query/response transactions of the Domain Name System (DNS) can
   disclose valuable meta-data about the online activities of DNS'
   users.  The DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC) provide object-level
   security, but do not attempt to secure the DNS transaction itself.
   For example, DNSSEC does not protect against information leakage, and
   only protects DNS data until the last validating recursive resolver.
   Stub resolvers are vulnerable to adversaries in the network between
   themselves and their validating resolver ("the last mile").  This
   document details a new DANE-like DNS Resource Record (RR) type called
   IPSECA, and explains how to use it to bootstrap DNS transactions
   through informing entries in IPsec Security Policy Databases (SPDs)
   and to subsequently verifying Security Associations (SAs) for OE
   IPsec tunnels.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on September 25, 2015.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the



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   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.1.  What IPSECA Adds to DNSSEC Transactions  . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.2.  IP-Centric IPsec Tunnel Discovery Using IPSECKEY . . . . .  4
     1.3.  Service-Centric IPsec Tunnel Discovery Using IPSECA
           and DANE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   2.  The IPSECA Resource Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     2.1.  IPSECA RDATA Wire Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       2.1.1.  The Usage Field  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       2.1.2.  The Selector Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       2.1.3.  The Matching Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
       2.1.4.  The Certificate Assocation Data Field  . . . . . . . .  8
     2.2.  IPSECA RR Presentation Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     2.3.  Domain Names used for IPSEC Records  . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     2.4.  IPSECA RR Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       2.4.1.  OE to a DNS Name Server Example  . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   3.  Operational Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   4.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   5.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     5.1.  Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     5.2.  Last Mile Security Analysis  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   6.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   7.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     7.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     7.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   Appendix A.  Name Server OE Configuration Example  . . . . . . . . 15
   Appendix B.  Recursive Resolver OE Configuration Example . . . . . 16
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16









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1.  Introduction

   The query/response transactions of the Domain Name System (DNS)
   [RFC1035] can disclose valuable meta-data about the online activities
   of DNS' users.  The DNS Security Extensions' (DNSSEC's) [RFC4033],
   [RFC4034], [RFC4035] core services (integrity, source authenticity,
   and secure denial of existence) are designed to secure data in DNS
   transactions by providing object-level security, but do not attempt
   to secure the DNS transaction itself.  For example, DNSSEC does not
   attempt to protect the confidentiality of DNS transactions, does not
   protect data outside of the RRsets (including the DNS header, OPT
   record, etc.), and its DNS-specific protections expose opportunities
   for adversaries to identify DNS traffic, eavesdrop on DNS messages,
   and target DNS and its meta-data for attacks.  As a result, a clever
   adversary may target just DNS traffic, discover the nature of a
   user's online browsing (from fully qualified domain names), interfere
   with the delivery of specific messages (though the DNS objects are
   not forgeable), or even attack "the last mile," between a resolver
   and a remote validating recursive resolver.

   For example, the information leakage exposed by observing DNSSEC
   transactions, could enable an adversary to not only learn what Second
   Level Domains (SLDs) a user is querying (such as their bank, a
   funding agency, a security contractor, etc.), but could also inspect
   the fully qualified domain name(s) to learn the specific hosts
   visited, or in the case of certain DNS-based chat programs,
   information about ongoing conversations.

   In addition, DNSSEC's design only protects DNS data until the last
   validating recursive resolver.  If a client issues DNS queries from a
   stub resolver to a remote DNSSEC-aware resolver, then the network
   between these two ("the last mile") can be leveraged by an adversary
   to spoof responses, drop traffic, etc.

   Clearly, these limitations do not invalidate the benefits of DNSSEC.
   DNSSEC still protects the actual DNS objects, protects against cache
   poisoning attacks, and more.  Rather, these limitations simply
   illustrate that there is more at stake than just valid DNS data.

   This document details the motivation for, the synergy from, and a
   protocol to advertise and verify security credentials that can be
   used to verify Opportunistic Encryption (OE) IPsec [RFC4301],
   [RFC6071] tunnels for DNS transactions.  Securing DNS transactions in
   this way is both necessary and sufficient for providing
   confidentiality of many types of DNS-transaction meta data, which can
   betray user privacy.  This document details a new DANE-like [RFC6698]
   DNS Resource Record (RR) type called IPSECA, and explains how to use
   it to bootstrap entries in IPsec Security Policy Databases (SPDs) and



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   to subsequently verify Security Associations (SAs) for OE IPsec
   tunnels.

1.1.  What IPSECA Adds to DNSSEC Transactions

   DNSSEC's focus on object level security leaves the types of
   protections offered by IPsec unaddressed.  Specifically, the way (or
   ways) to associate certificate(s) used by IPsec with a DNSSEC-aware
   name server need to be codified.  This can be especially complicated
   if different IPsec certificates need to be discovered for different
   services that are running on the same IP address.  This can become
   complicated if certificates are learned solely by the IP addresses of
   networked-services.  This gap is inherently overcome during
   certificate discovery in DANE protocols by the concept of "Service
   Address Records," [I-D.draft-ogud-dane-vocabulary].  These Security
   Associations are defined by, and discovered by, domain names rather
   than just IP addresses.  [RFC6698] standardizes a way for security
   associations of certificates to be made with service domains for TLS,
   rather than just IP addresses.  As one of the underlying facilities
   of DANE's approach to certificate verification, this adds a necessary
   enhancement to IPsec certificate learning over approaches that are
   based solely on IP addresses in DNS (such as described in [RFC4025]
   and [RFC4322]).

   The advantages of using DANE for IPsec OE also include other
   simplifications that the DANE protocol inherently offers all of its
   protocols.  Such as, the automatic deauthorization of certificates
   that happens when they are removed from a DNS zone, which may (under
   many circumstances) obviate the need for extensive use of revocation
   mechanisms (OCSP [RFC6960] or CRL [RFC5280]).  Details of these
   relative trade offs is described in more detail in [DANE_SATIN12].

   It is also noteworthy that DANE offers flexibility that is not
   available in IP-centric certificate discovery and IP-centric OE
   [RFC4322], while still being backwards compatible with them.  That
   is, while users can use IPSECA records to map OE IPsec tunnels to
   service names, they can also use IPSECA records in their reverse DNS
   zone in a similar fashion to the IPSECKEY [RFC4025] record used in
   [RFC4322].  However, while this document illustrates an example usage
   of DANE with IPsec OE, any specification for how the IPSECA resource
   record MUST get used with OE is beyond the scope of this document.

1.2.  IP-Centric IPsec Tunnel Discovery Using IPSECKEY

   In contrast to a DANE-centric discovery, [RFC4025] specifies a DNS
   resource record called IPSECKEY.  The IPsec certificate learning
   described therein prescribes that relying parties learn the intended
   usage of IPsec certificates after they locate them in DNS and



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   retrieve them.  The types of information that relying parties learn
   from IPSECKEY responses include: precedence, gateway type, algorithm,
   gateway, and possibly the public key.  After learning the key and
   creating the Security Association, the relying party can use
   techniques like [RFC4322] to initialize an OE IPsec tunnel.

   The inherent key learning and verification technique in [RFC4322] is
   based on learning tunnels from IP addresses only (IP-centric).
   Because of this technique's focus on IP-centric learning, operational
   entities running services on a specific IP address may not have
   access to annotate the reverse DNS zone for their services
   (especially if they are shared environments).  So, this type of OE
   may often be a non-starter.  One example would be when zones are
   hosted and/or served by cloud service providers.  In this case,
   customers are almost certainly not allowed to annotate the reverse
   DNS zone for their providers.

1.3.  Service-Centric IPsec Tunnel Discovery Using IPSECA and DANE

   The suggested usage of this document is to aid in discovering where
   OE IPsec tunnels exist, and to act as an out of band verification
   substrate that can validate the certificates received during IPsec
   key exchange.  For example, if a DNS caching recursive resolver is
   configured to attempt OE IPsec tunnels to DNS name servers (using a
   specific key exchange protocol, like [RFC2409], [RFC5996], etc.),
   then when it receives a referral it SHOULD query name servers for
   corresponding IPSECA resource records. (we discuss the format of the
   resource record and domain names below in Section 2).  When an IPSECA
   record is discovered by a resolver, that resolver SHOULD follow its
   configurations and setup an SPD entry, in order to signal its IPsec
   layer to attempt to attempt to establish an SA.  Note, this document
   does not specify a new, or any modifications to any existing, IPsec
   key exchange protocols.  Rather, after adding an SPD and after a
   successful tunnel establishment, the credentials used for the
   Security Association with the name server SHOULD be cross-checked
   with the IPSECA resource record(s).

   When using IPSECA resource records to verify OE tunnels, clients MUST
   perform full DNSSEC validation of the DNSSEC chain of trust that
   leads to IPSECA RRs.  As specified in [RFC6698]:

      "A [IPSECA] RRSet whose DNSSEC validation state is secure MUST be
      used as a certificate association for [IPsec] unless a local
      policy would prohibit the use of the specific certificate
      association in the secure TLSA RRSet.

      If the DNSSEC validation state on the response to the request for
      the [IPSECA] RRSet is bogus, this MUST cause IPsec not to be



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      started or, if the IPsec negotiation is already in progress, MUST
      cause the connection to be aborted.

      A [IPSECA] RRSet whose DNSSEC validation state is indeterminate or
      insecure cannot be used for [IPsec] and MUST be considered
      unusable."

   This is to ensure that the SPD entries and SA(s) used for tunnels are
   fully verified.  This verification MAY include local trust anchor
   processing, such that local DNSKEY resource records can be used to
   verify corresponding RRSIGs.  Trust anchors (which may be distributed
   during dynamic host configuration) may be useful for bootstrapping.
   For example, consider the case where private address space [RFC1918]
   is used for internal recursive resolvers.  Here, the locally
   provisioned DNS names for the private address space (in the reverse
   tree) that are secured using DNSSEC MAY use local trust anchors.
   That is, if an [RFC1918] address is used internally, the
   corresponding domain name MUST also resolve and be verifiable through
   DNS and DNSSEC, but a local trust anchor MAY be used to verify
   covered RRSIGs.  This shifts the onus of securing DNS transactions to
   the initial configuration step.  The intuition behind this reasons
   that if the first (configuration) step was already where the local
   resolver was configured, then the security of the DNS transactions
   already hinged on learning the valid resolver this way.  So, this
   step is already used to convey trusted configurations
   (bootstrapping).  Adversaries attempting to subvert an end host have
   only the narrow attack window that is associated with learning
   configurations.  In contrast, an insecure DNS resolver offers an
   attack window every time it issues or responds to a query.  We
   discuss this further in Section 5.2.


2.  The IPSECA Resource Record

   The IPSECA resource record is modeled heavily off of the IPSECKEY RR
   [RFC4025], but it differs in significant ways.  The format of IPSECA
   is harmonized with the architectural direction set by other DANE work
   [RFC6698], [I-D.draft-ogud-dane-vocabulary].













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2.1.  IPSECA RDATA Wire Format

   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    Usage    |   Selector    |   Matching    |                 /
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                 /
   |                                                               /
   /                 Certificate Association Data                  /
   /                                                               /
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-|

                                 Figure 1

2.1.1.  The Usage Field

   The meaning, semantics, and interpretation of the Usage field of the
   IPSECA resource record follow the specification described in Section
   2.1 of [I.D.draft-ietf-dane-registry-acronyms]:

     +-------+----------+--------------------------------+-----------+
     | Value | Acronym  | Short Description              | Reference |
     +-------+----------+--------------------------------+-----------+
     | 0     | PKIX-TA  | CA constraint                  | [RFC6698] |
     | 1     | PKIX-EE  | Service certificate constraint | [RFC6698] |
     | 2     | DANE-TA  | Trust anchor assertion         | [RFC6698] |
     | 3     | DANE-EE  | Domain-issued certificate      | [RFC6698] |
     | 4-254 |          | Unassigned                     |           |
     | 255   | PrivCert | Reserved for Private Use       | [RFC6698] |
     +-------+----------+--------------------------------+-----------+

                     Table 1: TLSA Certificate Usages

2.1.2.  The Selector Field

   The meaning, semantics, and interpretation of the Selector field of
   the IPSECA resource record follow the specification described in
   Section 2.2 of [I.D.draft-ietf-dane-registry-acronyms]:













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        +-------+---------+--------------------------+-----------+
        | Value | Acronym | Short Description        | Reference |
        +-------+---------+--------------------------+-----------+
        | 0     | Cert    | Full certificate         | [RFC6698] |
        | 1     | SPKI    | SubjectPublicKeyInfo     | [RFC6698] |
        | 2     | DANE-TA | Trust anchor assertion   | [RFC6698] |
        | 3-254 |         | Unassigned               |           |
        | 255   | PrivSel | Reserved for Private Use | [RFC6698] |
        +-------+---------+--------------------------+-----------+

                          Table 2: TLSA Selectors

2.1.3.  The Matching Field

   The meaning, semantics, and interpretation of the Matching field of
   the IPSECA resource record follow the specification described in
   Section 2.3 of [I.D.draft-ietf-dane-registry-acronyms]:



       +-------+-----------+--------------------------+-----------+
       | Value | Acronym   | Short Description        | Reference |
       +-------+-----------+--------------------------+-----------+
       | 0     | Full      | No hash used             | [RFC6698] |
       | 1     | SHA2-256  | 256 bit hash by SHA2     | [RFC6698] |
       | 2     | SHA2-512  | 512 bit hash by SHA2     | [RFC6698] |
       | 3-254 |           | Unassigned               |           |
       | 255   | PrivMatch | Reserved for Private Use | [RFC6698] |
       +-------+-----------+--------------------------+-----------+

                       Table 3: TLSA Matching Types

2.1.4.  The Certificate Assocation Data Field

   The meaning, semantics, and interpretation of the Certificate
   Association Data field of the IPSECA resource record follow the
   specification of the same field in the TLSA resource record,
   described in Section 2.1.4 of [RFC6698]:

       "This field specifies the 'certificate association data' to be
       matched.  These bytes are either raw data (that is, the full
       certificate or its SubjectPublicKeyInfo, depending on the
       selector) for matching type 0, or the hash of the raw data for
       matching types 1 and 2.  The data refers to the certificate in
       the association, not to the TLS ASN.1 Certificate object."






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2.2.  IPSECA RR Presentation Format

   </STUBBED OUT SECTION>

2.3.  Domain Names used for IPSEC Records

   The IPSECA resource record SHOULD be mapped to a domain name that is
   intuitive when discovering OE IPsec tunnels for specific services.
   The expected procedure for constructing the domain names for IPSECA
   records that enable OE for DNS (port 53) are:

   1.  The left-most label begins with an underscore character (_),
       followed by the decimal representation of the port number that
       corresponds to the service that should be conducted over IPsec.
       For example, the DNS transactions discussed in this document
       would result in "_53".

   2.  Next, the fully qualified domain name [RFC1035] of the service is
       appended to the right side.  In the case of a DNS name server,
       that is its domain name.  In the case of a service that is locate
       using an IP address, the service address records MUST be its full
       reverse octet name (including the appropriate suffix, such as
       .in-addr.arpa. for IPv4 addresses and .ip6.arpa for IPv6
       addresses).

   Any custom configured tunnels and port mappings may result local
   policies that use their own domain name format.  Such custom OE
   tunnels are non-standard, and may not be discoverable by other
   relying parties.

2.4.  IPSECA RR Examples

   Because the IPSECA record is intended to be associated with a Service
   Address Records, it (implicitly) can also be associated with an IP
   address (through the reverse DNS).  A few illustrative mappings are
   presented here as examples.  These domain name / resource record
   mappings are not necessarily intended to update the processing of
   protocols like IKEv1 [RFC2409], IKEv2 [RFC5996], etc. or other OE
   protocols [RFC4322].  Rather, these mappings are intended to serve as
   examples of IPsec tunnels, and their proper configuration.  They MAY
   be used in verifying Security Associations, but a protocol to do this
   is beyond the scope of this document.

2.4.1.  OE to a DNS Name Server Example

   Suppose a DNS zone example.com is served by the name servers
   ns1.example.com and ns2.example.com.  If the zone operators want to
   advertise their willingness to offer OE to their name servers using



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   IKEv2 [RFC5996], then the following domain names MUST be placed under
   the example.com zone (the contents of the resource records, below,
   are exemplary only and MAY have whatever values a zone operator
   chooses):

         _53.ns1.example.com. IN IPSECA (
             0 1 1 edeff39034cd2ee83446633a9fba
                   d815a579134ecd7636e51af92ec7
                   207fd490 ) ; Verify IPsec for DNS txns

         _53.ns2.example.com. IN IPSECA (
             0 1 1 edeff39034cd2ee83446633a9fba
                   d815a579134ecd7636e51af92ec7
                   207fd490 ) ; Verify IPsec for DNS txns


   This example illustrates how a zone MAY indicate where an SPD entry
   and SA establishment endpoints exist for its name servers (note, they
   are not required to be the name servers themselves).  Here, each name
   server is a tunnel end point, and these two name servers are mapped
   to service ports for DNS (port 53).  The IPSECA records above
   indicate that they verify the CA who must have issued the IPsec
   certificate used and they represent a SHA256 hash of that
   certificate's SPKI.

   Alternately, suppose an enterprise wants to configure OE for DNS
   transactions between its desktop clients and its recursive resolver.
   In this case, if the enterprise has configured their desktop clients
   (perhaps through DHCP) to forward their DNS queries to a caching
   recursive resolver at the IP address 192.168.1.2, then the following
   IPSECA mapping should be placed in an internally managed DNS reverse
   zone:

         _53.2.1.168.192.in-addr.arpa. IN IPSECA (
             3 0 2 8f6ea3c50b5c488bef74c7c4a17a
                   24e8b0f4777d13c211a29223b69a
                   ea7a89184ac4d272a2e3d9760966
                   fb3f220b39f7fdfb325998289e50
                   311ce0748f13c1ed ) ; Verify data in IKEv2 SA

   This example illustrates how a caching recursive resolver MAY
   indicate where it will accept IPsec tunnel establishment and what the
   certificate used for a SA should be.  Here the DNS service port and
   the IPSECA records describe the nature of the authentic certificate
   that SHOULD be used in an SA with this endpoint.  In this example,
   the IPSECA records both specify that a DANE-EE cert should be
   expected in an SA with this resolver, and the SHA-512 hash of that
   full certificate should match the encoded value in the IPSECA



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   resource record.

   Of note here is that since SAs MAY be identified by domain names
   (which map to IP addresses), some IP addresses may host services that
   offer IPsec, and some that do not.  The IPSECA record allows hosts to
   advertise these nuanced configurations in the same way that these
   services are discovered (through the DNS itself).


3.  Operational Considerations

   Scaling IPsec connections to the full capacity that large recursive
   resolvers or large authoritative name servers operate at could be
   cause for concern.  The additional overhead required to establish and
   maintain SAs could exceed the provisioning capacity of deployed
   systems.  However, there are several relevant observations:

   1.  If a resolver enables OE, but no (or relatively few) name servers
       provision IPSECA records, then no IPsec tunnels will be
       established, and the load will remain static (or marginally
       increase).

   2.  If an authoritative name server provisions IPSECA record, it will
       only result in additional load if querying resolvers are
       configured to attempt OE.

   3.  Using white-listing techniques (such as those used during pilot
       deployments of AAAA records) would allow authoritative name
       servers to only return IPSECA responses to clients that have been
       white-listed.  This would allow name servers to control the
       amount of IPsec overhead they incur.  For the same reason,
       resolvers can be configured to only query for IPSECA records from
       white-listed name servers.


4.  IANA Considerations

   This document uses a new DNS resource record type, called IPSECA.
   This resource record will need to have a new value assigned to it.
   Current implementations are advised to use a type number TYPE65347.

   This document uses the same semantics and values as the TLSA resource
   record [RFC6698] for its Usage, Selector, and Matching fields.  Any
   future use or modification of an IANA registry for that resource
   record will have similar effects on this resource record.






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5.  Security Considerations

   This document details some of the benefits of using IPsec OE for DNS
   transactions.  Such a utility does not reduce the benefits of other
   security protections.  For example, the object-level security
   assurances that are offered by DNSSEC are cooperative with the
   session-level security of IPsec.  Additional discussions are
   available in [IPSEC_APPEAL].  Moreover, the protections described
   herein also offer cooperative benefits with higher layer protocol
   protections, like TLS [RFC5246].  Any combination of these types of
   protections offer both defense-in-depth (securing transactions at
   multiple levels) and offer security practitioners a larger mosaic of
   security tools from which to construct and maintain their security
   postures.

5.1.  Interactions

   This document requires that all fully qualified domain names
   [RFC1035] must be secured by DNSSEC.  This includes domains in the
   reverse tree of DNS (which represent IP addresses).

   The use of IPSECA resource records does not constitute a source of
   information leakage.  Rather, it provides a mechanism to help bolster
   confidentiality, by obfuscating DNS transactions.

   Expressing tunnel endpoints through DNS may allow adversaries a
   vehicle to learn where OE is being offered by name servers.  However,
   OE tunnels to these name servers will only be attempted if querying
   resolvers are configured to attempt IPsec.  As a result, adversaries
   may be able to learn of potential tunnel endpoints, but if they aim
   to disrupt active IPsec traffic, they must still observe which
   resolvers are trying to initiate IPsec communications.  Therefore,
   adversaries would have no greater opportunity to disrupt IPsec
   traffic than they already do.  They would still begin by (for
   example) observing VPN tunnel setup on wireless LANs (such as at
   public WiFi hot-spots).

5.2.  Last Mile Security Analysis

   For the last mile, we define one type of attack as the case where an
   adversary intercepts messages that can be undetectably spoofed.  For
   example, if a zone (like example.com) has deployed DNSSEC, then if an
   adversary responds to a DNS query for www.exmaple.com, a validating
   DNS resolver should be able to detect the forgery.  However, if an
   adversary responds to a query that is sent for a non-DNSSEC zone, a
   resolver cannot distinguish the spoofed response from an authentic
   response.  In addition to this, many bootstrapping protocols (such as
   DHCP [RFC2131]) represent the first opportunity for an adversary to



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   disrupt DNS transactions (by subverting the bootstrapping of the
   resolver itself on stub-resolvers).  Under this model, a DNS stub-
   resolver's security posture is enhanced by keeping an adversary's
   attack window to the smallest value possible.

   Therefore, the attack window offered by DNS clients in a given time
   span T is comprised of the set of transactions that bootstrap
   configurations W_cfg(T), plus any DNS transactions that are not
   verifiable.  Of note, however, is that the DNSSEC transactions
   between stub-resolvers and recursive resolvers are not protected by
   DNSSEC's cryptography.  The only indication of protections is a
   header bit (the AD bit), which is spoofable.  As a result, the attack
   window includes all DNS transactions W_rDNS(T).

   From this, the attack window can be expressible as:

      W(T) = W_cfg(T) + W_rDNS(T)

   Of note is that under most circumstances, resolvers issue many more
   queries than configuration requests.  So,

      W_cfg(T) = 1, and W_rDNS(T) >> W_cfg(T).

   However, consider the attack window when using OE: {W(T)}.  If the
   initial configuration includes a DNSKEY trust anchor that can be used
   to verify DNSSEC data that corresponds to a resolver's corresponding
   reverse zone (i.e., the IPSECA RR under in-addr.arpa or ip6.arpa),
   then {W_cfg(T)} = 1 and {W_rDNS(T)} = 0.  Therefore, since W_rDNS(T)
   >> W_cfg(T) and {W_rDNS(T)} = 0, then by the transitive property,

      W(T) >> {W(T)}.


6.  Acknowledgements

   The editors would like to express their thanks for the early support
   and insights given by Danny McPherson.


7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [RFC1035]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
              specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987.

   [RFC1918]  Rekhter, Y., Moskowitz, R., Karrenberg, D., Groot, G., and
              E. Lear, "Address Allocation for Private Internets",



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              BCP 5, RFC 1918, February 1996.

   [RFC4033]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
              Rose, "DNS Security Introduction and Requirements",
              RFC 4033, March 2005.

   [RFC4034]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
              Rose, "Resource Records for the DNS Security Extensions",
              RFC 4034, March 2005.

   [RFC4035]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
              Rose, "Protocol Modifications for the DNS Security
              Extensions", RFC 4035, March 2005.

   [RFC4301]  Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the
              Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, December 2005.

   [RFC6698]  Hoffman, P. and J. Schlyter, "The DNS-Based Authentication
              of Named Entities (DANE) Transport Layer Security (TLS)
              Protocol: TLSA", RFC 6698, August 2012.

7.2.  Informative References

   [DANE_SATIN12]
              Osterweil, E., Kaliski, B., Larson, M., and D. McPherson,
              "Reducing the X.509 Attack Surface with DNSSEC's DANE",
              Proceedings of Securing and Trusting Internet Names, SATIN
              '12, March 2012.

   [I-D.draft-ogud-dane-vocabulary]
              Gudmundsson, O., "Harmonizing how applications specify
              DANE-like usage", October 2013.

   [I.D.draft-ietf-dane-registry-acronyms]
              Gudmundsson, O., "Adding acronyms to simplify DANE
              conversations", January 2014.

   [IPSEC_APPEAL]
              Osterweil, E. and D. McPherson, "IPsec's Appeal:
              Protecting DNS Under the Covers", Verisign Labs Technical
              Report #1130006 Revision 1, January 2013.

   [RFC2131]  Droms, R., "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol",
              RFC 2131, March 1997.

   [RFC2409]  Harkins, D. and D. Carrel, "The Internet Key Exchange
              (IKE)", RFC 2409, November 1998.




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   [RFC3596]  Thomson, S., Huitema, C., Ksinant, V., and M. Souissi,
              "DNS Extensions to Support IP Version 6", RFC 3596,
              October 2003.

   [RFC4025]  Richardson, M., "A Method for Storing IPsec Keying
              Material in DNS", RFC 4025, March 2005.

   [RFC4322]  Richardson, M. and D. Redelmeier, "Opportunistic
              Encryption using the Internet Key Exchange (IKE)",
              RFC 4322, December 2005.

   [RFC5246]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008.

   [RFC5280]  Cooper, D., Santesson, S., Farrell, S., Boeyen, S.,
              Housley, R., and W. Polk, "Internet X.509 Public Key
              Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List
              (CRL) Profile", RFC 5280, May 2008.

   [RFC5996]  Kaufman, C., Hoffman, P., Nir, Y., and P. Eronen,
              "Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2 (IKEv2)",
              RFC 5996, September 2010.

   [RFC6071]  Frankel, S. and S. Krishnan, "IP Security (IPsec) and
              Internet Key Exchange (IKE) Document Roadmap", RFC 6071,
              February 2011.

   [RFC6960]  Santesson, S., Myers, M., Ankney, R., Malpani, A.,
              Galperin, S., and C. Adams, "X.509 Internet Public Key
              Infrastructure Online Certificate Status Protocol - OCSP",
              RFC 6960, June 2013.


Appendix A.  Name Server OE Configuration Example

   <STUBBED OUT SECTION>

   NAME SERVER SIDE

   o  Config SPD to accept connections from any on port 53 only

   o  Zones add IPSECA RRs for each NS domain name and configure DNSSEC:
      <examples>

   RESOLVER SIDE

   o  resolver processing logic to intercept referrals and look for
      IPSECA RR(s).



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   o  When an IPSECA RR is found, create SPD for that IP and port 53.

   </STUBBED OUT SECTION>


Appendix B.  Recursive Resolver OE Configuration Example

   <STUBBED OUT SECTION>

   RESOLVER SIDE

   o  If public resolver, create SPD entry that only allows IPsec from
      port 53.  If internal resolver, limit to addresses serviced.

   REVERSE DNS ZONE

   o  Add IPSECA RR(s) and configure DNSSEC

   STUB SIDE

   o  Configure reverse zone DNSKEY (if 1918) as a local TA (such as
      over DHCP).  Then do onetime DNSSEC validation for fetching IPSECA
      RR.

   o  Tools include dnskey-grab and/or NLnet Labs' xxxxx.

   </STUBBED OUT SECTION>


Authors' Addresses

   Eric Osterweil
   VeriSign, Inc.
   Reston, VA
   USA

   Email: eosterweil@verisign.com


   Glen Wiley
   VeriSign, Inc.
   Reston, VA
   USA

   Email: gwiley@verisign.com






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   Tomofumi Okubo
   VeriSign, Inc.
   Reston, VA
   USA

   Email: tomokubo@Verisign.com


   Ramana Lavu
   VeriSign, Inc.
   Reston, VA
   USA

   Email: RLavu@verisign.com


   Aziz Mohaisen
   VeriSign, Inc.
   Reston, VA
   USA

   Email: amohaisen@verisign.com





























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