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Network Working Group                             P. Pillay-Esnault, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                                    Huawei
Intended status: Informational                              D. Farinacci
Expires: January 4, 2018                                     lispers.net
                                                            C. Jacquenet
                                                                  Orange
                                                        U. Chunduri, Ed.
                                                                  Huawei
                                                              T. Herbert
                                                              Quantonium
                                                                 D. Lake
                                                                    Dell
                                                                M. Menth
                                                          U of Tuebingen
                                                         D. Raychaudhuri
                                                      Rutgers University
                                                                D. Meyer
                                                            July 3, 2017


                Use Cases for Identity Enabled Networks
                     draft-padma-ideas-use-cases-01

Abstract

   This document describes few deployment use cases for Identity enabled
   networks using a GeneRic Identity Services infrastructure.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
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   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 4, 2018.







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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
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   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Specification of Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Definition of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   4.  Use Cases for IDEAS/GRIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     4.1.  Privacy  with Access Control  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.2.  Identity Services with global GRIDS . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.3.  Identity Services with local GRIDS  . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.4.  Mobility  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     4.5.  Discovery of devices  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     4.6.  Ad-hoc Networks Mobility across Hetnet  . . . . . . . . .   9
   5.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   7.  Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   8.  Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   Appendix A.  Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     A.1.  Network Simplification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       A.1.1.  Proximity Services and Scopes . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       A.1.2.  Ease of troubleshooting and Management  . . . . . . .  12
       A.1.3.  Application of Common policies  . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     A.2.  Mobile Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       A.2.1.  Mobility within a single provider network . . . . . .  12
       A.2.2.  Mobility across CNs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       A.2.3.  Mobility of a Subnet  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17







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1.  Introduction

   The problem statement document for IDentity Enabled networkS (IDEAS)
   advocates a standardized Identity and mapping services
   infrastructure, secured access to that infrastructure with data
   integrity, different Identity(IDy) services and allowing for
   different Locator/Identifier data-plane solutions [IDEAS-PS].

   This infrastructure is called GeneRic Identity Services (GRIDS).  The
   GRIDS infrastructure (GRIDS-ARCH-TBD) is envisioned to support
   functionalities such as traditional mapping and resolution of
   Identifiers (IDfs), as well as secured Identity registration,
   subscription, privacy for Identity/Identifier data, discovery of
   Identifiers, updates to the system with data integrity.  In addition,
   it is designed to allow flexible deployment with different scopes
   (local sub-domains/global).

   This memo describes and focuses on few deployment use cases for
   Identity-based protocols that will benefit from such an
   infrastructure.  The definition of and the need for Identity in IDEAS
   are described in a companion document [IDEAS-IDENTITY].

2.  Specification of Requirements

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

3.  Definition of Terms

   This document makes use of the terms that have been defined in the
   problem statement draft of IDEAS [IDEAS-PS].  They are included here
   for reader's convenience.  In case of any discrepancies between the
   two drafts, the problem statement draft overrides.

   o  Entity : An entity is a communication endpoint.  It can be a
      device, a node, or a virtual machine (VM), that needs to be
      identified.  An entity may have one or multiple identifiers (long-
      lived or ephemeral) simultaneously.  An entity is reached by
      resolving one or more of its long-lived identifiers to its current
      locator(s).

   o  Identifier (IDf): denotes information to unambiguously identify an
      entity within a given scope (e.g.  HIP HIT, LISP EID).  There is
      no constraint on the format, obfuscation or routability of an IDy.
      The IDy may or may not be present in the packet whose format is
      defined by IDf-based protocols (HIP/LISP).




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   o  Identifier-based (IDf-based): When an entity is only reachable
      through one or more communication access then a protocol or a
      solution is said to be IDf-based, if it uses an ID-LOC decoupling
      and a mapping system (MS) as base components of the architecture.
      Examples of IDf-based protocols are HIP, LISP and ILA.

   o  Identity (IDy): the essence of "being" of a specific entity.  An
      identity is not to be confused with an identifier: while an
      identifier may be used to refer to an entity, an identifier's
      lifecycle is not necessarily tied to the lifecycle of the entity
      it is referencing.  On the other hand, the identity's lifecycle is
      inherently tied to the lifecycle of the entity itself.

   o  IDentity Enabled Networks (IDEAS): IDEAS are networks that support
      the identifier/locator decoupling.  Reaching an entity is achieved
      by the resolution of identifier(s) to locator(s).

   o  GeneRic Identity Services (GRIDS): GRIDS is a set of services to
      manage the lifecycle of IDy/IDfs, to map and resolve Identifiers
      and locators, and to associate metadata (META) with entities and
      entity collections.  It is a distributed infrastructure that
      stores the IDy/IDf, the associated LOC(s), and metadata (META) in
      the form of tuples (IDy/IDf, LOC, and META).

   o  Locator (LOC): denotes information that is topology-dependent and
      which is used to forward packets to a given entity attached to a
      network (IPv4/IPv6 Address).  An entity can be reached using one
      or multiple locators; these locators may have a limited validity
      lifetime.

   o  Metadata (META): is data associated with an Identity.  The
      metadata may contain information such as the nature of the entity
      for example.

   o  User Equipment (UE): A user equipment is an entity per definition
      in [IDEAS-PS]

4.  Use Cases for IDEAS/GRIDS

   There are several benefits of various Locator/Identifier separator
   protocols that they bring to IP networking.  These include but not
   limited to mobility with session continuity, global routable address
   space reduction, traffic engineering to name a few.  The goal of this
   section is not to re-list all those deployment use cases of existing
   IDf/LOC protocols but specify what and how IDEAS/GRIDS can enhance
   the existing use cases and solve new problems in different areas.





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   This section details specific deployment use cases of IDEAS based
   upon GRIDS infrastructure.

4.1.  Privacy with Access Control

   For privacy or security reasons, an entity may only want a designated
   list of authorized entities to look up its locators and access it.
   To this end, the entity can specify an access control list in the
   GRIDS and let the GRIDS enforce the access control when entering the
   locator resolution phase.  For example, when Alice wants to
   communicate with Bob, she has to look for the Bob's IDf in the GRIDS
   to get his locator.  The GRIDS verifies Alice's IDf and checks the
   IDf against Bob's access control list.  If Alice is authorized, the
   GRIDS returns Bob's up-to-date locators; otherwise the GRIDS returns
   an error or a honeypot LOC to analyze further (Figure 1).



                             GRIDS
                     +---------------------+
             set ACL |                     | lookup
   +-------+ set LOC |---------------------|  Alice +-----+
   | Alice |-------->| Alice's IDy|    ACL |<-------| Bob |
   +-------+         |---------------------|        +-----+
                     |           yes|  no| | access  ^   ^
                     |              |    | | denied  |   |
                     |              |    --|----------   |
                     |              v      |             |
                     |---------------------| Alice's LOC |
                     | Alice's IDf|    LOC |--------------
                     |---------------------|
                     |                     |
                     +---------------------+


              Figure 1: Authorizing access to LOC information

   An access restriction policy can also be possible at the GRIDS level
   for a group/class of devices identified through the metadata of the
   entity.  A specific example is restricting access for location
   resolution of a vehicular entity except for the authorized
   manufacturer or dealers.

   The GRIDS Infrastructure supports the ability to verify policies
   associated to an Identity through an Identifier used in the data
   plane.  This reverse lookup provision can then trigger the execution
   of various actions (e.g., discarding traffic or redirecting) on the




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   data plane nodes (routers/gateways/firewalls), according to the
   policies defined in IDEAS.

   Receiver of the data traffic can also control anonymization through a
   specific policy specified by the GRIDS logic with its Identity.  For
   example sender of the data traffic can be provided with one of the
   receiver's ephemeral Identifiers to use for communication, during LOC
   resolution response (here sender assumes to be doing LOC resolution
   through receiver's long-lived Identifier).  Mechanisms like this can
   provide anonymization of the data traffic from eavesdroppers/outside
   observers.

4.2.  Identity Services with global GRIDS

   IDf-based protocols currently rely upon a customized mapping
   infrastructure and they do not interoperate with each other.
   Therefore, it would be difficult to deploy multiple IDf-based
   protocols in the same network due to the overhead generated by the
   operation of various mapping functions or it is difficult to deploy a
   global scope with greater flexibility.  Hence, only one ID protocol
   is usually deployed even though there exists the need to deploy
   specific solutions to address various contexts.





























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   +------------------------------------------------------+
   | +--------------------------------------------------+ |
   | |                     GRIDS                        | |
   | |  +-------------+ +---------------+ +-----------+ | |
   | |  |IDy          | | IDf,Discovery,| | Other     | | |
   | |  |Registration | |  Mapping      | | ID-aware  | | |
   | |  |Lifecycle    | |  Resolution   | | Services  | | |
   | |  +-------------+ +---------------+ +-----------+ | |
   | |                                                  | |
   | |                Common Service Plane              | |
   | +--------------------------------------------------+ |
   |                        ^                             |
   |                        |CP                           |
   |                        |                             |
   | +--------------------------------------------------+ |
   | |          Flexible Data  Plane                    | |
   | | +--------+ +-----------+ +--------+ +----------+ | |
   | | | LISP   | |   ILA     | | HIP    | | New Svcs | | |
   | | |(Encap) | |(Translate)| |(Secure)| |(ID-Aware)| | |
   | | +--------+ +-----------+ +--------+ +----------+ | |
   | +--------------------------------------------------+ |
   +------------------------------------------------------+


                       Figure 2: The GRIDS Structure

   The above diagram Figure 2 shows a unified mapping system, besides
   the legacy mapping and resolution services.  Other services Identity
   can potentially bring to the IDf/LOC protocols (access restrictions
   for resolution, discovery with metadata or grouping services) are
   also supported by the mapping system.  Access security and
   registration services improve overall security of the GRIDS as these
   can provide authentication of the entity through a singular Identity.
   This process can also establish the entity type through metadata
   which is needed for some of the IDy services.

   Control Plane (CP) options i.e., usage of existing LOC/IDf protocols
   or a new GRIDS-CP or usage of both, to realize services provided by
   GRIDS is discussed in [IDEAS-PS].

4.3.  Identity Services with local GRIDS

   The IoT landscape is comprised of a large variety of devices and
   protocols.  IoT solutions cover a wide-range of protocols at varying
   stages of maturity, the latter may be at Layer-2/Layer-3 and usually
   within a single domain.





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   While the number of IoT use-cases is vast and diverse, there is a
   number of commonalities in network communications between classes of
   application.  Some of the categories below can benefit from local
   GRIDS instance which can provide local authentication and security
   features.

   Low-compute capability end devices generating small amounts of
   traffic with a long/short period, terminating on a central
   application service with no-loop/loop latency dependencies.  These
   devices usually offload processing to a central service to which they
   connect.  The central service may be an application hosting
   environment or a distributed/devolved solution (such as an Edge or
   FOG solution).  In both cases, local GRIDS instances could be
   deployed for this functionality.  Such devices will benefit from
   offloading the secure registration and access restriction policies
   placed at GRIDS.

   Local GRIDS instance with standardized interfaces can also be
   deployed in enterprise networks to provide security and location
   based services.  Here the policies applied on the Identity/Identifier
   can be more flexible with proprietary rules structure.  These can be
   added on top of the minimal and standardized framework and interfaces
   to meet enterprise needs.

4.4.  Mobility

   One of the key benefits of any ID-Based protocols is its ability to
   provide mobility.  Decoupling Identifier from location provides
   inherent support for mobility with session continuity and hence this
   document doesn't describe basic mobility use case further.  But it is
   important to note availability of a global GRIDS Infrastructure would
   enable such mobility for entities connected to various IP networks
   securely.  Other key attributes such as mapping and ID services
   system scalability, support of low latency and secure query (GRIDS-
   ARCH-TBD) are some of the aspects which can determine the adoption
   and deployment of this essential service.

   Some use cases specific to mobile networks, where the need for both
   Local and Global GRIDS are specified in the Appendix.

4.5.  Discovery of devices

   One of the services of the common mapping and ID services
   infrastructure is to allow discovery of the entities.  Results of
   such discovery can be used to apply additional application services.
   Most of these services need secured and authenticated registration to
   the GRIDS (to verify for example the entity 'type' it is claiming)
   with an immutable and unique Identity [IDEAS-IDENTITY] by the GRIDS



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   provider.  Some of these use cases require geographical co-ordinates
   too be part of LOC.  Examples:

   a.  A specific mobile entity type as defined in the metadata of the
       IDy (if the entity allows it to be searchable) in a particular
       geographical area.  This operation should give the long-lived IDf
       of the entities in that area, thus enabling communication among
       those entities.

   b.  Another example of discovery is asset tracking with extremely low
       cost services like bike sharing service.  There is a need to
       track the exact location of individual bikes with low cost in
       long time span.  In this case, there must be a module with a
       secured and long-lived identifier of the bike and which can set
       up communications whenever needed.  The information associated
       with the identifier should be maintained with efficient
       resolution capability for tracking the labeled asset [ASSET1]
       [ASSET2].

4.6.  Ad-hoc Networks Mobility across Hetnet

   Today, the cost of reestablishing both the session and any security
   association is prohibitive in real-time applications with mobility.
   The local and proximity services on the GRIDS could be leveraged to
   provide the session continuity and security features.

   Furthermore, there are opportunities for a dynamic and adhoc network
   to be formed between groups of vehicles on the highway, and these
   networks should be able to quickly peer along the edge with different
   networks encountered during mobility.  Essential components of
   publicly sharable Metadata associated with entity's IDy/IDf at GRIDS
   would enable these peerings.  But the specifics of how this can be
   used (TBD) and can only be expanded after IDEAS architecture is
   evolved.

5.  Security Considerations

   While access restriction policies can protect the entities from
   unwanted communication from unauthorized entities, how policy is
   specified, located and shared may cause new security threats.  This
   aspect has to be considered during requirements and architecture.

6.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no actions for IANA.






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7.  Contributors

   The following individuals (by first name alphabetical order) have
   contributed to this document:

      Shreyasee Mukherjee

      Parishad Karimi

      Da Bin

      Liu Binyang.

      Jim Guichard

      Albert Cabellos`

      This present document is based on an extract of the first version
      of the draft.  The authors and their affiliations on the original
      document are: D.  Farinacci (lispers.net), D.  Meyer (Brocade), D.
      Lake (Cisco Systems), T.  Herbert (Facebook), M.  Menth
      (University of Tuebingen), Dipenkar Raychaudhuri (Rutgers
      University), Julius Mueller (ATT) and Padma Pillay-Esnault
      (Huawei).

8.  Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to thank Kevin Smith, Alex Clemm and Yingzhen
   Qu for their review and input on this document.

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

9.2.  Informative References

   [ASSET1]   OFO, , <http://www.ofo.so/>.

   [ASSET2]   ITU, , <http://tracknet.net/1>.







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   [IDEAS-IDENTITY]
              Chunduri, U., Clemm, A., and M. Menth, "Identity Use Cases
              in IDEAS", July 2017, <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/
              draft-ccm-ideas-identity-use-cases>.

   [IDEAS-PS]
              Pillay-Esnault, P., Boucadair, M., Jacquenet, C.,
              Fioccola, G., and A. Nennker, "Problem Statement for
              Identity Enabled Networks", March 2017,
              <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/draft-padma-ideas-
              problem-statement/>.

   [LISP-PRED]
              Farinacci, D. and P. Pillay-Esnault, "LISP Predictive
              RLOCs", November 2016, <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/
              draft-farinacci-lisp-predictive-rlocs/>.

Appendix A.  Appendix

   This section contains few more use cases GRIDS or Identity can bring
   to IDEAS.  Some of the use cases would be integrated based on the TBD
   architecture of IDEAS.

A.1.  Network Simplification

   Whilst the term IoT encompasses a wide range of applications ranging
   from short, low data-rate communications through to latency-sensitive
   haptic control loops, the ability to reduce network overhead through
   the simplification and potential removal of addresses at specific
   points on the network has several benefits.

A.1.1.  Proximity Services and Scopes

   In a system generating small amounts of data, the relative size of
   the addressing which can be considered to be network operator
   overhead compared to the size of the data payload which is customer
   data can be very high to the point where the addressing and control
   data vastly outsizes the customer data.  In a traditional IT network,
   this is not often the case; the address and management data is very-
   much smaller than the payload and is thus an acceptable tax on the
   overall communication.  Small data IoT applications require a
   solution to address the imbalance which now exists between the
   payload and the overhead.

   It is possible to imagine local services within a scope that require
   only a small ID within a scope and can communicate with a local GRIDS
   to resolve its mapping and location services if it is only




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   communicating with local devices such as local networked sensors.
   Such an example could sensors be in a factory.

A.1.2.  Ease of troubleshooting and Management

   Trouble-shooting a complex, multi-layer network where data is handed
   from one encapsulation to another is complex.  It is already seen in
   solutions such as SIP that having embedded naming structures vastly
   improves the ability to determine a data-path in a trouble-shooting
   instance.  Similarly, an IDf-based solution would apply from the data
   producer to the consumer and can also be used to improve data-
   traceability thereby resulting in lower operational costs.

   The presence of a GRIDS can improve on managing the data paths as
   they are stored in their mappings.  Such improvement can be
   especially beneficial if GRIDS capabilities interact with a SDN-based
   computation logic, whose service-inferredpolicy-based decision making
   process may choose to redirect traffic onto alternate paths as a
   function of the nature of the service, the load status of the primary
   path, etc.  Application of such dynamics can be critical for specific
   IoTservices, such as e-health services.  Data analytics on the GRIDS
   may also be logging events for easier postmortem if there are issues.

A.1.3.  Application of Common policies

   A Mapping System can contribute to enforce a set of common policies
   for a given connectivity service by providing a global, consistent
   identification and resolution service to any participating device
   involved in the forwarding of the corresponding traffic.

A.2.  Mobile Networks

   For Seamless and global mobility of an entity, GRIDS can potentially
   offer various services that can include not only traditial mapping
   and resolution services based on Identifier, but protecting and
   honoring the entity's privacy restrictions on who can acces entity's
   LOC information for example.

   Other services and Optimizations such as "late binding", in which
   identity of in-transit packets can be bound to a locator closer to
   the edge of the network to account for highly mobile vehicular
   scenarios can be further developed based on the GRIDS.

A.2.1.  Mobility within a single provider network

   Figure 4 provides an example of the topology of a single mobile
   carrier network.  The goal of this section is not to specify specific
   mobile technology arechitecture but represent the need for a



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   standardized mapping and ID services solution, which are relevant in
   these domains.

   UE.A, UE.B, and UE.C are devices connected to the mobile network and
   are themselves mobile.  UE.A and UE.B are currently connected to base
   station Base1 and UE.C is currently connected to Base2.  The base
   stations are connected to the radio access network (RAN) of the
   provider.  The RAN is connected to the Internet through a transport
   network via providers core network (CN).  Regardless of which mobile
   technology is used and CN is vritualized with separated control plane
   (5G) GRIDS instance can be deployed for all ID services.

   Host1 Host1 and Host2 are hosts in the Internet that are
   communicating with the UEs.  In this example we assume that ID
   functionality is handled within the network and is transparent to the
   UEs or hosts.


   +-------+
   | UE.A  |-----+
   +-------+     |
                 |
   +-------+  +-----+                                           +-----+
   | UE.B  |--|Base1|-----+                    __________    +--|Host1|
   +-------+  +-----+   __|___                /          \   |  +-----+
                       /       \   +-----+   (            )--+
                      (   RAN   )--| CN  |-- (  Internet  )
                       \_______/   +-----+   (            )--+
              +-----+      |                  \__________/   |  +-----+
              |Base2|------+                                 +--|Host2|
              +-----+                                           +-----+
                 |
   +-------+     |
   | UE.C  |-----+
   +-------+


   The role of the CN is to leverage the GRIDS, that maps destination
   addresses on ingress packets into the network to deliver packets to
   the destination.  The GRIDS Infrastructure maintain a list of ID-to-
   LOC mappings.  Hosts on the Internet only know the identifier of the
   mobile nodes.  Depending on the dataplane solution packets forwarded
   from the Internet may be routed to a CN that is able to retrieve the
   mapping ID to the destination LOC to facilitate delivery.

   Consider that Host1 sends a packet to UE.A.  The destination address
   of the packet is the identifier address of UE.A.  The packet is sent
   by Host1 and is forwarded across the Internet to the provider's



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   network based on the identifier address.  A CN receives the packet.
   The destination address of a packet (identifier) is looked up in the
   mapping table (local GRIDS).  The return result is the LOC for UE.A.
   The CN modifies the packet so that the destination address is the LOC
   for UE.A (either by encapsulation or address translation).  The
   packet is then forwarded to Base1.  At Base1 the destination is
   changed back to the identifier address and forwarded to the UE.

   In the case that two UEs need to communicate the process is similar.
   Consider that UE.A sends a packet to UE.C.  Again, UE.A only knows
   the identifier address of UE.C.  UE.A sends a packet into the network
   and it is forwarded to a CN.  The CN maps the destination address of
   UE.C to its locator and forwards the packet to Base2 which translates
   the destination back to an identifier address.

   In order to reduce latency and improve performance, a mapping cache
   may be implemented at or near the base stations.  A mapping cache
   would maintain a subset of mappings in the network that are being
   used for communications by the attached UEs to other devices in the
   network.  A protocol would be run between the base stations and CNs
   to populate and invalidate entries in the cache.

   Now consider that UE.B changes locations so that it is now attached
   to Base2 (figure 5).


   +-------+
   | UE.A  |-----+
   +-------+     |
                 |
              +-----+                                           +-----+
              |Base1|----+                    __________     +--|Host1|
              +-----+  __|___               /           \    |  +-----+
       |              /       \   +-----+   (            )--+
       |             (   RAN   )--| CN  |-- (  Internet  )
       V              \_______/   +-----+   (            )--+
   +-------+  +-----+     |                  \__________/    |  +-----+
   | UE.B  |--|Base2|-----+                                  +--|Host2|
   +-------+  +-----+                                           +-----+
                 |
   +-------+     |
   | UE.C  |-----+
   +-------+


   The CNs are updated to reflect UE.B's new location.  As updating
   location is not instantaneous across all the mapping gateways in the




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   network, it is possible that a packet is forwarded to an old
   destination.  Several possible solutions exist today:

   1.  Predictive routing.  Pre-populating the (ID,LOC) tuple in the
       GRIDS itself so that multiple packets may get delivered ahead of
       the move as described in [LISP-PRED].  A predictive algorithm can
       be used to forward packets ahead of the move with minimum
       duplication.

   2.  Late binding.  This method refers to rebinding of identifiers to
       addresses after a packet enters the network.  This capability
       makes it possible for routers in the network to redirect packets
       whose end-point address might have changed due to fast mobility
       or rapid changes in radio link association or multicast group
       membership.  This type of dynamic rerouting can help to improve
       network efficiency and reduce packet drops.  Late binding
       generally requires in-network elements such as routers and base
       stations to be able to store data packets temporarily and access
       the ID to address mapping (name resolution) service.

   3.  Traditional Redirection.  For instance, Base1 may receive packets
       for a UE.B after it has moved to Base2.  A "care of address"
       could be set on Base1 for some period after the move.  When Base1
       receives a packet for UE.B it can map the destination address to
       reflect UE.B's new location and forward the packet.  This doesn't
       need any local GRIDS instance and in some form done currently.

   Some of the above additional services can be done through local GRIDS
   instance in the control plane of the operator network, thus not
   needing any anchor based solution and avoid "Traditional Redirection"
   for example.

A.2.2.  Mobility across CNs

   The role of GRIDS and applicability depends on the mobility scenarios
   specific to the mobile technology i.e., for intra RAN mobility local
   GRIDS instance can be used for an anchor free transport network.  For
   seamless mobility across CN's of a same provider needs a global GRIDS
   Infrastructure as host can be located any where and the LOC of UE
   changes.  This is one of the open issues of the current mobile
   networks.

A.2.3.  Mobility of a Subnet

   Figure 8 presents a topology where UE.A, UE.B, and UE.C are connected
   to a subnet and the whole subnet may itself be mobile (for instance a
   Wi-Fi network on a bus).  To treat the subnet as an aggregate
   devices, the subnet identification is reflected in the identifier



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   address.  A single mapping entry then could then represent this
   subnet where the identifier is the prefix for the subnet and the
   locator reflects the location of the subnet (Base1 in this case)


   +------+
   | UE.A |--+
   +------+  |
   +------+  |  +-----+                                         +-----+
   | UE.B |--+--|Base1|-----+                    ________    +--|Host1|
   +------+  |  +-----+   __|___                /        \   |  +-----+
   +------+  |           /       \   +-----+   (          )--+
   | UE.C |--+          (   RAN   )--| CN  |-- ( Internet )
   +------+              \_______/   +-----+   (          )--+
               +-----+     |                    \________/   |  +-----+
               |Base2|-----+                                 +--|Host2|
               +-----+                                          +-----+



   When the subnet moves the mappings to the identifier, the prefix for
   the subnet is updated in the CNs (figure 9).  Note that a UE could
   also move out of its subnet and attach to the network on its own, for
   instance a UE might switch from using Wi-Fi to using a mobile
   network.  This will work if a specific mapping for UEs is allowed in
   the mapping database, and that mapping is preferred over the
   aggregate mapping since it has a longer identifier prefix.



       |         +-----+                                        +-----+
       |         |Base1|----+                    ________    +--|Host1|
       V         +-----+  __|___                /        \   |  +-----+
   +-------+             /       \   +-----+   (          )--+
   | UE.A  |--+         (   RAN   )--| CN  |-- ( Internet )
   +-------+  |          \_______/   +-----+   (          )--+
   +-------+  |  +-----+     |                  \________/   |  +-----+
   | UE.B  |--+--|Base2|-----+                               +--|Host2|
   +-------+  |  +-----+                                        +-----+
   +-------+  |
   | UE.C  |--+
   +-------+


   Similar to the case of a UE moving between carrier networks, a subnet
   can move between carrier networks if the networks share identifier
   locator mappings that include identifier prefixes.  Also, subnet
   mobility can modify community management and therefore impact GRIDS



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   service operation: if UE.A, UE.B, and UE.C have subscribed to
   different services where, for example, UE.A exchanges information
   with UE.B but not with UE.C, whereas, UE.C exchanges information with
   UE.B but not UE.A, the mobile subnet may support different "closed
   user groups" that may be serviced by different GRIDS.  When the
   subnet moves, other GRIDS may be invoked to make sure communication
   within the said closed user groups is not disrupted.

Authors' Addresses

   Padma Pillay-Esnault (editor)
   Huawei
   2330 Central Expressway
   Santa Clara,  CA 95050
   USA

   Email: padma.ietf@gmail.com


   Dino Farinacci
   lispers.net
   San Jose  California
   USA

   Email: farinacci@gmail.com


   Christian Jacquenet
   Orange
   Rennes  35000
   France

   Email: christian.jacquenet@orange.com


   Uma Chunduri (editor)
   Huawei
   2330 Central Expressway
   Santa Clara,  CA 95050
   USA

   Email: uma.chunduri@huawei.com


   Tom Herbert
   Quantonium

   Email: tom@herbertland.com



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   David Lake
   Dell

   Email: d.lake@surrey.ac.uk


   Michael Menth
   U of Tuebingen

   Email: menth@uni-tuebingen.de


   Dipenkar (Ray) Raychaudhuri
   Rutgers University

   Email: ray@winlab.rutgers.edu


   Dave Meyer

   Email: dmm@1-4-5.net






























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